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Selection: with tag high-impact-publication [36 articles] 


Statistical modeling: the two cultures (with comments and a rejoinder by the author)

Statistical Science, Vol. 16, No. 3. (August 2001), pp. 199-231,


There are two cultures in the use of statistical modeling to reach conclusions from data. One assumes that the data are generated by a given stochastic data model. The other uses algorithmic models and treats the data mechanism as unknown. The statistical community has been committed to the almost exclusive use of data models. This commitment has led to irrelevant theory, questionable conclusions, and has kept statisticians from working on a large range of interesting current problems. Algorithmic modeling, both in ...


Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification

Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, Vol. 11, No. 5. (11 October 2007), pp. 1633-1644,


Although now over 100 years old, the classification of climate originally formulated by Wladimir Köppen and modified by his collaborators and successors, is still in widespread use. It is widely used in teaching school and undergraduate courses on climate. It is also still in regular use by researchers across a range of disciplines as a basis for climatic regionalisation of variables and for assessing the output of global climate models. Here we have produced a new global map of climate using ...


Regulation and stability of host-parasite population interactions: I - Regulatory processes

Journal of Animal Ecology, Vol. 47, No. 1. (February 1978), pp. 219-247,


[::1] Several models describing the dynamics of host-parasite associations are discussed. [::2] The models contain the central assumption that the parasite increases the rate of host mortalities. The parasite induced changes in this rate are formulated as functions of the parasite numbers per host and hence of the statistical distribution of the parasites within the host population. [::3] The parameters influencing the ability of the parasite to regulate the growth of its host's population, and the stability of parasite induced equilibria, ...


Fluctuations of animal populations and a measure of community stability

Ecology, Vol. 36, No. 3. (1 July 1955), pp. 533-536,


[Excerpt] Three assumptions will be made and a conclusion will be deduced from these. Since the conclusion is not always correct, it mill be justifiable to conclude that one or more of the assumptions is responsible. First, temporarily assume that the amount of energy entering the community (at the lowest trophic level, of course) does not vary with time. Second, assume that the length of time that energy is retained by a species before being passed on to the next doesn't change ...


Community diversity: relative roles of local and regional processes

Science, Vol. 235, No. 4785. (09 January 1987), pp. 167-171,


The species richness (diversity) of local plant and animal assemblages--biological communities--balances regional processes of species formation and geographic dispersal, which add species to communities, against processes of predation, competitive exclusion, adaptation, and stochastic variation, which may promote local extinction. During the past three decades, ecologists have sought to explain differences in local diversity by the influence of the physical environment on local interactions among species, interactions that are generally believed to limit the number of coexisting species. But diversity of the ...


The population dynamics of microparasites and their invertebrate hosts

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, Vol. 291, No. 1054. (27 April 1981), pp. 451-524,


We show how directly transmitted microparasites, broadly defined to include viruses, bacteria, protozoans and fungi, may regulate natural populations of invertebrate hosts. The study combines elements of conventional epidemiology (where the host population is assumed constant) with elements of prey-predator studies (which conventionally emphasize how prey and predator populations may be regulated by their interaction). To this end, we construct simple models embodying the essentials of the dynamical interaction between invertebrate hosts and their directly transmitted microparasites. In successive refinements, these ...


Risks of population extinction from demographic and environmental stochasticity and random catastrophes

The American Naturalist, Vol. 142, No. 6. (1 December 1993), pp. 911-927,


Stochastic factors affecting the demography of a single population are analyzed to determine the relative risks of extinction from demographic stochasticity, environmental stochasticity, and random catastrophes. Relative risks are assessed by comparing asymptotic scaling relationships describing how the average time to extinction, T, increases with the carrying capacity of a population, K, under each stochastic factor alone. Stochastic factors are added to a simple model of exponential growth up to K. A critical parameter affecting the extinction dynamics is the ...


An overview of CMIP5 and the experiment design

Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Vol. 93, No. 4. (7 October 2011), pp. 485-498,


The fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) will produce a state-of-the- art multimodel dataset designed to advance our knowledge of climate variability and climate change. Researchers worldwide are analyzing the model output and will produce results likely to underlie the forthcoming Fifth Assessment Report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Unprecedented in scale and attracting interest from all major climate modeling groups, CMIP5 includes “long term” simulations of twentieth-century climate and projections for the twenty-first century and ...


Effects of invasive alien plants on fire regimes

BioScience, Vol. 54, No. 7. (2004), pp. 677-688,[0677:eoiapo];2


Plant invasions are widely recognized as significant threats to biodiversity conservation worldwide. One way invasions can affect native ecosystems is by changing fuel properties, which can in turn affect fire behavior and, ultimately, alter fire regime characteristics such as frequency, intensity, extent, type, and seasonality of fire. If the regime changes subsequently promote the dominance of the invaders, then an invasive plant–fire regime cycle can be established. As more ecosystem components and interactions are altered, restoration of preinvasion conditions becomes more ...


The politics of environmental discourse: ecological modernization and the policy process

In The Politics of Environmental Discourse (18 September 1997),


The book identifies the emergence and increasing political importance of ‘ecological modernization’ as a new language in environmental politics. In this conceptual language, environmental management appears as a ‘positive sum game’. Combining social theory with detailed empirical analysis, the book illustrates the social and political dynamics of ecological modernization through a study of the acid rain controversies in Great Britain and the Netherlands. The book concludes with a reflection on the institutional challenge of environmental politics in the years to come. ...


The metacommunity concept: a framework for multi-scale community ecology

Ecology Letters, Vol. 7, No. 7. (04 June 2004), pp. 601-613,


The metacommunity concept is an important way to think about linkages between different spatial scales in ecology. Here we review current understanding about this concept. We first investigate issues related to its definition as a set of local communities that are linked by dispersal of multiple potentially interacting species. We then identify four paradigms for metacommunities: the patch-dynamic view, the species-sorting view, the mass effects view and the neutral view, that each emphasizes different processes of potential importance in metacommunities. These ...


Warming and earlier spring increase western U.S. forest wildfire activity

Science, Vol. 313, No. 5789. (18 August 2006), pp. 940-943,


Western United States forest wildfire activity is widely thought to have increased in recent decades, yet neither the extent of recent changes nor the degree to which climate may be driving regional changes in wildfire has been systematically documented. Much of the public and scientific discussion of changes in western United States wildfire has focused instead on the effects of 19th- and 20th-century land-use history. We compiled a comprehensive database of large wildfires in western United States forests since 1970 and ...


Climate Change 2007: the physical science basis - Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change



[Excerpt: Preface] This Working Group I contribution to the IPCC’s Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) provides a comprehensive assessment of the physical science of climate change and continues to broaden the view of that science, following on from previous Working Group I assessments. The results presented here are based on the extensive scientific literature that has become available since completion of the IPCC’s Third Assessment Report, together with expanded data sets, new analyses, and more sophisticated climate modelling capabilities. [\n] This report has been prepared in accordance with rules and procedures ...


Random forests

Machine Learning, Vol. 45, No. 1. (2001), pp. 5-32,


Random forests are a combination of tree predictors such that each tree depends on the values of a random vector sampled independently and with the same distribution for all trees in the forest. The generalization error for forests converges a.s. to a limit as the number of trees in the forest becomes large. The generalization error of a forest of tree classifiers depends on the strength of the individual trees in the forest and the correlation between them. Using a random ...


LINPACK: users' guide



[Excerpt:Table of Contents] "R.T.F.M." - Anonymous [\n] [...] [Overview] LIMPACK is a collection of Fortran subroutines which analyze and solve various systems of simultaneous linear algebraic equations. The subroutines are designed to be completely machine independent, fully portable, and to run at near optimum efficiency in most operating environments. [\n] Many of the subroutines deal with square coefficient matrices, where there are as many equations as unknowns. Some of the subroutines process rectangular coefficient matrices, where the system may be over- or underdetermined. Such systems ...


Effects of habitat fragmentation on biodiversity

Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, Vol. 34, No. 1. (2003), pp. 487-515,


The literature on effects of habitat fragmentation on biodiversity is huge. It is also very diverse, with different authors measuring fragmentation in different ways and, as a consequence, drawing different conclusions regarding both the magnitude and direction of its effects. Habitat fragmentation is usually defined as a landscape-scale process involving both habitat loss and the breaking apart of habitat. Results of empirical studies of habitat fragmentation are often difficult to interpret because (a) many researchers measure fragmentation at the patch scale, ...


The Global 200: a representation approach to conserving the Earth's most biologically valuable ecoregions

Conservation Biology, Vol. 12, No. 3. (17 June 1998), pp. 502-515,


[Excerpt] [\n] [...] The Global 200 is an effective tool for [::(1)] targeting distinctive biogeographic units of biodiversity and [::(2)] promoting ecosystem-level representation at global scales. [\n] The Global 200 broadens the goals of conservation from a primary focus on preserving species diversity to an encompassing view of habitat diversity, ecological processes, evolutionary phenomena, and adaptations of species to different environmental conditions around the world. In some cases, it also distinguishes representative ecoregions that are more intact than others, highlighting the best opportunities for long-term conservation. [\n] Like any effort to set priorities, the Global 200 cannot address all aspects of biodiversity ...


The relationship of drought frequency and duration to time scales

In Eighth Conference on Applied Climatology (January 1993)


[Excerpt: Introduction] The definition of drought has continually been a stumbling block for drought monitoring and analysis. Wilhite and Glantz (1985) completed a thorough review of dozens of drought definitions and identified six overall categories: meteorological, climatological, atmospheric, agricultural, hydrologic and water management. Dracup et al. (1980) also reviewed definitions. All points of view seem to agree that drought is a condition of insufficient moisture caused by a deficit in precipitation over some time period. Difficulties are primarily related to the time period over which deficits accumulate and to the connection of the deficit in precipitation to deficits in usable ...


(INRMM-MiD internal record) List of keywords of the INRMM meta-information database - part 16

(February 2014)
Keywords: growth-rates   growth-responses   growth-trends   growth-variability   growth-yield   guajacum-officinale   guajacum-sanctum   guidos-mspa   gvsig   gymmocladus-spp   gymnospermae   gypsonoma-aceriana   gypsonoma-haimbachiana   h-index   habitat   habitat-area   habitat-availability   habitat-classification   habitat-conservation   habitat-description   habitat-suitability   hadgem2-ao   haematoxylum-campechianum   hagenia-abyssinica   haiti   half-sib-families   hamamelis-spp   handbook   handicraft   hardiness   hardware   hardwood   heat-storage   heat-transfer   heating   heatwaves   heavy-metal   heavy-metals   hedera-helix   hedera-spp   height-differentiation   height-growth   helianthus-spp   helianthus-tuberosus   hellenica   hellinger-distance   hemiptera   herbal-medicines   herbicide-control   herbivory   herbivory-impact   herpotrichia-juniperi   heterobasidion   heterobasidion-abietinum   heterobasidion-annosum   heterobasidion-parviporum   heuristics   hevea-brasiliensis   hibiscus-elatus   hibiscus-tiliaceus   hidden-goal   hidden-knowledge   high-impact-publication   high-resolution-data   hill-slope-curvature   hillslope   hilly-areas   himalayan-region   hippophae-rhamnoides   histamine-release   historical-perspective   history   holocene   homeostasis   homogenous-spatial-units   homonyms   honey   honey-production   honeydew   honeydew-honey   hopea-odorata   horticulture   host   host-chemistry   host-defense   host-plant   host-range   host-resistance   host-taxonomy   hotspot   human-behaviour   human-centered-automation   human-diseases   human-health   human-impact   human-influence   human-machine-interface   human-refuge   humboldt   inrmm-list-of-tags  


List of indexed keywords within the transdisciplinary set of domains which relate to the Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management (INRMM). In particular, the list of keywords maps the semantic tags in the INRMM Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD). [\n] The INRMM-MiD records providing this list are accessible by the special tag: inrmm-list-of-tags ( ). ...


The representative concentration pathways: an overview

Climatic Change In Climatic Change, Vol. 109, No. 1-2. (1 November 2011), pp. 5-31,


This paper summarizes the development process and main characteristics of the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs), a set of four new pathways developed for the climate modeling community as a basis for long-term and near-term modeling experiments. The four RCPs together span the range of year 2100 radiative forcing values found in the open literature, i.e. from 2.6 to 8.5 W/m 2 . The RCPs are the product of an innovative collaboration between integrated assessment modelers, climate modelers, terrestrial ecosystem modelers and ...


Two-Person Cooperative Games

Econometrica, Vol. 21, No. 1. (1953), pp. 128-140,


In this paper, the author extends his previous treatment of 'The Bargaining Problem" to a wider class of situations in which threats can play a role. A new approach is introduced involving the elaboration of the threat concept. [Introduction] The theory presented here was developed to treat economic (or other) situations involving two individuals whose interests are neither completely opposed nor completely coincident. The word cooperative is used because the two individuals are supposed to be able to discuss the situation ...


Self-stabilization in spite of distributed control

In Selected Writings on Computing: A personal Perspective (1982), pp. 41-46,


A systematic way for finding the algorithm ensuring some desired form of co-operation between a set of loosely coupled sequential processes can in general terms be described as follows: the relation “the system is in a legitimate state” is kept invariant. As a consequence, each intended individual process step that could possibly cause violation of that invariant relation has to be preceded by a test that it won’t do so, and depending on the outcome of that test the critical process ...


The shuttle radar topography mission—a new class of digital elevation models acquired by spaceborne radar

ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Vol. 57, No. 4. (February 2003), pp. 241-262,


For 11 days in February 2000, the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) successfully recorded by interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data of the entire land mass of the earth between 60[degree sign]N and 57[degree sign]S. The data acquired in C- and X-bands are processed into the first global digital elevation models (DEMs) at 1 arc sec resolution, by NASA-JPL and German aerospace center (DLR), respectively. From the perspective of the SRTM-X system, we give in this paper an overview of the ...


Nonlinear Component Analysis as a Kernel Eigenvalue Problem

Neural Computation In Neural Computation, Vol. 10, No. 5. (1 July 1998), pp. 1299-1319,


A new method for performing a nonlinear form of principal component analysis is proposed. By the use of integral operator kernel functions, one can efficiently compute principal components in high-dimensional feature spaces, related to input space by some nonlinear map - for instance, the space of all possible five-pixel products in 16 x 16 images. We give the derivation of the method and present experimental results on polynomial feature extraction for pattern recognition. A new method for performing a nonlinear form ...


Predicting rainfall erosion losses - a guide to conservation planning

Vol. 537 (1978)


Scientific planning for soil and water conservation requires knowledge of the relations between those factors that cause loss of soil and water and those that help to reduce such losses. The soil loss prediction procedure presented in this handbook provides specific guidelines which are needed for selecting the control practices best suited to the particular needs of each site. The procedure is founded on an empirical soil loss equation that is believed to be applicable wherever numerical values of it factors ...


The question concerning technology, and other essays



[Excerpt] Modern man as scientist, through the prescribed procedures of experiment, inquires of nature to learn more and more about it. But in so doing he does not relate himself to nature as the Greek related himself to the multitudinous presencing of everything that met him spontaneously at every turn. He does not relate to nature in the openness of immediate response. For the scientist's "nature" is in fact, Heidegger says, a human construction. Science strikingly manifests the way in which modern man as subject represents reality. The modern ...


Impact of regional climate change on human health

Nature, Vol. 438, No. 7066. (17 November 2005), pp. 310-317,


The World Health Organisation estimates that the warming and precipitation trends due to anthropogenic climate change of the past 30 years already claim over 150,000 lives annually. Many prevalent human diseases are linked to climate fluctuations, from cardiovascular mortality and respiratory illnesses due to heatwaves, to altered transmission of infectious diseases and malnutrition from crop failures. Uncertainty remains in attributing the expansion or resurgence of diseases to climate change, owing to lack of long-term, high-quality data sets as well as the large ...

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No free lunch theorems for optimization

Evolutionary Computation, IEEE Transactions on, Vol. 1, No. 1. (06 April 1997), pp. 67-82,


A framework is developed to explore the connection between effective optimization algorithms and the problems they are solving. A number of “no free lunch” (NFL) theorems are presented which establish that for any algorithm, any elevated performance over one class of problems is offset by performance over another class. These theorems result in a geometric interpretation of what it means for an algorithm to be well suited to an optimization problem. Applications of the NFL theorems to information-theoretic aspects of optimization ...


Quantifying biodiversity: procedures and pitfalls in the measurement and comparison of species richness

Ecology Letters, Vol. 4, No. 4. (22 July 2001), pp. 379-391,


Species richness is a fundamental measurement of community and regional diversity, and it underlies many ecological models and conservation strategies. In spite of its importance, ecologists have not always appreciated the effects of abundance and sampling effort on richness measures and comparisons. We survey a series of common pitfalls in quantifying and comparing taxon richness. These pitfalls can be largely avoided by using accumulation and rarefaction curves, which may be based on either individuals or samples. These taxon sampling curves contain ...


Global Biodiversity Scenarios for the Year 2100

Science, Vol. 287, No. 5459. (10 March 2000), pp. 1770-1774,


Scenarios of changes in biodiversity for the year 2100 can now be developed based on scenarios of changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide, climate, vegetation, and land use and the known sensitivity of biodiversity to these changes. This study identified a ranking of the importance of drivers of change, a ranking of the biomes with respect to expected changes, and the major sources of uncertainties. For terrestrial ecosystems, land-use change probably will have the largest effect, followed by climate change, nitrogen deposition, ...


A globally coherent fingerprint of climate change impacts across natural systems

Nature, Vol. 421, No. 6918. (2 January 2003), pp. 37-42,


Causal attribution of recent biological trends to climate change is complicated because non-climatic influences dominate local, short-term biological changes. Any underlying signal from climate change is likely to be revealed by analyses that seek systematic trends across diverse species and geographic regions; however, debates within the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reveal several definitions of a 'systematic trend'. Here, we explore these differences, apply diverse analyses to more than 1,700 species, and show that recent biological trends match climate change ...


Biotic invasions: causes, epidemiology, global consequences, and control

Ecological Applications, Vol. 10, No. 3. (June 2000), pp. 689-710,[0689:bicegc];2


Biotic invaders are species that establish a new range in which they proliferate, spread, and persist to the detriment of the environment. They are the most important ecological outcomes from the unprecedented alterations in the distribution of the earth's biota brought about largely through human transport and commerce. In a world without borders, few if any areas remain sheltered from these immigrations. The fate of immigrants is decidedly mixed. Few survive the hazards of chronic and stochastic forces, and only a small ...


Ecological responses to recent climate change

Nature, Vol. 416, No. 6879. (28 March 2002), pp. 389-395,


There is now ample evidence of the ecological impacts of recent climate change, from polar terrestrial to tropical marine environments. The responses of both flora and fauna span an array of ecosystems and organizational hierarchies, from the species to the community levels. Despite continued uncertainty as to community and ecosystem trajectories under global change, our review exposes a coherent pattern of ecological change across systems. Although we are only at an early stage in the projected trends of global warming, ecological ...


Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities

Nature, Vol. 403, No. 6772. (24 February 2000), pp. 853-858,


Conservationists are far from able to assist all species under threat, if only for lack of funding. This places a premium on priorities: how can we support the most species at the least cost? One way is to identify 'biodiversity hotspots' where exceptional concentrations of endemic species are undergoing exceptional loss of habitat. As many as 44% of all species of vascular plants and 35% of all species in four vertebrate groups are confined to 25 hotspots comprising only 1.4% of ...


False-positive psychology: undisclosed flexibility in data collection and analysis allows presenting anything as significant

Psychological Science, Vol. 22, No. 11. (01 November 2011), pp. 1359-1366,


In this article, we accomplish two things. First, we show that despite empirical psychologists’ nominal endorsement of a low rate of false-positive findings (≤ .05), flexibility in data collection, analysis, and reporting dramatically increases actual false-positive rates. In many cases, a researcher is more likely to falsely find evidence that an effect exists than to correctly find evidence that it does not. We present computer simulations and a pair of actual experiments that demonstrate how unacceptably easy it is to accumulate ...


A global overview of drought and heat-induced tree mortality reveals emerging climate change risks for forests

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 259, No. 4. (05 February 2010), pp. 660-684,


Greenhouse gas emissions have significantly altered global climate, and will continue to do so in the future. Increases in the frequency, duration, and/or severity of drought and heat stress associated with climate change could fundamentally alter the composition, structure, and biogeography of forests in many regions. Of particular concern are potential increases in tree mortality associated with climate-induced physiological stress and interactions with other climate-mediated processes such as insect outbreaks and wildfire. Despite this risk, existing projections of tree mortality are ...

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Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management - Meta-information Database.

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Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD).
This database integrates a dedicated meta-information database in CiteULike (the CiteULike INRMM Group) with the meta-information available in Google Scholar, CrossRef and DataCite. The Altmetric database with Article-Level Metrics is also harvested. Part of the provided semantic content (machine-readable) is made even human-readable thanks to the DCMI Dublin Core viewer. Digital preservation of the meta-information indexed within the INRMM-MiD publication records is implemented thanks to the Internet Archive.
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Full-text and abstracts of the publications indexed by the INRMM meta-information database are copyrighted by the respective publishers/authors. They are subject to all applicable copyright protection. The conditions of use of each indexed publication is defined by its copyright owner. Please, be aware that the indexed meta-information entirely relies on voluntary work and constitutes a quite incomplete and not homogeneous work-in-progress.
INRMM-MiD was experimentally established by the Maieutike Research Initiative in 2008 and then improved with the help of several volunteers (with a major technical upgrade in 2011). This new integrated interface is operational since 2014.