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Selection: with tag human-health [48 articles] 

 

Global risk of deadly heat

  
Nature Climate Change, Vol. advance online publication (19 June 2017), https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate3322

Abstract

Climate change can increase the risk of conditions that exceed human thermoregulatory capacity. Although numerous studies report increased mortality associated with extreme heat events, quantifying the global risk of heat-related mortality remains challenging due to a lack of comparable data on heat-related deaths. Here we conducted a global analysis of documented lethal heat events to identify the climatic conditions associated with human death and then quantified the current and projected occurrence of such deadly climatic conditions worldwide. We reviewed papers published ...

 

Risk of post-fire metal mobilization into surface water resources: a review

  
Science of The Total Environment, Vol. 599-600 (December 2017), pp. 1740-1755, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.05.096

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] Forest catchment supply high quality water to a number of communities around the world. [::] Forest fire release sequestered metals from soil organic matter and vegetation. [::] Post-fire erosion rapidly transports these metals to downstream soil and water bodies. [::] Their deposition in the water bodies affects the water quality and aquatic biota. [::] This metal contamination may reach to human being as a consumer. [Abstract] One of the significant economic benefits to communities around the world of having pristine forest catchments is the supply of ...

 

Stressing mental health

  
Science, Vol. 356, No. 6340. (25 May 2017), pp. 878-878, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.356.6340.878

Abstract

[Excerpt] [...] Stress is an ingrained and unavoidable aspect of scientific practice. In some unfortunate cases, lab culture can make it worse. In many others, however, it is simply the nature of research. Deadlines, tight funding, and the pressure to “publish or perish” all create chronic stress. There is no avoiding these issues. [...] Personally, I realized that self-imposed deadlines and goals created much of the stress I was feeling, and that tempering my expectations was an easy way to reduce ...

 

Transboundary health impacts of transported global air pollution and international trade

  
Nature, Vol. 543, No. 7647. (29 March 2017), pp. 705-709, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature21712

Abstract

Millions of people die every year from diseases caused by exposure to outdoor air pollution. Some studies have estimated premature mortality related to local sources of air pollution, but local air quality can also be affected by atmospheric transport of pollution from distant sources. International trade is contributing to the globalization of emission and pollution as a result of the production of goods (and their associated emissions) in one region for consumption in another region. The effects of international trade on ...

 

Impacts of temperature extremes

  
In Report of Workshop on the Social and Economic Impacts of Weather (1997)

Abstract

Extremes of heat and cold have a broad and far-reaching set of impacts on the nation. These include significant loss of life and illness, economic costs in transportation, agriculture, production, energy and infrastructure. The 1976 - 1977 winter freeze and drought is estimated to have cost $36.6 billion in 1980 dollars. In 1980 the nation saw a devastating heat wave and drought that claimed at least 1700 lives and had estimated economic costs $15 - $19 billion in 1980 dollars. While ...

 

Terrestrial ecosystems, soil and forests

  
In Climate change, impacts and vulnerability in Europe 2016 - An indicator-based report, Vol. 1/2017 (January 2017), pp. 153-182, https://doi.org/10.2800/534806

Abstract

[Excerpt: Key messages] [::] Observed climate change has had many impacts on terrestrial ecosystems, such as changes in soil conditions, advances in phenological stages, altitudinal and latitudinal migration of plant and animal species (generally northwards and upwards), and changes in species interactions and species composition in communities, including local extinctions. [::] The relative importance of climate change as a major driver of biodiversity and ecosystem change is projected to increase further in the future. In addition to climate change, human efforts to mitigate and adapt to ...

References

  1. Alkemade, R., Bakkenes, M., Eickhout, B., 2011. Towards a general relationship between climate change and biodiversity: An example for plant species in Europe. Regional Environmental Change 11, 143–150. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10113-010-0161-1 .
  2. Allen, C. D., Macalady, A. K., Chenchouni, H., Bachelet, D., McDowell, N., Vennetier, M., Kitzberger, T., Rigling, A., Breshears, D. D., Hogg, E. H. (Ted), Gonzalez, P., Fensham, R., Zhang, Z., Castro, J., Demidova, N., Lim, J.-H., Allard, G., Running, S. W., Semerci, A.,
 

Executive summary

  
In Climate change, impacts and vulnerability in Europe 2016 - An indicator-based report, Vol. 1/2017 (January 2017), pp. 12-30, https://doi.org/10.2800/534806

Abstract

[Excerpt: Key messages] [::] All of the key findings from the 2012 European Environment Agency (EEA) report on climate change, impacts and vulnerability in Europe are still valid. [::] Climate change is continuing globally and in Europe. Land and sea temperatures are increasing; precipitation patterns are changing, generally making wet regions in Europe wetter, particularly in winter, and dry regions drier, particularly in summer; sea ice extent, glacier volume and snow cover are decreasing; sea levels are rising; and climate-related extremes such as heat waves, heavy precipitation ...

References

  1. Ciscar, J.-C., Feyen, L., Soria, A., Lavalle, C., Raes, F., Perry, M., Nemry, F., Demirel, H., Rozsai, M., Dosio, A., Donatelli, M., Srivastava, A. K., Fumagalli, D., Niemeyer, S., Shrestha, S., Ciaian, P., Himics, M., Van Doorslaer, B., Barrios, S., Ibáñez, N., Forzieri, G., Rojas, R., Bianchi, A., Dowling, P., Camia, A., Libertà, G., San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., de Rigo, D., Caudullo, G., Barredo, J. I., Paci, D., Pycroft, J., Saveyn, B., Van Regemorter, D., Revesz, T., Vandyck, T.,
 

Climate change, impacts and vulnerability in Europe 2016 - An indicator-based report

  
Vol. 1/2017 (January 2017), https://doi.org/10.2800/534806

Abstract

[Excerpt: Executive summary] Key messages [::] All of the key findings from the 2012 European Environment Agency (EEA) report on climate change, impacts and vulnerability in Europe are still valid. [::] Climate change is continuing globally and in Europe. Land and sea temperatures are increasing; precipitation patterns are changing, generally making wet regions in Europe wetter, particularly in winter, and dry regions drier, particularly in summer; sea ice extent, glacier volume and snow cover are decreasing; sea levels are rising; and climate-related extremes such as heat waves, heavy ...

 

Social status alters immune regulation and response to infection in macaques

  
Science, Vol. 354, No. 6315. (25 November 2016), pp. 1041-1045, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aah3580

Abstract

[Status alters immune function in macaques] Rhesus macaques experience variable levels of stress on the basis of their position in the social hierarchy. To examine how stress affects immune function, Snyder-Mackler et al. manipulated the social status of individual macaques (see the Perspective by Sapolsky). Social status influenced the immune system at multiple levels, from immune cell numbers to gene expression, and altered signaling pathways in a model of response to infection. Macaques possess a plastic and adaptive immune response wherein social ...

 

Health impacts of wildfires

  

Abstract

[Introduction] Wildfires are common globally. Although there has been considerable work done on the health effects of wildfires in countries such as the USA where they occur frequently there has been relatively little work to investigate health effects in the United Kingdom. Climate change may increase the risk of increasing wildfire frequency, therefore there is an urgent need to further understand the health effects and public awareness of wildfires. This study was designed to review current evidence about the health effects of ...

 

Health impacts of fire smoke inhalation

  
Inhalation Toxicology, Vol. 20, No. 8. (1 January 2008), pp. 761-766, https://doi.org/10.1080/08958370801975311

Abstract

Most fatalities from fires are not due to burns, but are a result of inhalation of toxic gases produced during combustion. Fire produces a complex toxic environment involving flame, heat, oxygen depletion, smoke and toxic gases. As a wide variety of synthetic materials is used in buildings (insulation, furniture, carpeting, and decorative items) the potential for severe health impacts from inhalation of products of combustion during building fires is continuously increasing. In forest fires the burning of biomass leads to smoke ...

 

Short-term effects of particulate matter on mortality during forest fires in Southern Europe: results of the MED-PARTICLES Project

  
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Vol. 72, No. 5. (01 May 2015), pp. 323-329, https://doi.org/10.1136/oemed-2014-102459

Abstract

[Background] An association between occurrence of wildfires and mortality in the exposed population has been observed in several studies with controversial results for cause-specific mortality. In the Mediterranean area, forest fires usually occur during spring–summer, they overlap with Saharan outbreaks, are associated with increased temperature and their health effects are probably due to an increase in particulate matter. [Aim and methods] We analysed the effects of wildfires and particulate matter (PM10) on mortality in 10 southern European cities in Spain, France, Italy ...

 

Corporate culture has no place in academia

  
Nature, Vol. 538, No. 7623. (3 October 2016), pp. 7-7, https://doi.org/10.1038/538007a

Abstract

‘Academic capitalism’ contributed to the mishandling of the Macchiarini case by officials at the Karolinska Institute in Sweden, argues Olof Hallonsten. [Excerpt] [...] As academic capitalism spreads, universities abandon traditional meritocratic and collegial governance to hunt money, prestige and a stronger brand. [...] Yet this conduct goes against fundamental values of academia — the careful scrutiny of all claims, and of the research (and teaching) portfolios of those making such claims. This core principle in the self-organization of the academic system (studied ...

 

Equality in maternal and newborn health: modelling geographic disparities in utilisation of care in five East African countries

  
PLoS ONE, Vol. 11, No. 8. (25 August 2016), e0162006, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0162006

Abstract

Geographic accessibility to health facilities represents a fundamental barrier to utilisation of maternal and newborn health (MNH) services, driving historically hidden spatial pockets of localized inequalities. Here, we examine utilisation of MNH care as an emergent property of accessibility, highlighting high-resolution spatial heterogeneity and sub-national inequalities in receiving care before, during, and after delivery throughout five East African countries. We calculated a geographic inaccessibility score to the nearest health facility at 300 x 300 m using a dataset of 9,314 facilities ...

 

Advances in mapping malaria for elimination: fine resolution modelling of Plasmodium falciparum incidence

  
Scientific Reports, Vol. 6 (13 July 2016), 29628, https://doi.org/10.1038/srep29628

Abstract

The long-term goal of the global effort to tackle malaria is national and regional elimination and eventually eradication. Fine scale multi-temporal mapping in low malaria transmission settings remains a challenge and the World Health Organisation propose use of surveillance in elimination settings. Here, we show how malaria incidence can be modelled at a fine spatial and temporal resolution from health facility data to help focus surveillance and control to population not attending health facilities. Using Namibia as a case study, we ...

 

Quantifying the impact of human mobility on malaria

  
Science, Vol. 338, No. 6104. (11 October 2012), pp. 267-270, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1223467

Abstract

Human movements contribute to the transmission of malaria on spatial scales that exceed the limits of mosquito dispersal. Identifying the sources and sinks of imported infections due to human travel and locating high-risk sites of parasite importation could greatly improve malaria control programs. Here, we use spatially explicit mobile phone data and malaria prevalence information from Kenya to identify the dynamics of human carriers that drive parasite importation between regions. Our analysis identifies importation routes that contribute to malaria epidemiology on ...

 

Global human capital: integrating education and population

  
Science, Vol. 333, No. 6042. (28 July 2011), pp. 587-592, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1206964

Abstract

Almost universally, women with higher levels of education have fewer children. Better education is associated with lower mortality, better health, and different migration patterns. Hence, the global population outlook depends greatly on further progress in education, particularly of young women. By 2050, the highest and lowest education scenarios—assuming identical education-specific fertility rates—result in world population sizes of 8.9 and 10.0 billion, respectively. Better education also matters for human development, including health, economic growth, and democracy. Existing methods of multi-state demography can ...

 

(INRMM-MiD internal record) List of keywords of the INRMM meta-information database - part 16

  
(February 2014)
Keywords: growth-rates   growth-responses   growth-trends   growth-variability   growth-yield   guajacum-officinale   guajacum-sanctum   guidos-mspa   gvsig   gymmocladus-spp   gymnospermae   gypsonoma-aceriana   gypsonoma-haimbachiana   h-index   habitat   habitat-area   habitat-availability   habitat-classification   habitat-conservation   habitat-description   habitat-suitability   hadgem2-ao   haematoxylum-campechianum   hagenia-abyssinica   haiti   half-sib-families   hamamelis-spp   handbook   handicraft   hardiness   hardware   hardwood   heat-storage   heat-transfer   heating   heatwaves   heavy-metal   heavy-metals   hedera-helix   hedera-spp   height-differentiation   height-growth   helianthus-spp   helianthus-tuberosus   hellenica   hellinger-distance   hemiptera   herbal-medicines   herbicide-control   herbivory   herbivory-impact   herpotrichia-juniperi   heterobasidion   heterobasidion-abietinum   heterobasidion-annosum   heterobasidion-parviporum   heuristics   hevea-brasiliensis   hibiscus-elatus   hibiscus-tiliaceus   hidden-goal   hidden-knowledge   high-impact-publication   high-resolution-data   hill-slope-curvature   hillslope   hilly-areas   himalayan-region   hippophae-rhamnoides   histamine-release   historical-perspective   history   holocene   homeostasis   homogenous-spatial-units   homonyms   honey   honey-production   honeydew   honeydew-honey   hopea-odorata   horticulture   host   host-chemistry   host-defense   host-plant   host-range   host-resistance   host-taxonomy   hotspot   human-behaviour   human-centered-automation   human-diseases   human-health   human-impact   human-influence   human-machine-interface   human-refuge   humboldt   inrmm-list-of-tags  

Abstract

List of indexed keywords within the transdisciplinary set of domains which relate to the Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management (INRMM). In particular, the list of keywords maps the semantic tags in the INRMM Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD). [\n] The INRMM-MiD records providing this list are accessible by the special tag: inrmm-list-of-tags ( http://mfkp.org/INRMM/tag/inrmm-list-of-tags ). ...

 

Quantifying seasonal population fluxes driving rubella transmission dynamics using mobile phone data

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 112, No. 35. (01 September 2015), pp. 11114-11119, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1423542112

Abstract

[Significance] Changing patterns of human mobility can drive seasonal outbreaks of infectious diseases, but limited data about travel behavior and population flux over time have made this idea difficult to quantify. Mobile phone data provide a unique source of information about human travel. Here we quantify seasonal travel patterns using mobile phone data from nearly 15 million anonymous subscribers in Kenya. Using a rich data source of rubella incidence, we show that patterns of population fluxes inferred from mobile phone data are ...

 

Reduced vaccination and the risk of measles and other childhood infections post-Ebola

  
Science, Vol. 347, No. 6227. (12 March 2015), pp. 1240-1242, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aaa3438

Abstract

[Editor summary: Vaccinate children despite Ebola] During the medical emergency caused by the Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa, routine childhood vaccination programs have been suspended. If vaccination is not resumed soon, there could be even more deaths. Measles is highly infectious, and outbreaks are a sign of health care systems in trouble. Using mathematical modelling, Takahashi et al. estimate that about a million children across Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Guinea are vulnerable to measles. Aggressive public health programs are vital for ...

 

Cholera dynamics and El Niño-Southern Oscillation

  
Science, Vol. 289, No. 5485. (2000), pp. 1766-1769, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.289.5485.1766

Abstract

Analysis of a monthly 18-year cholera time series from Bangladesh shows that the temporal variability of cholera exhibits an interannual component at the dominant frequency of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Results from nonlinear time series analysis support a role for both ENSO and previous disease levels in the dynamics of cholera. Cholera patterns are linked to the previously described changes in the atmospheric circulation of south Asia and, consistent with these changes, to regional temperature anomalies. ...

 

Climate change impacts on global food security

  
Science, Vol. 341, No. 6145. (2013), pp. 508-513, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1239402

Abstract

Climate change could potentially interrupt progress toward a world without hunger. A robust and coherent global pattern is discernible of the impacts of climate change on crop productivity that could have consequences for food availability. The stability of whole food systems may be at risk under climate change because of short-term variability in supply. However, the potential impact is less clear at regional scales, but it is likely that climate variability and change will exacerbate food insecurity in areas currently vulnerable ...

 

Evaluating pesticide degradation in the environment: blind spots and emerging opportunities

  
Science, Vol. 341, No. 6147. (2013), pp. 752-758, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1236281

Abstract

The benefits of global pesticide use come at the cost of their widespread occurrence in the environment. An array of abiotic and biotic transformations effectively removes pesticides from the environment, but may give rise to potentially hazardous transformation products. Despite a large body of pesticide degradation data from regulatory testing and decades of pesticide research, it remains difficult to anticipate the extent and pathways of pesticide degradation under specific field conditions. Here, we review the major scientific challenges in doing so ...

 

Hidden killers: human fungal infections

  
Science Translational Medicine, Vol. 4, No. 165. (2012), pp. 165rv13-165rv13, https://doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.3004404
Keywords: fungi   human-health   review  

Abstract

Although fungal infections contribute substantially to human morbidity and mortality, the impact of these diseases on human health is not widely appreciated. Moreover, despite the urgent need for efficient diagnostic tests and safe and effective new drugs and vaccines, research into the pathophysiology of human fungal infections lags behind that of diseases caused by other pathogens. In this Review, we highlight the importance of fungi as human pathogens and discuss the challenges we face in combating the devastating invasive infections caused ...

 

Human influences on nitrogen removal in lakes

  
Science, Vol. 342, No. 6155. (2013), pp. 247-250, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1242575

Abstract

The negative consequences of increased loading of nitrogen and phosphorus into aquatic ecosystems are well known. Management strategies aimed at reducing the sources of these excess nutrients, such as fertilizer runoff or sewage outflows, can largely mitigate the increases in nitrogen and phosphorus levels; however, it is unclear if these strategies are influencing other spects of these ecosystems. Using a global lake data set, Finlay et al. (p. 247; see the Perspective by Bernhardt) found that reducing phosphorus inputs reduced a ...

 

Monte Verde: seaweed, food, medicine, and the peopling of South America

  
Science, Vol. 320, No. 5877. (2008), pp. 784-786, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1156533

Abstract

The identification of human artifacts at the early archaeological site of Monte Verde in southern Chile has raised questions of when and how people reached the tip of South America without leaving much other evidence in the New World. Remains of nine species of marine algae were recovered from hearths and other features at Monte Verde II, an upper occupational layer, and were directly dated between 14,220 and 13,980 calendar years before the present (~12,310 and 12,290 carbon-14 years ago). These ...

 

The challenge of micropollutants in aquatic systems

  
Science, Vol. 313, No. 5790. (2006), pp. 1072-1077, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1127291

Abstract

The increasing worldwide contamination of freshwater systems with thousands of industrial and natural chemical compounds is one of the key environmental problems facing humanity. Although most of these compounds are present at low concentrations, many of them raise considerable toxicological concerns, particularly when present as components of complex mixtures. Here we review three scientific challenges in addressing water-quality problems caused by such micropollutants. First, tools to assess the impact of these pollutants on aquatic life and human health must be further ...

 

Waterborne infectious diseases - could they be consigned to history?

  
Science, Vol. 313, No. 5790. (2006), pp. 1077-1081, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1127184

Abstract

The development of water resources, particularly in Africa, has changed the face of the continent, opening up land for agriculture, providing electric power, encouraging settlements adjacent to water bodies, and bringing prosperity to poor people. Unfortunately, the created or altered water bodies provide ideal conditions for the transmission of waterborne diseases and a favorable habitat for intermediate hosts of tropical parasitic infections that cause disease and suffering. The recent progress in control of these waterborne and vector-borne diseases, such as guinea ...

 

Water-quality impacts from climate-induced forest die-off

  
Nature Climate Change, Vol. 3, No. 3. (28 October 2012), pp. 218-222, https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate1724

Abstract

Increased ecosystem susceptibility to pests and other stressors has been attributed to climate change, resulting in unprecedented tree mortality from insect infestations. In turn, large-scale tree die-off alters physical and biogeochemical processes, such as organic matter decay and hydrologic flow paths, that could enhance leaching of natural organic matter to soil and surface waters and increase potential formation of harmful drinking water disinfection by-products (DBPs). Whereas previous studies have investigated water-quantity alterations due to climate-induced, forest die-off, impacts on water quality ...

 

Economic impacts of EU clean air policies assessed in a CGE framework

  
Environmental Science & Policy, Vol. 55 (January 2016), pp. 54-64, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2015.07.004

Abstract

This paper assesses the macroeconomic and sectoral impacts of the “Clean Air Policy Package” proposed by the European Commission in December 2013. The analysis incorporates both the expenditures necessary to implement the policy by 2030 and the resulting positive feedback effects on human health and crop production. A decomposition analysis identifies the important drivers of the macroeconomic impacts. We show that while expenditure on pollution abatement is a cost for the abating sectors, it also generates an increased demand for the ...

 

Activity of Some Plant Extracts Against Multi-Drug Resistant Human Pathogens

  
Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, Vol. 8, No. 4. (2009), pp. 293-300

Abstract

Plants used for traditional medicine contain a wide range of substances which can be used to treat various infectious diseases. Hence, antibacterial activities of ethanolic extracts of 19 plant species were studied against multi-drug resistant clinical isolates using agar well diffusion method. Extracts of Liquidambar orientalis, Vitis vinifera, Rosmarinus officinalis, Punica granatum, Cornus sanguinea, Euphorbia peplus, Ecballium elaterium, Inula viscosa and Liquidambar orientalis showed broad-spectrum antibacterial activity with inhibition zones ranging from 8 to 26 mm. The most resistant organisms were ...

 

Rational design of antibiotic treatment plans: a treatment strategy for managing evolution and reversing resistance

  
PLOS ONE, Vol. 10, No. 5. (2015), e0122283, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0122283

Abstract

The development of reliable methods for restoring susceptibility after antibiotic resistance arises has proven elusive. A greater understanding of the relationship between antibiotic administration and the evolution of resistance is key to overcoming this challenge. Here we present a data-driven mathematical approach for developing antibiotic treatment plans that can reverse the evolution of antibiotic resistance determinants. We have generated adaptive landscapes for 16 genotypes of the TEM β-lactamase that vary from the wild type genotype “TEM-1” through all combinations of four ...

 

Interdisciplinary research in the ecology of vector-borne diseases: Opportunities and needs

  
Journal of Vector Ecology, Vol. 33, No. 2. (1 December 2008), pp. 218-224, https://doi.org/10.3376/1081-1710-33.2.218

Abstract

In addition to their importance to human and animal health, vector-borne diseases are fascinating systems to study. The involvement of multiple species whose biologies and life cycles cover differing space and time scales makes it extremely difficult to predict epidemics. A single environmental factor may have opposite impacts on the system at different points in time. Patchiness at different geographical scales may have very different causes, so it is important to identify the proper scale for a particular study. New developments ...

 

Therapeutic guide to herbal medicines

  
(1998)

Abstract

In 1978 the German government established an expert committee, the Commission E, to evaluate the safety and efficacy of over 300 herbs and herb combinations sold in Germany. The results were published as official monographs that give the approved uses, contraindications, side effects, dosage, drug interactions and other therapeutic information essential for the responsible use of herbs and phyto-medicines, For the first time, the complete set of all Commission E monographs has been complied, translated into English and edited for use ...

 

European briefings - Climate change impacts and adaptation

  
In SOER 2015 - The European environment - state and outlook 2015 (18 February 2015)

Abstract

Global climate change impacts Europe in many ways, including: changes in average and extreme temperature and precipitation, warmer oceans, rising sea level and shrinking snow and ice cover on land and at sea. These have led to a range of impacts on ecosystems, socio-economic sectors and human health. Adaptation to the observed and projected impacts in coming decades is needed, complementary to global climate mitigation actions. The EU strategy on adaptation to climate change supports national adaptation strategies and other actions in ...

References

  1. European Environment Agency, 2012. Climate change, impacts and vulnerability in Europe 2012 - An indicator-based report. EEA Report No 12/2012, European Environment Agency, Copenhagen, Denmark.
  2. IPCC, 2013. Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Working Group I Contribution to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Stocker, T. F., Qin, D., Plattner, G.-K., et al. (eds)., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.
 

Taxines: a review of the mechanism and toxicity of yew (Taxus spp.) alkaloids

  
Toxicon, Vol. 39, No. 2-3. (2001), pp. 175-185, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0041-0101(00)00146-X

Abstract

This literature review summarizes relevant information and recent progress regarding the scientific investigations of taxine alkaloids. Taxines are the active, poisonous constituents in yew plants (Taxus spp.) and have been implicated in animal and human poisonings. Several taxine alkaloids have been isolated and characterized through the use of high performance liquid chromatography, mass spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance. Recently, as a result of electrophysiological investigations, significant progress has been made with regard to their pharmacological and toxicological mechanisms of action. Current ...

 

Mathematical models for emerging disease

  
Science, Vol. 346, No. 6215. (12 December 2014), pp. 1294-1295, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aaa3441

Abstract

It has been nearly 25 years since the publication of Infectious Disease of Humans (1), the “vade mecum” of mathematical modeling of infectious disease; the proliferation of epidemiological careers that it initiated is now in its fourth generation. Epidemiological models have proved very powerful in shaping health policy discussions. The complex interactions that lead to pathogen (and pest) outbreaks make it necessary to use models to provide quantitative insights into the counterintuitive outcomes that are the rule of most nonlinear systems. ...

 

Impact of regional climate change on human health

  
Nature, Vol. 438, No. 7066. (17 November 2005), pp. 310-317, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature04188

Abstract

The World Health Organisation estimates that the warming and precipitation trends due to anthropogenic climate change of the past 30 years already claim over 150,000 lives annually. Many prevalent human diseases are linked to climate fluctuations, from cardiovascular mortality and respiratory illnesses due to heatwaves, to altered transmission of infectious diseases and malnutrition from crop failures. Uncertainty remains in attributing the expansion or resurgence of diseases to climate change, owing to lack of long-term, high-quality data sets as well as the large ...

Visual summary

 

Out of Africa

  
Nature, Vol. 514, No. 7521. (7 October 2014), pp. 139-139, https://doi.org/10.1038/514139a

Abstract

The Ebola outbreak in West Africa must be shut down now, or the disease will continue to spread. [Excerpt] Ebola is out of control in Liberia, Sierra Leone and Guinea. Although this has been the case since late spring, the international pledges of help have yet to translate into concerted, rapid action on the ground. The virus still has the upper hand. Between 23 September and 1 October alone, the number of cases rose from 6,500 to almost 7,500, according to ...

 

The potential of transdisciplinary research for sustaining and extending linkages between the health and social sciences

  
Social Science & Medicine, Vol. 35, No. 11. (December 1992), pp. 1343-1357, https://doi.org/10.1016/0277-9536(92)90038-r

Abstract

The last decade of the twentieth century is witnessing a profusion of projects drawing together social and health scientists to study and recommend solutions for a wide range of health problems. The process—practices in both developed and developing countries—is usually called multidisciplinary or interdisciplinary research. Its historical precedents are briefly reviewed in this paper along with the types of problems addressed. From a review and discussion of a sample of projects selected from two major proponents of this approach to research, ...

 

Job strain, health and sickness absence: results from the Hordaland Health Study

  
PLoS ONE, Vol. 9, No. 4. (22 April 2014), pp. e96025-e96025, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0096025

Abstract

[Objectives] While it is generally accepted that high job strain is associated with adverse occupational outcomes, the nature of this relationship and the causal pathways involved are not well elucidated. We aimed to assess the association between job strain and long-term sickness absence (LTSA), and investigate whether any associations could be explained by validated health measures. [Methods] Data from participants (n = 7346) of the Hordaland Health Study (HUSK), aged 40–47 at baseline, were analyzed using multivariate Cox regression to evaluate the ...

 

MODIS and Vector-Borne Diseases

  
IEEE Earthzine, Vol. 6, No. 4. (2013), 713257

Abstract

Many regions in the world face an increasing risk for new or re-emerging vector-borne diseases. Subsequently, there is a strong need in addressing increasing challenges for human and veterinary public health across the globe. Dengue fever, borreliosis (Lyme disease), plague, West Nile fever, and tularaemia are examples for globally distributed vector-borne diseases with a high potential to affect people. Tick-borne rickettsial diseases (Ehrlichiosis, Anaplasmosis, Rocky Mountain spotted fever) are common in North America, whereas tick-borne encephalitis is widespread in Europe and ...

 

Global Change and Mercury

  
Science, Vol. 341, No. 6153. (27 September 2013), pp. 1457-1458, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1242838

Abstract

More than 140 nations recently agreed to a legally binding treaty on reductions in human uses and releases of mercury that will be signed in October of this year. This follows the 2011 rule in the United States that for the first time regulates mercury emissions from electricity-generating utilities. Several decades of scientific research preceded these important regulations. However, the impacts of global change on environmental mercury concentrations and human exposures remain a major uncertainty affecting the potential effectiveness of regulatory ...

 

It's a myth that protection against disease is a strong and general service of biodiversity conservation: Response to Ostfeld and Keesing

  
Trends in Ecology & Evolution, Vol. 28, No. 9. (September 2013), pp. 503-504, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2013.06.012

Abstract

[Excerpt] Ostfeld and Keesing's rebuttal [1] to our published review [2] does not question our overall synthesis that Lyme disease (LD) transmission is a complex balance between dilution and amplification. Ostfeld and Keesing do rebut some details, critique conclusions by authors cited in our review, question whether deer are important hosts for deer ticks, and cast aspersions on a paradigm that they themselves introduced into the literature (equating biodiversity with forestation). Ostfeld and Keesing confuse ‘reductio ad absurdum reasoning’ with a ...

 

Air pollution and lung cancer incidence in 17 European cohorts: prospective analyses from the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE)

  
The Lancet Oncology (July 2013), https://doi.org/10.1016/s1470-2045(13)70279-1

Abstract

Background Ambient air pollution is suspected to cause lung cancer. We aimed to assess the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and lung cancer incidence in European populations. Methods This prospective analysis of data obtained by the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects used data from 17 cohort studies based in nine European countries. Baseline addresses were geocoded and we assessed air pollution by land-use regression models for particulate matter (PM) with diameter of less than 10 μm (PM10), less ...

 

The hidden cost of wildfires: economic valuation of health effects of wildfire smoke exposure in Southern California

  
Journal of Forest Economics, Vol. 18, No. 1. (January 2012), pp. 14-35, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfe.2011.05.002

Abstract

There is a growing concern that human health impacts from exposure to wildfire smoke are ignored in estimates of monetized damages from wildfires. Current research highlights the need for better data collection and analysis of these impacts. Using unique primary data, this paper quantifies the economic cost of health effects from the largest wildfire in Los Angeles County's modern history. A cost of illness estimate is $9.50 per exposed person per day. However, theory and empirical research consistently find that this ...

 

Health policy-makers' perceptions of their use of evidence: a systematic review

  
Journal of Health Services Research & Policy, Vol. 7, No. 4. (01 October 2002), pp. 239-244, https://doi.org/10.1258/135581902320432778

Abstract

Objectives: The empirical basis for theories and common wisdom regarding how to improve appropriate use of research evidence in policy decisions is unclear. One source of empirical evidence is interview studies with policy-makers. The aim of this systematic review was to summarise the evidence from interview studies of facilitators of, and barriers to, the use of research evidence by health policy-makers. ...

 

The legacy of the Three Gorges dam

  
Science, Vol. 333, No. 6044. (12 August 2011), pp. 817-817, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.333.6044.817

Abstract

Scientists predicted that when the world's largest hydropower project came online in 2003, it would be an environmental bane. The Three Gorges Dam on the Yangtze River has unfortunately lived up to expectations. For that reason China is embarking on a 10-year mitigation effort that sources say will cost $26.45 billion. The travails of the Three Gorges Dam are a cautionary tale for Laos and its Southeast Asian neighbors as they wrestle with the pros and cons of damming the lower ...

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