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Selection: with tag historical-perspective [38 articles] 


Historical climate controls soil respiration responses to current soil moisture

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 114, No. 24. (13 June 2017), pp. 6322-6327,


[Significance] Ecosystems’ feedback to climate change remains a source of uncertainty in global models that project future climate conditions. That uncertainty rests largely on how much soil carbon will be lost as microbial respiration and how that loss varies across ecosystems. Although there has been a large emphasis on microbial temperature responses, how soil microorganisms respond to changes in moisture remains poorly understood. Here we show that historical rainfall controls soil respiration responses to current moisture. This finding was robust, with historical ...


Ancestral alliances: plant mutualistic symbioses with fungi and bacteria

Science, Vol. 356, No. 6340. (25 May 2017), eaad4501,


[Taking a look at plant-microbe relationships] Ever since plants colonized land, they have evolved a range of mutualistic associations with bacteria and fungi. Indeed, such associations were probably required for plants to grow on harsh, nutrient-poor surfaces. Martin et al. review the spectrum of plant-microbe symbioses and their evolution, including evidence from the Rhynie Chert of the Devonian period and modern associations. Surprisingly, diverse functional plant-microbial symbioses have several common conserved features, including signaling pathways, immune evasion, and root development. [Structured Abstract] [::Background] Among the ...


Charcoal as a fire proxy

In Tracking Environmental Change Using Lake Sediments: Terrestrial, Algal, and Siliceous Indicators, Vol. 3 (2001), pp. 75-97,


[Excerpt: Summary] Charcoal particles preserved in lake sediments provide a means of reconstructing fire history beyond documentary and dendrochrological records. Recent refinements in charcoal analysis and interpretation have greatly improved our ability to use charcoal records as proxy of past fire events and to calculate long-term variations in fire frequency. Standardization has also facilitated synthesis of different researchers’ data. Interpretating charcoal records in terms of the fire location, size, and intensity requires an understanding of the processes that influence charcoal production, transport, and deposition. Studies of charcoal deposition following ...


Involve social scientists in defining the Anthropocene

Nature, Vol. 540, No. 7632. (7 December 2016), pp. 192-193,


The causes of Earth's transition are human and social, write Erle Ellis and colleagues, so scholars from those disciplines must be included in its formalization. ...


On the relationships between forest fires and weather conditions in Greece from long-term national observations (1894-2010)

International Journal of Wildland Fire, Vol. 22, No. 4. (2013), 493,


Historical fire records and meteorological observations, spanning more than 1 century (1894–2010), were gathered and assembled in a database, to provide long-term fire–weather associations. We investigated the relationships between forest fire activity and meteorological parameters and sought to find temporal patterns and trends in these historical records and to identify any linkages between meteorological parameters and fire occurrence in the eastern Mediterranean region. Trend analysis of the time series revealed a statistically significant increase in the number of fires and air ...


The development of environmental thinking in economics

Environmental Values, Vol. 8, No. 4. (November 1999), pp. 413-435,


There has always been a sub-group of established economists trying to convey an environmental critique of the mainstream. This paper traces their thinking into the late 20th century via the development of associations and journals in the USA and Europe. There is clearly a divergence between the conformity to neo-classical economics favoured by resource and environmental economists and the acceptance of more radical critiques apparent in ecological economics. Thus, the progressive elements of ecological economics are increasingly incompatible with those practising ...


Risk and resilience lessons from Venice

Environment Systems and Decisions, Vol. 34, No. 3. (2014), pp. 378-382,


In the history of disasters in Venice, there are implications for modern times in terms of complex systems management and emerging threats, in particular from examples of risk management and resilience achieved by the Venetian state during outbreaks of the plague. In fourteenth century Venice, risk assessment the way we practice it today would fail to provide meaningful recommendations to reduce the casualty rate of the plague epidemic because the cause and transmission of the disease was not understood. Instead, a ...


Recent advances and remaining uncertainties in resolving past and future climate effects on global fire activity

Current Climate Change Reports, Vol. 2, No. 1. (2016), pp. 1-14,


Fire is an integral component of the Earth system that will critically affect how terrestrial carbon budgets and living systems respond to climate change. Paleo and observational records document robust positive relationships between fire activity and aridity in many parts of the world on interannual to millennial timescales. Observed increases in fire activity and aridity in many areas over the past several decades motivate curiosity as to the degree to which anthropogenic climate change will alter global fire regimes and subsequently ...


Natural and anthropogenic drivers of calcium depletion in a northern forest during the last millennium

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, No. 25. (21 June 2016), pp. 6934-6938,


[Significance] This research breaks new ground by showing that, contrary to generally accepted theories of ecosystem development, calcium depletion has been occurring for millennia as a natural consequence of long-term ecosystem development. This natural process predisposed forest ecosystems in the region to detrimental responses to acid rain in the 20th century. We also show that nitrogen availability was increasing concurrently with the depletion of calcium. This is the first study, to our knowledge, to reconstruct continuous changes in nutrient availability for a ...


Early farmers from across Europe directly descended from Neolithic Aegeans

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, No. 25. (21 June 2016), pp. 6886-6891,


[Significance] One of the most enduring and widely debated questions in prehistoric archaeology concerns the origins of Europe’s earliest farmers: Were they the descendants of local hunter-gatherers, or did they migrate from southwestern Asia, where farming began? We recover genome-wide DNA sequences from early farmers on both the European and Asian sides of the Aegean to reveal an unbroken chain of ancestry leading from central and southwestern Europe back to Greece and northwestern Anatolia. Our study provides the coup de grâce to ...


Fire history and the global carbon budget: a 1°x 1° fire history reconstruction for the 20th century

Global Change Biology, Vol. 11, No. 3. (March 2005), pp. 398-420,


A yearly global fire history is a prerequisite for quantifying the contribution of previous fires to the past and present global carbon budget. Vegetation fires can have both direct (combustion) and long-term indirect effects on the carbon cycle. Every fire influences the ecosystem carbon budget for many years, as a consequence of internal reorganization, decomposition of dead biomass, and regrowth. We used a two-step process to estimate these effects. First we synthesized the available data available for the 1980s or 1990s ...


(INRMM-MiD internal record) List of keywords of the INRMM meta-information database - part 16

(February 2014)
Keywords: growth-rates   growth-responses   growth-trends   growth-variability   growth-yield   guajacum-officinale   guajacum-sanctum   guidos-mspa   gvsig   gymmocladus-spp   gymnospermae   gypsonoma-aceriana   gypsonoma-haimbachiana   h-index   habitat   habitat-area   habitat-availability   habitat-classification   habitat-conservation   habitat-description   habitat-suitability   hadgem2-ao   haematoxylum-campechianum   hagenia-abyssinica   haiti   half-sib-families   hamamelis-spp   handbook   handicraft   hardiness   hardware   hardwood   heat-storage   heat-transfer   heating   heatwaves   heavy-metal   heavy-metals   hedera-helix   hedera-spp   height-differentiation   height-growth   helianthus-spp   helianthus-tuberosus   hellenica   hellinger-distance   hemiptera   herbal-medicines   herbicide-control   herbivory   herbivory-impact   herpotrichia-juniperi   heterobasidion   heterobasidion-abietinum   heterobasidion-annosum   heterobasidion-parviporum   heuristics   hevea-brasiliensis   hibiscus-elatus   hibiscus-tiliaceus   hidden-goal   hidden-knowledge   high-impact-publication   high-resolution-data   hill-slope-curvature   hillslope   hilly-areas   himalayan-region   hippophae-rhamnoides   histamine-release   historical-perspective   history   holocene   homeostasis   homogenous-spatial-units   homonyms   honey   honey-production   honeydew   honeydew-honey   hopea-odorata   horticulture   host   host-chemistry   host-defense   host-plant   host-range   host-resistance   host-taxonomy   hotspot   human-behaviour   human-centered-automation   human-diseases   human-health   human-impact   human-influence   human-machine-interface   human-refuge   humboldt   inrmm-list-of-tags  


List of indexed keywords within the transdisciplinary set of domains which relate to the Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management (INRMM). In particular, the list of keywords maps the semantic tags in the INRMM Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD). [\n] The INRMM-MiD records providing this list are accessible by the special tag: inrmm-list-of-tags ( ). ...


Monte Verde: seaweed, food, medicine, and the peopling of South America

Science, Vol. 320, No. 5877. (2008), pp. 784-786,


The identification of human artifacts at the early archaeological site of Monte Verde in southern Chile has raised questions of when and how people reached the tip of South America without leaving much other evidence in the New World. Remains of nine species of marine algae were recovered from hearths and other features at Monte Verde II, an upper occupational layer, and were directly dated between 14,220 and 13,980 calendar years before the present (~12,310 and 12,290 carbon-14 years ago). These ...


Reconstructing European forest management from 1600 to 2010

Biogeosciences, Vol. 12, No. 14. (23 July 2015), pp. 4291-4316,


Because of the slow accumulation and long residence time of carbon in biomass and soils, the present state and future dynamics of temperate forests are influenced by management that took place centuries to millennia ago. Humans have exploited the forests of Europe for fuel, construction materials and fodder for the entire Holocene. In recent centuries, economic and demographic trends led to increases in both forest area and management intensity across much of Europe. In order to quantify the effects of these changes in forests and to provide a baseline for ...


Europe’s forest management did not mitigate climate warming

Science, Vol. 351, No. 6273. (2016), pp. 597-600,


[Europe's managed forests contribute to warming] For most of the past 250 years, surprisingly it seems that Europe's managed forests have been a net source of carbon, contributing to climate warming rather than mitigating it. Naudts et al. reconstructed the history of forest management in Europe in the context of a land-atmosphere model. The release of carbon otherwise stored in litter, dead wood, and soil carbon pools in managed forests was one key factor contributing to climate warming. Second, the conversion of ...


The Holocene spread of spruce in Scandinavia



The Holocene spread of Picea abies in Scandinavia provides an excellent opportunity for detailed study of the dynamics of tree spread and population expansion. Early- and mid-Holocene macrofossil evidence for the presence of Picea abies in Scandinavia has questioned traditional interpretations of the timing and direction of its spread. This study aims to determine the pattern of the spread of Picea abies in Scandinavia from pollen and other data, to evaluate the significance of possible early outpost populations and to deduce ...


Strong upslope shifts in Chimborazo's vegetation over two centuries since Humboldt

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (14 September 2015), 201509938,


[Significance] Tropical regions harbor the majority of the world’s biodiversity, but there is debate about whether montane species here are able to track global warming at the same rate as in temperate regions. By following in Humboldt's footsteps and revisiting his pioneering documentation of vegetation elevation ranges, we show that the limit of plant growth has already been strongly pushed upslope. Although the rate of plant range shifts matches that found in other studies, the total magnitude of change in vegetation and ...

Visual summary


Mapping tree density at a global scale

Nature, Vol. 525, No. 7568. (10 September 2015), pp. 201-205,


The global extent and distribution of forest trees is central to our understanding of the terrestrial biosphere. We provide the first spatially continuous map of forest tree density at a global scale. This map reveals that the global number of trees is approximately 3.04 trillion, an order of magnitude higher than the previous estimate. Of these trees, approximately 1.39 trillion exist in tropical and subtropical forests, with 0.74 trillion in boreal regions and 0.61 trillion in temperate regions. Biome-level trends in ...

Visual summary


La palafitta del lago di Ledro nel Trentino: gli scavi e la stratigrafia, il contenuto del deposito antropozoico, la metallurgia e la cronologiadell'abitato palafitticolo

Vol. 7 (1943)


63 p., 26 c. di tav. (3 ripieg.) ill. 31 cm ...


The evolutionary history of Fagus in western Eurasia: Evidence from genes, morphology and the fossil record

Plant Systematics and Evolution, Vol. 232, No. 3-4. (2002), pp. 213-236,


Fagus (beech) is among the most abundant and economically important genera of broad-leaved trees in northern hemisphere temperate forests. The number of modern taxa present in Europe and Asia Minor has long been a matter of debate and up to five species have been recognised. To resolve taxonomic and phylogenetic relationships we conducted morphological and molecular genetic analyses in western Eurasiatic taxa and evaluated palaeontological evidence. To place our findings from western Eurasiatic populations in a broader context additional East Asiatic ...


A palaeoecological attempt to classify fire sensitivity of trees in the Southern Alps

The Holocene, Vol. 10, No. 5. (2000), pp. 565-574


Using pollen percentages and charcoal influx to reconstruct the Holocene vegetation and fire history, we differentiate six possible responses of plants to fire of medium and high frequency: fire-intolerant, fire damaged, fire-sensitive, fire-indifferent, fire-enhanced and fire-adapted. The fire sensitivity of 17 pollen types, representing 20 woody species in the southern Alps, is validated by comparison with today's ecological studies of plant chronosequences. A surprising coincidence of species reaction to fire of medium frequency is character istic for completely different vegetation types, ...


Terres de castanide. Homme et paysage du châtaignier de l’Antiquité à nos jours



De tous ceux qui peuplent nos pays, le châtaignier est certainement le moins " naturel " des arbres. Sa culture a sans doute Ré imaginée dans le Caucase et a gagné pendant l'Antiquité l'Europe occidentale où il poussait déjà à l'état sauvage. Grâce à une sélection méthodique de ses meilleures variétés, il a été littéralement " domestiqué " à la fin du Moyen Age et à l'époque moderne. Consommés sous diverses formes, ses fruits _ d'une grande valeur nutritive _ compensèrent ...


History, Present Situation and Perspective of Chestnut Cultivation in Europe

Acta Horticulturae, Vol. 784 (2008), pp. 23-27


This paper gives a short overview on the history of the chestnut cultivation in Europe: presumed quaternary refugia, origin of the chestnut cultivation, driving factors of its diffusion on a continental scale, causes of the decline and future perspective of the European chestnut culture. ...


The cultivation of Castanea sativa (Mill.) in Europe, from its origin to its diffusion on a continental scale

Vegetation History and Archaeobotany In Vegetation History and Archaeobotany, Vol. 13, No. 3. (2004), pp. 161-179,


The history of Castanea sativa (sweet chestnut) cultivation since medieval times has been well described on the basis of the very rich documentation available. Far fewer attempts have been made to give a historical synthesis of the events that led to the cultivation of sweet chestnut in much earlier times. In this article we attempt to reconstruct this part of the European history of chestnut cultivation and its early diffusion by use of different sources of information, such as pollen studies, ...


The origins of the domestication of the olive tree

Comptes Rendus Biologies, Vol. 332, No. 12. (05 December 2009), pp. 1059-1064,


The present diversity of the olive (crop) and oleaster (wild) tree was investigated with nuclear and cytoplasm markers. Patterns of diversity of the wild form inferred eleven ancestral populations in the East and the West of the Mediterranean basin. Patterns of diversity for cultivars are less clear, but we showed that cultivars admixed to nine groups that corresponded to oleaster ancestral populations. We inferred that nine domestication events took place in the olive, but these origins were blurred by gene flow ...


Appearance of Olives in Submerged Neolithic Sites Along the Carmel Coast

Mitekufat Haeven: Journal of the Israel Prehistoric Society, Vol. 22 (1989), pp. 95-97

Domestication of Plants in the Old World



The origin of agriculture is one of the defining events of human history. Some 11-10,000 years ago bands of hunter-gatherers started to abandon their high-mobility lifestyles in favour of growing crops, and the creation of settled, sedentary communities. This shift into agricultural lifestyle triggered the evolution of complex political and economic structures, and technological developments, and ultimately underpinned the rise of all the great civilisations of recent human history. ...


Olea europaea L. A Botanical Contribution to Culture

American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural & Environmental Science, Vol. 2, No. 4. (2007), pp. 382-387


One of the oldest known cultivated plant species is Olea europaea L., the olive tree. The wild olive tree is an evergreen, long-lived species, wide-spread as a native plant in the Mediterranean province. 'This sacred tree of the goddess Athena is intimately linked with the civilizations which developed around the shores of the Mediterranean and makes a starling point for mythological and symbolic fonns, as well as for tradition, cultivation, diet, health and culture. In modern times, the olive has spread ...


Placing unprecedented recent fir growth in a European-wide and Holocene-long context

Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, Vol. 12, No. 2. (March 2014), pp. 100-106,


Forest decline played a pivotal role in motivating Europe's political focus on sustainability around 35 years ago. Silver fir (Abies alba) exhibited a particularly severe dieback in the mid-1970s, but disentangling biotic from abiotic drivers remained challenging because both spatial and temporal data were lacking. Here, we analyze 14 136 samples from living trees and historical timbers, together with 356 pollen records, to evaluate recent fir growth from a continent-wide and Holocene-long perspective. Land use and climate change influenced forest growth ...


Historical notes on hazelnut in Oregon

Acta Horticulturae, Vol. 556 (2001), pp. 25-28


Since the glacial age, Corylus L., the hazelnut (filbert), has provided food for indigenous peoples throughout the Northern Hemisphere. Corylus cornuta var. californica (A. D.C.) W.M. Sharp, native throughout Oregon and California, was eaten by Indian tribes and was bartered to explorers such as Lewis and Clark, in 1805, and botanist David Douglas, in 1825, during their journeys in this territory. Shortly after 1847, Henderson Lewelling, an early Oregon nurseryman, first imported C. avellana ‘Cob’ filbert nuts from England and ‘Red ...


Early human impact (5000-3000 BC) affects mountain forest dynamics in the Alps

Journal of Ecology, Vol. 103, No. 2. (1 March 2015), pp. 281-295,


[Summary] [::] The resilience, diversity and stability of mountain ecosystems are threatened by climatic as well as land-use changes, but the combined effects of these drivers are only poorly understood. [::] We combine two high-resolution sediment records from Iffigsee (2065 m a.s.l.) and Lauenensee (1382 m a.s.l.) at different elevations in the Northern Swiss Alps to provide a detailed history of vegetational changes during the period of first pastoralism (ca. 7000–5000 cal. BP, 5000–3000 BC) in order to understand ongoing and future changes ...


Reversals of national fortune, and social science methodologies

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 111, No. 50. (16 December 2014), pp. 17709-17714,


Among non-European regions colonized by Europeans, regions that were relatively richer five centuries ago (like Mexico, Peru, and India) tend to be poorer today, while regions that originally were relatively poorer (like the United States, Chile, and Australia) tend now to be richer. Acemoglu, Johnson, and Robinson (abbreviated AJR) established the generality of this reversal of fortune. Chanda, Cook, and Putterman (abbreviated CCP) have now reanalyzed it, taking as a unit of analysis populations rather than geographic regions. That is, India's ...


Genetic differentiation of oak populations within the Quercus robur/Quercus petraea complex in Central and Eastern Europe

Heredity, Vol. 86, No. 5. (01 May 2001), pp. 557-563,


Genetic structure of 25 indigenous populations of sessile and pedunculate oaks (Quercus petraea and Q. robur), originating from three geographical regions: Slovakia, Bulgaria and the Republic Mari-El (Russia), was investigated using isozyme markers. Mean number of alleles per locus ranged between 1.8 and 2.6 in Q. robur populations and from 2.0 to 3.0 in Q. petraea populations; slightly higher expected heterozygosity values were found in Q. robur compared to Q. petraea. One locus, coding for a substrate-nonspecific dehydrogenase, differentiated the two ...


The beginning of olive (olea europaea) cultivation in the old world: A reassessment

Journal of Archaeological Science, Vol. 18, No. 4. (July 1991), pp. 441-453,


The olive was one of the first fruit trees cultivated by man. It has been claimed that cultivation of the olive began in Israel during the Chalcolithic Period. Careful botanical examination of pollen grains, stones and wood remains gathered from living trees and from archaeological contexts show that it is impossible to distinguish between wild and cultivated olives. The ample remnants of olive found in archaeological contexts, together with other finds, such as pottery vessels, oil lamps, and olive oil installations, ...


Obituary: Sandy Island (1876-2012)

Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union, Vol. 94, No. 15. (09 April 2013), pp. 141-142,


In October 2012, scientists investigating the tectonic evolution of the eastern Coral Sea aboard the R/V Southern Surveyor uncovered a quirky discrepancy in maps of seafloor topography during their 25-day voyage. While on a transit leg between dredge sites, the ship passed near a purported island between the Chesterfield Islands and Nereus Reef that appeared in numerous scientific data sets and in Google Earth™ with the label “Sandy Island.” However, this 25-kilometer-long and 5-kilometer-wide feature was absent from the hydrographic charts ...


A 7000 yr perspective on volcanic ash clouds affecting northern Europe

Geology, Vol. 39, No. 9. (05 August 2011), pp. 887-890,


The ash cloud resulting from the A.D. 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in Iceland caused severe disruption to air travel across Europe, but as a geological event it is not unprecedented. Analysis of peats and lake sediments from northern Europe has revealed the presence of microscopic layers of Icelandic volcanic ash (tephra). These sedimentary records, together with historical records of Holocene ash falls, demonstrate that Icelandic volcanoes have generated substantial ash clouds that reached northern Europe many times. Here we present the ...


A case study of forest change in the Swiss lowlands

Landscape Ecology In Landscape Ecology, Vol. 14, No. 6. (1999), pp. 567-576,


This paper presents a regional case study of forest development and the history of forest use and management in the north-eastern lowlands of Switzerland during the 19th and 20th centuries. The analysis draws on historical documents related to forestry to consider the following aspects of forest change: forest types, growing stock, trees species composition and non-timber forest uses. Based on the data presented, three overlapping periods of forest use and management can be discerned. The ‘period of traditional multiple use’ lasted ...


The ancient roots of the 1%

Science, Vol. 344, No. 6186. (23 May 2014), pp. 822-825,


Researchers long blamed farming for the rise of inequality. They hypothesized that agriculture led to the production of surpluses and elites who controlled those surpluses. Now, archaeological and ethnographic analyses suggest that some ancient hunter-gatherers may have accumulated wealth by taking control of concentrated patches of wild foods. In this view, it is the ownership of small, resource-rich areas—rather than farming itself—that fosters inequality. ...

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Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD).
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