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Selection: with tag human-health [63 articles] 

 

Robust relationship between air quality and infant mortality in Africa

  

Abstract

Poor air quality is thought to be an important mortality risk factor globally, but there is little direct evidence from the developing world on how mortality risk varies with changing exposure to ambient particulate matter. Current global estimates apply exposure–response relationships that have been derived mostly from wealthy, mid-latitude countries to spatial population data, and these estimates remain unvalidated across large portions of the globe. Here we combine household survey-based information on the location and timing of nearly 1 million births ...

 

Limiting global-mean temperature increase to 1.5–2 °C could reduce the incidence and spatial spread of dengue fever in Latin America

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 115, No. 24. (12 June 2018), pp. 6243-6248, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1718945115

Abstract

[Significance] This study is a multigeneral circulation model, multiscenario modeling exercise developed to quantify the dengue-related health benefits of limiting global warming to 1.5–2.0 °C above preindustrial levels in Latin America and the Caribbean. We estimate the impact of future climate change and population growth on the additional number of dengue cases and provide insights about the regions and periods most likely affected by changes in the length of the transmission season. Here, we show that future climate change may amplify dengue ...

 

Scientists aim to smoke out wildfire impacts

  
Science, Vol. 360, No. 6392. (01 June 2018), pp. 948-949, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.360.6392.948

Abstract

Scientists this summer are taking to the air in an ambitious effort to better understand the chemistry, behavior, and health impacts of wildfire smoke. The flights in an instrument-packed C-130 airplane belonging to the National Science Foundation will be followed in 2019 by flights on a NASA DC-8 research jet by scientists with NASA and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The two planes will fly through plumes of wildfire smoke, with a focus on the western United States, where wildfires ...

 

Mapping the interaction between development aid and stunting in Nigeria

  
In 28th IUSSP International Population Conference (2017)

Abstract

For meeting sustainable development goals (SDGs) an improved understanding of geographic differences in health status, wealth and access to resources is crucial. The equitable and effcient allocation of international aid relies on knowing where funds are needed most. For instance, aid for poverty alleviation or financial access improvement requires knowledge of where the poor are. Unfortunately, detailed, reliable and timely information on the spatial distribution and characteristics of intended aid recipients in many low income countries are rarely available. This lack ...

References

  1. AidData, 2016. Nigeria AIMS geocoded research release, version 1.3.1. In: AidData Datasets. AidData, Williamsburg, VA and Washington, DC. http://aiddata.org/data/nigeria-aims-geocoded-research-release-level-1-v1-3-1 , http://aiddata.org/research-datasets , INRMM-MiD:14546755
  2. Alegana, V. A., Atkinson, P. M., Pezzulo, C., Sorichetta, A., Weiss, D., Bird, T., Erbach-Schoenberg, E., Tatem, A. J., 2015. Fine resolution mapping of population age-structures for health and development applications. Journal of The Royal Society Interface 12 (105), 20150073+. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsif.2015.0073 , INRMM-MiD:14546782
 

Nigeria demographic and health survey 2013

  
(2014)

Abstract

[Excerpt:: Foreword] Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) 2013 is the fourth survey of its kind to be implemented by the National Population Commission (NPC). As the agency charged with the responsibility of collecting, collating, and analysing demographic data, the Commission has been unrelenting in its efforts to provide reliable, accurate, and up-to-date data for the country. We hope that information contained in this report will assist policymakers and programme managers in monitoring and designing programmes and strategies for improving health and family planning services in Nigeria. ...

 

Nigeria demographic and health survey 2008

  
(2009)

Abstract

[Excerpt: Summary of findings] The 2008 Nigeria Demographic Health Survey (NDHS) is a nationally representative survey of 33,385 women age 15-49 and 15,486 men age 15-59. The 2008 NDHS is the fourth comprehensive survey conducted in Nigeria as part of the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) programme. The data are intended to furnish programme managers and policymakers with detailed information on levels and trends in fertility; nuptiality; sexual activity; fertility preferences; awareness and use of family planning methods; infants and young children feeding practices; nutritional status of mothers and young children; early childhood mortality and ...

 

WHO child growth standards: length/height-for-age, weight-for-age, weight-for-length, weight-for-height and body mass index-for-age - Methods and development

  
(2006)

Abstract

[:Executive summary: Methods and development] In 1993 the World Health Organization (WHO) undertook a comprehensive review of the uses and interpretation of anthropometric references. The review concluded that the NCHS/WHO growth reference, which had been recommended for international use since the late 1970s, did not adequately represent early childhood growth and that new growth curves were necessary. The World Health Assembly endorsed this recommendation in 1994. In response WHO undertook the Multicentre Growth Reference Study (MGRS) between 1997 and 2003 to generate ...

 

Creating spatial interpolation surfaces with DHS data

  
No. 11. (2015)

Abstract

Improved understanding of sub-national geographic variation and inequity in demographic and health indicators is increasingly recognized as central to meeting development goals. Data from DHS surveys are critical to monitoring progress in these indicators but are generally not used to support sub-national evaluation below the first-level administrative unit. This study explored the potential of geostatistical approaches for the production of interpolated surfaces from GPS cluster located survey data, and for the prediction of gridded surfaces at 5×5km resolution. The impact of DHS cluster displacement on these interpolated ...

 

Assessing comorbidity and correlates of wasting and stunting among children in Somalia using cross-sectional household surveys: 2007 to 2010

  
BMJ Open, Vol. 6, No. 3. (09 March 2016), e009854, https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2015-009854

Abstract

[Objective] Wasting and stunting may occur together at the individual child level; however, their shared geographic distribution and correlates remain unexplored. Understanding shared and separate correlates may inform interventions. We aimed to assess the spatial codistribution of wasting, stunting and underweight and investigate their shared correlates among children aged 6–59 months in Somalia. [Setting] Cross-sectional nutritional assessments surveys were conducted using structured interviews among communities in Somalia biannually from 2007 to 2010. A two-stage cluster sampling methodology was used to select children aged ...

 

Poverty, health and satellite-derived vegetation indices: their inter-spatial relationship in West Africa

  
International Health, Vol. 7, No. 2. (March 2015), pp. 99-106, https://doi.org/10.1093/inthealth/ihv005

Abstract

[Background] Previous analyses have shown the individual correlations between poverty, health and satellite-derived vegetation indices such as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). However, generally these analyses did not explore the statistical interconnections between poverty, health outcomes and NDVI. [Methods] In this research aspatial methods (principal component analysis) and spatial models (variography, factorial kriging and cokriging) were applied to investigate the correlations and spatial relationships between intensity of poverty, health (expressed as child mortality and undernutrition), and NDVI for a large area of West ...

 

Fine resolution mapping of population age-structures for health and development applications

  
Journal of The Royal Society Interface, Vol. 12, No. 105. (18 March 2015), 20150073, https://doi.org/10.1098/rsif.2015.0073

Abstract

The age-group composition of populations varies considerably across the world, and obtaining accurate, spatially detailed estimates of numbers of children under 5 years is important in designing vaccination strategies, educational planning or maternal healthcare delivery. Traditionally, such estimates are derived from population censuses, but these can often be unreliable, outdated and of coarse resolution for resource-poor settings. Focusing on Nigeria, we use nationally representative household surveys and their cluster locations to predict the proportion of the under-five population in 1 × ...

 

The real cost of energy

  
Nature, Vol. 553, No. 7682. (2017), pp. S145-S147, https://doi.org/10.1038/d41586-017-07510-3

Abstract

All energy production has environmental and societal effects. But calculating them — and pricing energy accordingly — is no easy task. [Excerpt] [...] Electricity production is rife with externalities. Mining for raw materials often causes water pollution, habitat destruction and socio-economic harm. Burning coal pollutes the air, sickening and killing people, and introduces toxic mercury into the aquatic food chain. Nuclear-power plants require the clean-up and maintenance of radioactive materials after decommissioning. Energy production uses water, sometimes at the expense of agriculture and ...

 

Malaria prevalence metrics in low- and middle-income countries: an assessment of precision in nationally-representative surveys

  
Malaria Journal, Vol. 16 (21 November 2017), 475, https://doi.org/10.1186/s12936-017-2127-y

Abstract

[Background] One pillar to monitoring progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals is the investment in high quality data to strengthen the scientific basis for decision-making. At present, nationally-representative surveys are the main source of data for establishing a scientific evidence base, monitoring, and evaluation of health metrics. However, little is known about the optimal precisions of various population-level health and development indicators that remains unquantified in nationally-representative household surveys. Here, a retrospective analysis of the precision of prevalence from these surveys was ...

 

Specific reduction in cortisol stress reactivity after social but not attention-based mental training

  
Science Advances, Vol. 3, No. 10. (04 October 2017), e1700495, https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.1700495

Abstract

Psychosocial stress is a public health burden in modern societies. Chronic stress–induced disease processes are, in large part, mediated via the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary system. We asked whether the contemplative mental training of different practice types targeting attentional, socio-affective (for example, compassion), or socio-cognitive abilities (for example, perspective-taking) in the context of a 9-month longitudinal training study offers an effective means for psychosocial stress reduction. Using a multimethod approach including subjective, endocrine, autonomic, and immune ...

 

Structural plasticity of the social brain: differential change after socio-affective and cognitive mental training

  
Science Advances, Vol. 3, No. 10. (04 October 2017), e1700489, https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.1700489

Abstract

Although neuroscientific research has revealed experience-dependent brain changes across the life span in sensory, motor, and cognitive domains, plasticity relating to social capacities remains largely unknown. To investigate whether the targeted mental training of different cognitive and social skills can induce specific changes in brain morphology, we collected longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data throughout a 9-month mental training intervention from a large sample of adults between 20 and 55 years of age. By means of various daily mental exercises and ...

 

Global risk of deadly heat

  
Nature Climate Change, Vol. 7, No. 7. (19 June 2017), pp. 501-506, https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate3322

Abstract

Climate change can increase the risk of conditions that exceed human thermoregulatory capacity. Although numerous studies report increased mortality associated with extreme heat events, quantifying the global risk of heat-related mortality remains challenging due to a lack of comparable data on heat-related deaths. Here we conducted a global analysis of documented lethal heat events to identify the climatic conditions associated with human death and then quantified the current and projected occurrence of such deadly climatic conditions worldwide. We reviewed papers published ...

 

Risk of post-fire metal mobilization into surface water resources: a review

  
Science of The Total Environment, Vol. 599-600 (December 2017), pp. 1740-1755, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.05.096

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] Forest catchment supply high quality water to a number of communities around the world. [::] Forest fire release sequestered metals from soil organic matter and vegetation. [::] Post-fire erosion rapidly transports these metals to downstream soil and water bodies. [::] Their deposition in the water bodies affects the water quality and aquatic biota. [::] This metal contamination may reach to human being as a consumer. [Abstract] One of the significant economic benefits to communities around the world of having pristine forest catchments is the supply of ...

 

Stressing mental health

  
Science, Vol. 356, No. 6340. (25 May 2017), pp. 878-878, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.356.6340.878

Abstract

[Excerpt] [...] Stress is an ingrained and unavoidable aspect of scientific practice. In some unfortunate cases, lab culture can make it worse. In many others, however, it is simply the nature of research. Deadlines, tight funding, and the pressure to “publish or perish” all create chronic stress. There is no avoiding these issues. [...] Personally, I realized that self-imposed deadlines and goals created much of the stress I was feeling, and that tempering my expectations was an easy way to reduce ...

 

Transboundary health impacts of transported global air pollution and international trade

  
Nature, Vol. 543, No. 7647. (29 March 2017), pp. 705-709, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature21712

Abstract

Millions of people die every year from diseases caused by exposure to outdoor air pollution. Some studies have estimated premature mortality related to local sources of air pollution, but local air quality can also be affected by atmospheric transport of pollution from distant sources. International trade is contributing to the globalization of emission and pollution as a result of the production of goods (and their associated emissions) in one region for consumption in another region. The effects of international trade on ...

 

Impacts of temperature extremes

  
In Report of Workshop on the Social and Economic Impacts of Weather (1997)

Abstract

Extremes of heat and cold have a broad and far-reaching set of impacts on the nation. These include significant loss of life and illness, economic costs in transportation, agriculture, production, energy and infrastructure. The 1976 - 1977 winter freeze and drought is estimated to have cost $36.6 billion in 1980 dollars. In 1980 the nation saw a devastating heat wave and drought that claimed at least 1700 lives and had estimated economic costs $15 - $19 billion in 1980 dollars. While ...

 

Terrestrial ecosystems, soil and forests

  
In Climate change, impacts and vulnerability in Europe 2016 - An indicator-based report, Vol. 1/2017 (January 2017), pp. 153-182, https://doi.org/10.2800/534806

Abstract

[Excerpt: Key messages] [::] Observed climate change has had many impacts on terrestrial ecosystems, such as changes in soil conditions, advances in phenological stages, altitudinal and latitudinal migration of plant and animal species (generally northwards and upwards), and changes in species interactions and species composition in communities, including local extinctions. [::] The relative importance of climate change as a major driver of biodiversity and ecosystem change is projected to increase further in the future. In addition to climate change, human efforts to mitigate and adapt to ...

References

  1. Alkemade, R., Bakkenes, M., Eickhout, B., 2011. Towards a general relationship between climate change and biodiversity: An example for plant species in Europe. Regional Environmental Change 11, 143–150. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10113-010-0161-1 .
  2. Allen, C. D., Macalady, A. K., Chenchouni, H., Bachelet, D., McDowell, N., Vennetier, M., Kitzberger, T., Rigling, A., Breshears, D. D., Hogg, E. H. (Ted), Gonzalez, P., Fensham, R., Zhang, Z., Castro, J., Demidova, N., Lim, J.-H., Allard, G., Running, S. W., Semerci, A.,
 

Executive summary

  
In Climate change, impacts and vulnerability in Europe 2016 - An indicator-based report, Vol. 1/2017 (January 2017), pp. 12-30, https://doi.org/10.2800/534806

Abstract

[Excerpt: Key messages] [::] All of the key findings from the 2012 European Environment Agency (EEA) report on climate change, impacts and vulnerability in Europe are still valid. [::] Climate change is continuing globally and in Europe. Land and sea temperatures are increasing; precipitation patterns are changing, generally making wet regions in Europe wetter, particularly in winter, and dry regions drier, particularly in summer; sea ice extent, glacier volume and snow cover are decreasing; sea levels are rising; and climate-related extremes such as heat waves, heavy precipitation ...

References

  1. Ciscar, J.-C., Feyen, L., Soria, A., Lavalle, C., Raes, F., Perry, M., Nemry, F., Demirel, H., Rozsai, M., Dosio, A., Donatelli, M., Srivastava, A. K., Fumagalli, D., Niemeyer, S., Shrestha, S., Ciaian, P., Himics, M., Van Doorslaer, B., Barrios, S., Ibáñez, N., Forzieri, G., Rojas, R., Bianchi, A., Dowling, P., Camia, A., Libertà, G., San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., de Rigo, D., Caudullo, G., Barredo, J. I., Paci, D., Pycroft, J., Saveyn, B., Van Regemorter, D., Revesz, T., Vandyck, T.,
 

Climate change, impacts and vulnerability in Europe 2016 - An indicator-based report

  
Vol. 1/2017 (January 2017), https://doi.org/10.2800/534806

Abstract

[Excerpt: Executive summary] Key messages [::] All of the key findings from the 2012 European Environment Agency (EEA) report on climate change, impacts and vulnerability in Europe are still valid. [::] Climate change is continuing globally and in Europe. Land and sea temperatures are increasing; precipitation patterns are changing, generally making wet regions in Europe wetter, particularly in winter, and dry regions drier, particularly in summer; sea ice extent, glacier volume and snow cover are decreasing; sea levels are rising; and climate-related extremes such as heat waves, heavy ...

 

Social status alters immune regulation and response to infection in macaques

  
Science, Vol. 354, No. 6315. (25 November 2016), pp. 1041-1045, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aah3580

Abstract

[Status alters immune function in macaques] Rhesus macaques experience variable levels of stress on the basis of their position in the social hierarchy. To examine how stress affects immune function, Snyder-Mackler et al. manipulated the social status of individual macaques (see the Perspective by Sapolsky). Social status influenced the immune system at multiple levels, from immune cell numbers to gene expression, and altered signaling pathways in a model of response to infection. Macaques possess a plastic and adaptive immune response wherein social ...

 

Health impacts of wildfires

  
PLoS Currents Disasters (2012), 1881, https://doi.org/10.1371/4f959951cce2c

Abstract

[Introduction] Wildfires are common globally. Although there has been considerable work done on the health effects of wildfires in countries such as the USA where they occur frequently there has been relatively little work to investigate health effects in the United Kingdom. Climate change may increase the risk of increasing wildfire frequency, therefore there is an urgent need to further understand the health effects and public awareness of wildfires. This study was designed to review current evidence about the health effects of ...

 

Health impacts of fire smoke inhalation

  
Inhalation Toxicology, Vol. 20, No. 8. (1 January 2008), pp. 761-766, https://doi.org/10.1080/08958370801975311

Abstract

Most fatalities from fires are not due to burns, but are a result of inhalation of toxic gases produced during combustion. Fire produces a complex toxic environment involving flame, heat, oxygen depletion, smoke and toxic gases. As a wide variety of synthetic materials is used in buildings (insulation, furniture, carpeting, and decorative items) the potential for severe health impacts from inhalation of products of combustion during building fires is continuously increasing. In forest fires the burning of biomass leads to smoke ...

 

Short-term effects of particulate matter on mortality during forest fires in Southern Europe: results of the MED-PARTICLES Project

  
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Vol. 72, No. 5. (01 May 2015), pp. 323-329, https://doi.org/10.1136/oemed-2014-102459

Abstract

[Background] An association between occurrence of wildfires and mortality in the exposed population has been observed in several studies with controversial results for cause-specific mortality. In the Mediterranean area, forest fires usually occur during spring–summer, they overlap with Saharan outbreaks, are associated with increased temperature and their health effects are probably due to an increase in particulate matter. [Aim and methods] We analysed the effects of wildfires and particulate matter (PM10) on mortality in 10 southern European cities in Spain, France, Italy ...

 

Corporate culture has no place in academia

  
Nature, Vol. 538, No. 7623. (3 October 2016), pp. 7-7, https://doi.org/10.1038/538007a

Abstract

‘Academic capitalism’ contributed to the mishandling of the Macchiarini case by officials at the Karolinska Institute in Sweden, argues Olof Hallonsten. [Excerpt] [...] As academic capitalism spreads, universities abandon traditional meritocratic and collegial governance to hunt money, prestige and a stronger brand. [...] Yet this conduct goes against fundamental values of academia — the careful scrutiny of all claims, and of the research (and teaching) portfolios of those making such claims. This core principle in the self-organization of the academic system (studied ...

 

Equality in maternal and newborn health: modelling geographic disparities in utilisation of care in five East African countries

  
PLoS ONE, Vol. 11, No. 8. (25 August 2016), e0162006, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0162006

Abstract

Geographic accessibility to health facilities represents a fundamental barrier to utilisation of maternal and newborn health (MNH) services, driving historically hidden spatial pockets of localized inequalities. Here, we examine utilisation of MNH care as an emergent property of accessibility, highlighting high-resolution spatial heterogeneity and sub-national inequalities in receiving care before, during, and after delivery throughout five East African countries. We calculated a geographic inaccessibility score to the nearest health facility at 300 x 300 m using a dataset of 9,314 facilities ...

 

Advances in mapping malaria for elimination: fine resolution modelling of Plasmodium falciparum incidence

  
Scientific Reports, Vol. 6 (13 July 2016), 29628, https://doi.org/10.1038/srep29628

Abstract

The long-term goal of the global effort to tackle malaria is national and regional elimination and eventually eradication. Fine scale multi-temporal mapping in low malaria transmission settings remains a challenge and the World Health Organisation propose use of surveillance in elimination settings. Here, we show how malaria incidence can be modelled at a fine spatial and temporal resolution from health facility data to help focus surveillance and control to population not attending health facilities. Using Namibia as a case study, we ...

 

Quantifying the impact of human mobility on malaria

  
Science, Vol. 338, No. 6104. (11 October 2012), pp. 267-270, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1223467

Abstract

Human movements contribute to the transmission of malaria on spatial scales that exceed the limits of mosquito dispersal. Identifying the sources and sinks of imported infections due to human travel and locating high-risk sites of parasite importation could greatly improve malaria control programs. Here, we use spatially explicit mobile phone data and malaria prevalence information from Kenya to identify the dynamics of human carriers that drive parasite importation between regions. Our analysis identifies importation routes that contribute to malaria epidemiology on ...

 

Global human capital: integrating education and population

  
Science, Vol. 333, No. 6042. (28 July 2011), pp. 587-592, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1206964

Abstract

Almost universally, women with higher levels of education have fewer children. Better education is associated with lower mortality, better health, and different migration patterns. Hence, the global population outlook depends greatly on further progress in education, particularly of young women. By 2050, the highest and lowest education scenarios—assuming identical education-specific fertility rates—result in world population sizes of 8.9 and 10.0 billion, respectively. Better education also matters for human development, including health, economic growth, and democracy. Existing methods of multi-state demography can ...

 

(INRMM-MiD internal record) List of keywords of the INRMM meta-information database - part 19

  
(February 2014)
Keywords: historical-perspective   history   holdouts   holocene   homeostasis   homogenous-spatial-units   homonyms   honey   honey-production   honeydew   honeydew-honey   hopea-odorata   horizon-scan   horticulture   host   host-chemistry   host-defense   host-parasite   host-plant   host-range   host-resistance   host-taxonomy   hotspot   human-behaviour   human-centered-automation   human-diseases   human-health   human-impact   human-influence   human-machine-interface   human-refuge   human-rights   humboldt   humidity   humus   hungary   hunting   hura-crepitans   hutchinsonian-niche   hybrid-incompatibility   hybrid-poplars   hybridisation   hydraulic-conductivity   hydraulic-properties   hydrogeology   hydrology   hydropower-energy   hyena-hyaena   hylastes-ater   hylastes-cunicularius   hylobius-abietis   hylurgops-palliatus   hylurgus-lingniperda   hymenaea-courbaril   hymenoscyphus-pseudoalbidus   hyper-heuristics   hypericum-androsaemum   hypericum-inodorum   hyphantria-cunea   hypoglycin-a   hypothesizing-after-the-results-are-known   hypoxylon-mammatum   hypoxylon-mediterraneum   hypsipyla-robusta   hyrcanian-region   hysteresis   i-score   iatrogenic-problem   iberian-peninsula   iberian-region   ica   ice-cover   ice-nucleation-active-bacteria   ice-sheet   iceland   idl   ieee   ignition-factors   ignorance   iland   ilarvirus   ilex-aquifolium   ilex-colchica   ilex-hyrcana   ilex-spp   illyrian   ilwis   image-classification   image-processing-analysis   impact   impact-factor   impacts   impatiens-spp   importance   in-situ-conservation   in-vitro-culture   inaction   inbreeding   incompatibility   inrmm-list-of-tags  

Abstract

List of indexed keywords within the transdisciplinary set of domains which relate to the Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management (INRMM). In particular, the list of keywords maps the semantic tags in the INRMM Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD). [\n] The INRMM-MiD records providing this list are accessible by the special tag: inrmm-list-of-tags ( http://mfkp.org/INRMM/tag/inrmm-list-of-tags ). ...

 

Quantifying seasonal population fluxes driving rubella transmission dynamics using mobile phone data

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 112, No. 35. (01 September 2015), pp. 11114-11119, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1423542112

Abstract

[Significance] Changing patterns of human mobility can drive seasonal outbreaks of infectious diseases, but limited data about travel behavior and population flux over time have made this idea difficult to quantify. Mobile phone data provide a unique source of information about human travel. Here we quantify seasonal travel patterns using mobile phone data from nearly 15 million anonymous subscribers in Kenya. Using a rich data source of rubella incidence, we show that patterns of population fluxes inferred from mobile phone data are ...

 

Reduced vaccination and the risk of measles and other childhood infections post-Ebola

  
Science, Vol. 347, No. 6227. (12 March 2015), pp. 1240-1242, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aaa3438

Abstract

[Editor summary: Vaccinate children despite Ebola] During the medical emergency caused by the Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa, routine childhood vaccination programs have been suspended. If vaccination is not resumed soon, there could be even more deaths. Measles is highly infectious, and outbreaks are a sign of health care systems in trouble. Using mathematical modelling, Takahashi et al. estimate that about a million children across Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Guinea are vulnerable to measles. Aggressive public health programs are vital for ...

 

Cholera dynamics and El Niño-Southern Oscillation

  
Science, Vol. 289, No. 5485. (2000), pp. 1766-1769, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.289.5485.1766

Abstract

Analysis of a monthly 18-year cholera time series from Bangladesh shows that the temporal variability of cholera exhibits an interannual component at the dominant frequency of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Results from nonlinear time series analysis support a role for both ENSO and previous disease levels in the dynamics of cholera. Cholera patterns are linked to the previously described changes in the atmospheric circulation of south Asia and, consistent with these changes, to regional temperature anomalies. ...

 

Climate change impacts on global food security

  
Science, Vol. 341, No. 6145. (2013), pp. 508-513, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1239402

Abstract

Climate change could potentially interrupt progress toward a world without hunger. A robust and coherent global pattern is discernible of the impacts of climate change on crop productivity that could have consequences for food availability. The stability of whole food systems may be at risk under climate change because of short-term variability in supply. However, the potential impact is less clear at regional scales, but it is likely that climate variability and change will exacerbate food insecurity in areas currently vulnerable ...

 

Evaluating pesticide degradation in the environment: blind spots and emerging opportunities

  
Science, Vol. 341, No. 6147. (2013), pp. 752-758, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1236281

Abstract

The benefits of global pesticide use come at the cost of their widespread occurrence in the environment. An array of abiotic and biotic transformations effectively removes pesticides from the environment, but may give rise to potentially hazardous transformation products. Despite a large body of pesticide degradation data from regulatory testing and decades of pesticide research, it remains difficult to anticipate the extent and pathways of pesticide degradation under specific field conditions. Here, we review the major scientific challenges in doing so ...

 

Hidden killers: human fungal infections

  
Science Translational Medicine, Vol. 4, No. 165. (2012), pp. 165rv13-165rv13, https://doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.3004404
Keywords: fungi   human-health   review  

Abstract

Although fungal infections contribute substantially to human morbidity and mortality, the impact of these diseases on human health is not widely appreciated. Moreover, despite the urgent need for efficient diagnostic tests and safe and effective new drugs and vaccines, research into the pathophysiology of human fungal infections lags behind that of diseases caused by other pathogens. In this Review, we highlight the importance of fungi as human pathogens and discuss the challenges we face in combating the devastating invasive infections caused ...

 

Human influences on nitrogen removal in lakes

  
Science, Vol. 342, No. 6155. (2013), pp. 247-250, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1242575

Abstract

The negative consequences of increased loading of nitrogen and phosphorus into aquatic ecosystems are well known. Management strategies aimed at reducing the sources of these excess nutrients, such as fertilizer runoff or sewage outflows, can largely mitigate the increases in nitrogen and phosphorus levels; however, it is unclear if these strategies are influencing other spects of these ecosystems. Using a global lake data set, Finlay et al. (p. 247; see the Perspective by Bernhardt) found that reducing phosphorus inputs reduced a ...

 

Monte Verde: seaweed, food, medicine, and the peopling of South America

  
Science, Vol. 320, No. 5877. (2008), pp. 784-786, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1156533

Abstract

The identification of human artifacts at the early archaeological site of Monte Verde in southern Chile has raised questions of when and how people reached the tip of South America without leaving much other evidence in the New World. Remains of nine species of marine algae were recovered from hearths and other features at Monte Verde II, an upper occupational layer, and were directly dated between 14,220 and 13,980 calendar years before the present (~12,310 and 12,290 carbon-14 years ago). These ...

 

The challenge of micropollutants in aquatic systems

  
Science, Vol. 313, No. 5790. (2006), pp. 1072-1077, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1127291

Abstract

The increasing worldwide contamination of freshwater systems with thousands of industrial and natural chemical compounds is one of the key environmental problems facing humanity. Although most of these compounds are present at low concentrations, many of them raise considerable toxicological concerns, particularly when present as components of complex mixtures. Here we review three scientific challenges in addressing water-quality problems caused by such micropollutants. First, tools to assess the impact of these pollutants on aquatic life and human health must be further ...

 

Waterborne infectious diseases - could they be consigned to history?

  
Science, Vol. 313, No. 5790. (2006), pp. 1077-1081, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1127184

Abstract

The development of water resources, particularly in Africa, has changed the face of the continent, opening up land for agriculture, providing electric power, encouraging settlements adjacent to water bodies, and bringing prosperity to poor people. Unfortunately, the created or altered water bodies provide ideal conditions for the transmission of waterborne diseases and a favorable habitat for intermediate hosts of tropical parasitic infections that cause disease and suffering. The recent progress in control of these waterborne and vector-borne diseases, such as guinea ...

 

Water-quality impacts from climate-induced forest die-off

  
Nature Climate Change, Vol. 3, No. 3. (28 October 2012), pp. 218-222, https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate1724

Abstract

Increased ecosystem susceptibility to pests and other stressors has been attributed to climate change, resulting in unprecedented tree mortality from insect infestations. In turn, large-scale tree die-off alters physical and biogeochemical processes, such as organic matter decay and hydrologic flow paths, that could enhance leaching of natural organic matter to soil and surface waters and increase potential formation of harmful drinking water disinfection by-products (DBPs). Whereas previous studies have investigated water-quantity alterations due to climate-induced, forest die-off, impacts on water quality ...

 

Economic impacts of EU clean air policies assessed in a CGE framework

  
Environmental Science & Policy, Vol. 55 (January 2016), pp. 54-64, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2015.07.004

Abstract

This paper assesses the macroeconomic and sectoral impacts of the “Clean Air Policy Package” proposed by the European Commission in December 2013. The analysis incorporates both the expenditures necessary to implement the policy by 2030 and the resulting positive feedback effects on human health and crop production. A decomposition analysis identifies the important drivers of the macroeconomic impacts. We show that while expenditure on pollution abatement is a cost for the abating sectors, it also generates an increased demand for the ...

 

Activity of Some Plant Extracts Against Multi-Drug Resistant Human Pathogens

  
Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, Vol. 8, No. 4. (2009), pp. 293-300

Abstract

Plants used for traditional medicine contain a wide range of substances which can be used to treat various infectious diseases. Hence, antibacterial activities of ethanolic extracts of 19 plant species were studied against multi-drug resistant clinical isolates using agar well diffusion method. Extracts of Liquidambar orientalis, Vitis vinifera, Rosmarinus officinalis, Punica granatum, Cornus sanguinea, Euphorbia peplus, Ecballium elaterium, Inula viscosa and Liquidambar orientalis showed broad-spectrum antibacterial activity with inhibition zones ranging from 8 to 26 mm. The most resistant organisms were ...

 

Rational design of antibiotic treatment plans: a treatment strategy for managing evolution and reversing resistance

  
PLOS ONE, Vol. 10, No. 5. (2015), e0122283, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0122283

Abstract

The development of reliable methods for restoring susceptibility after antibiotic resistance arises has proven elusive. A greater understanding of the relationship between antibiotic administration and the evolution of resistance is key to overcoming this challenge. Here we present a data-driven mathematical approach for developing antibiotic treatment plans that can reverse the evolution of antibiotic resistance determinants. We have generated adaptive landscapes for 16 genotypes of the TEM β-lactamase that vary from the wild type genotype “TEM-1” through all combinations of four ...

 

Interdisciplinary research in the ecology of vector-borne diseases: Opportunities and needs

  
Journal of Vector Ecology, Vol. 33, No. 2. (1 December 2008), pp. 218-224, https://doi.org/10.3376/1081-1710-33.2.218

Abstract

In addition to their importance to human and animal health, vector-borne diseases are fascinating systems to study. The involvement of multiple species whose biologies and life cycles cover differing space and time scales makes it extremely difficult to predict epidemics. A single environmental factor may have opposite impacts on the system at different points in time. Patchiness at different geographical scales may have very different causes, so it is important to identify the proper scale for a particular study. New developments ...

 

Therapeutic guide to herbal medicines

  
(1998)

Abstract

In 1978 the German government established an expert committee, the Commission E, to evaluate the safety and efficacy of over 300 herbs and herb combinations sold in Germany. The results were published as official monographs that give the approved uses, contraindications, side effects, dosage, drug interactions and other therapeutic information essential for the responsible use of herbs and phyto-medicines, For the first time, the complete set of all Commission E monographs has been complied, translated into English and edited for use ...

 

European briefings - Climate change impacts and adaptation

  
In SOER 2015 - The European environment - state and outlook 2015 (18 February 2015)

Abstract

Global climate change impacts Europe in many ways, including: changes in average and extreme temperature and precipitation, warmer oceans, rising sea level and shrinking snow and ice cover on land and at sea. These have led to a range of impacts on ecosystems, socio-economic sectors and human health. Adaptation to the observed and projected impacts in coming decades is needed, complementary to global climate mitigation actions. The EU strategy on adaptation to climate change supports national adaptation strategies and other actions in ...

References

  1. European Environment Agency, 2012. Climate change, impacts and vulnerability in Europe 2012 - An indicator-based report. EEA Report No 12/2012, European Environment Agency, Copenhagen, Denmark.
  2. IPCC, 2013. Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Working Group I Contribution to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Stocker, T. F., Qin, D., Plattner, G.-K., et al. (eds)., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.
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