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Selection: with tag heatwaves [29 articles] 


Large wildland fires and extreme temperatures in Sardinia (Italy)

iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry, Vol. 7, No. 3. (02 June 2014), pp. 162-169,


Heat-wave events are commonly recognized as adverse impacts on agriculture, forests, and economic activities. Several studies showed that future climate changes in the western Mediterranean Basin will lead to an increase in extreme weather events, mainly in the summer season. For this reason, it is crucial to improve our knowledge and investigate the effects of extreme temperature events on wildland fire activity. This work analyses the relation between high temperature days (air temperature higher than 25°C at 850hPa) and large wildland ...


The exceptionally hot summer of 2007 in Athens, Greece — A typical summer in the future climate?

Global and Planetary Change, Vol. 67, No. 3-4. (June 2009), pp. 227-236,


Summer 2007 was abnormally warm for many areas of southeastern Europe, the Balkan peninsula and parts of Asia Minor with departures from the seasonal means exceeding 4 °C in some areas but also distinct periods of extremely hot weather. Greece experienced very likely the warmest summer of its instrumental history with record breaking temperatures being observed at a number of stations. The historical air temperature record of the National Observatory of Athens (NOA), extending back to the 19th century, was used in ...


Global risk of deadly heat

Nature Climate Change, Vol. 7, No. 7. (19 June 2017), pp. 501-506,


Climate change can increase the risk of conditions that exceed human thermoregulatory capacity. Although numerous studies report increased mortality associated with extreme heat events, quantifying the global risk of heat-related mortality remains challenging due to a lack of comparable data on heat-related deaths. Here we conducted a global analysis of documented lethal heat events to identify the climatic conditions associated with human death and then quantified the current and projected occurrence of such deadly climatic conditions worldwide. We reviewed papers published ...


Annex III: glossary

In Climate Change 2013: the physical science basis - Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2013), pp. 1447-1465


[Excerpt] This glossary defines some specific terms as the Lead Authors intend them to be interpreted in the context of this report. Red, italicized words indicate that the term is defined in the Glossary. [\n] [...] ...


Impacts of temperature extremes

In Report of Workshop on the Social and Economic Impacts of Weather (1997)


Extremes of heat and cold have a broad and far-reaching set of impacts on the nation. These include significant loss of life and illness, economic costs in transportation, agriculture, production, energy and infrastructure. The 1976 - 1977 winter freeze and drought is estimated to have cost $36.6 billion in 1980 dollars. In 1980 the nation saw a devastating heat wave and drought that claimed at least 1700 lives and had estimated economic costs $15 - $19 billion in 1980 dollars. While ...


Long-term changes in extreme air pollution meteorology and the implications for air quality

Scientific Reports, Vol. 6, No. 23792. (2016)


Extreme air pollution meteorological events, such as heat waves, temperature inversions and atmospheric stagnation episodes, can significantly affect air quality. Based on observational data, we have analyzed the long-term evolution of extreme air pollution meteorology on the global scale and their potential impacts on air quality, especially the high pollution episodes. We have identified significant increasing trends for the occurrences of extreme air pollution meteorological events in the past six decades, especially over the continental regions. Statistical analysis combining air ...


Terrestrial ecosystems, soil and forests

In Climate change, impacts and vulnerability in Europe 2016 - An indicator-based report, Vol. 1/2017 (January 2017), pp. 153-182,


[Excerpt: Key messages] [::] Observed climate change has had many impacts on terrestrial ecosystems, such as changes in soil conditions, advances in phenological stages, altitudinal and latitudinal migration of plant and animal species (generally northwards and upwards), and changes in species interactions and species composition in communities, including local extinctions. [::] The relative importance of climate change as a major driver of biodiversity and ecosystem change is projected to increase further in the future. In addition to climate change, human efforts to mitigate and adapt to ...


  1. Alkemade, R., Bakkenes, M., Eickhout, B., 2011. Towards a general relationship between climate change and biodiversity: An example for plant species in Europe. Regional Environmental Change 11, 143–150. .
  2. Allen, C. D., Macalady, A. K., Chenchouni, H., Bachelet, D., McDowell, N., Vennetier, M., Kitzberger, T., Rigling, A., Breshears, D. D., Hogg, E. H. (Ted), Gonzalez, P., Fensham, R., Zhang, Z., Castro, J., Demidova, N., Lim, J.-H., Allard, G., Running, S. W., Semerci, A.,

Executive summary

In Climate change, impacts and vulnerability in Europe 2016 - An indicator-based report, Vol. 1/2017 (January 2017), pp. 12-30,


[Excerpt: Key messages] [::] All of the key findings from the 2012 European Environment Agency (EEA) report on climate change, impacts and vulnerability in Europe are still valid. [::] Climate change is continuing globally and in Europe. Land and sea temperatures are increasing; precipitation patterns are changing, generally making wet regions in Europe wetter, particularly in winter, and dry regions drier, particularly in summer; sea ice extent, glacier volume and snow cover are decreasing; sea levels are rising; and climate-related extremes such as heat waves, heavy precipitation ...


  1. Ciscar, J.-C., Feyen, L., Soria, A., Lavalle, C., Raes, F., Perry, M., Nemry, F., Demirel, H., Rozsai, M., Dosio, A., Donatelli, M., Srivastava, A. K., Fumagalli, D., Niemeyer, S., Shrestha, S., Ciaian, P., Himics, M., Van Doorslaer, B., Barrios, S., Ibáñez, N., Forzieri, G., Rojas, R., Bianchi, A., Dowling, P., Camia, A., Libertà, G., San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., de Rigo, D., Caudullo, G., Barredo, J. I., Paci, D., Pycroft, J., Saveyn, B., Van Regemorter, D., Revesz, T., Vandyck, T.,

Climate change, impacts and vulnerability in Europe 2016 - An indicator-based report

Vol. 1/2017 (January 2017),


[Excerpt: Executive summary] Key messages [::] All of the key findings from the 2012 European Environment Agency (EEA) report on climate change, impacts and vulnerability in Europe are still valid. [::] Climate change is continuing globally and in Europe. Land and sea temperatures are increasing; precipitation patterns are changing, generally making wet regions in Europe wetter, particularly in winter, and dry regions drier, particularly in summer; sea ice extent, glacier volume and snow cover are decreasing; sea levels are rising; and climate-related extremes such as heat waves, heavy ...


Climate-induced forest dieback: an escalating global phenomenon?

Unasylva, Vol. 60, No. 231-232. (2009), pp. 43-49


Forests, which today cover 30 percent of the world’s land surface (FAO, 2006), are being rapidly and directly transformed in many areas by the impacts of expanding human populations and economies. Less evident are the pervasive effects of ongoing climatic changes on the condition and status of forests around the world. Recent examples of drought and heat-related forest stress and dieback (defined here as tree mortality noticeably above usual mortality levels) are being documented from all forested continents, making it possible ...


Climate Change 2007: the physical science basis - Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change



[Excerpt: Preface] This Working Group I contribution to the IPCC’s Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) provides a comprehensive assessment of the physical science of climate change and continues to broaden the view of that science, following on from previous Working Group I assessments. The results presented here are based on the extensive scientific literature that has become available since completion of the IPCC’s Third Assessment Report, together with expanded data sets, new analyses, and more sophisticated climate modelling capabilities. [\n] This report has been prepared in accordance with rules and procedures ...


Magnitude of extreme heat waves in present climate and their projection in a warming world

J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., Vol. 119, No. 22. (27 November 2014), pp. 12,500-12,512,


An extreme heat wave occurred in Russia in the summer of 2010. It had serious impacts on humans and natural ecosystems, it was the strongest recorded globally in recent decades and exceeded in amplitude and spatial extent the previous hottest European summer in 2003. Earlier studies have not succeeded in comparing the magnitude of heat waves across continents and in time. This study introduces a new Heat Wave Magnitude Index that can be compared over space and time. The index is ...


On the relationships between forest fires and weather conditions in Greece from long-term national observations (1894-2010)

International Journal of Wildland Fire, Vol. 22, No. 4. (2013), 493,


Historical fire records and meteorological observations, spanning more than 1 century (1894–2010), were gathered and assembled in a database, to provide long-term fire–weather associations. We investigated the relationships between forest fire activity and meteorological parameters and sought to find temporal patterns and trends in these historical records and to identify any linkages between meteorological parameters and fire occurrence in the eastern Mediterranean region. Trend analysis of the time series revealed a statistically significant increase in the number of fires and air ...


Atmospheric conditions associated with the exceptional fire season of 2003 in Portugal

International Journal of Climatology, Vol. 26, No. 13. (15 November 2006), pp. 1741-1757,


The summer of 2003 was characterised by exceptional warm weather in Europe, particularly during the first two weeks of August, when a devastating sequence of large fires was observed, reaching an amount of circa 450 000 ha, the largest figure ever recorded in Portugal in modern times. They were concentrated in two relatively confined regions of Portugal and a considerable proportion of burnt area was due to fires started on the 2nd and 3rd of August. [\n] It is shown that the ...


A review of the European summer heat wave of 2003

Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 40, No. 4. (9 March 2010), pp. 267-306,


This paper reviews the European summer heat wave of 2003, with special emphasis on the first half of August 2003, jointly with its significant societal and environmental impact across Western and Central Europe. We show the pattern of record-breaking temperature anomalies, discuss it in the context of the past, and address the role of the main contributing factors responsible for the occurrence and persistence of this event: blocking episodes, soil moisture deficit, and sea surface temperatures. We show that the anticyclonic ...


The simulation of European heat waves from an ensemble of regional climate models within the EURO-CORDEX project

Climate Dynamics, Vol. 41, No. 9-10. (2013), pp. 2555-2575,

(INRMM-MiD internal record) List of keywords of the INRMM meta-information database - part 16

(February 2014)
Keywords: growth-rates   growth-responses   growth-trends   growth-variability   growth-yield   guajacum-officinale   guajacum-sanctum   guidos-mspa   gvsig   gymmocladus-spp   gymnospermae   gypsonoma-aceriana   gypsonoma-haimbachiana   h-index   habitat   habitat-area   habitat-availability   habitat-classification   habitat-conservation   habitat-description   habitat-suitability   hadgem2-ao   haematoxylum-campechianum   hagenia-abyssinica   haiti   half-sib-families   hamamelis-spp   handbook   handicraft   hardiness   hardware   hardwood   heat-storage   heat-transfer   heating   heatwaves   heavy-metal   heavy-metals   hedera-helix   hedera-spp   height-differentiation   height-growth   helianthus-spp   helianthus-tuberosus   hellenica   hellinger-distance   hemiptera   herbal-medicines   herbicide-control   herbivory   herbivory-impact   herpotrichia-juniperi   heterobasidion   heterobasidion-abietinum   heterobasidion-annosum   heterobasidion-parviporum   heuristics   hevea-brasiliensis   hibiscus-elatus   hibiscus-tiliaceus   hidden-goal   hidden-knowledge   high-impact-publication   high-resolution-data   hill-slope-curvature   hillslope   hilly-areas   himalayan-region   hippophae-rhamnoides   histamine-release   historical-perspective   history   holocene   homeostasis   homogenous-spatial-units   homonyms   honey   honey-production   honeydew   honeydew-honey   hopea-odorata   horticulture   host   host-chemistry   host-defense   host-plant   host-range   host-resistance   host-taxonomy   hotspot   human-behaviour   human-centered-automation   human-diseases   human-health   human-impact   human-influence   human-machine-interface   human-refuge   humboldt   inrmm-list-of-tags  


List of indexed keywords within the transdisciplinary set of domains which relate to the Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management (INRMM). In particular, the list of keywords maps the semantic tags in the INRMM Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD). [\n] The INRMM-MiD records providing this list are accessible by the special tag: inrmm-list-of-tags ( ). ...


More Intense, More Frequent, and Longer Lasting Heat Waves in the 21st Century

Science, Vol. 305, No. 5686. (13 August 2004), pp. 994-997,


A global coupled climate model shows that there is a distinct geographic pattern to future changes in heat waves. Model results for areas of Europe and North America, associated with the severe heat waves in Chicago in 1995 and Paris in 2003, show that future heat waves in these areas will become more intense, more frequent, and longer lasting in the second half of the 21st century. Observations and the model show that present-day heat waves over Europe and North America ...


Climate Change 2013: the physical science basis - Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change



[Excerpt: Preface] The Working Group I contribution to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) provides a comprehensive assessment of the physical science basis of climate change. It builds upon the Working Group I contribution to the IPCC’s Fourth Assessment Report in 2007 and incorporates subsequent new findings from the Special Report on Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation, as well as from research published in the extensive ...


Natural hazard chain research in China: A review

Natural Hazards In Natural Hazards, Vol. 70, No. 2. (2014), pp. 1631-1659,


Most catastrophic disasters are triggered by multi-hazards that occur simultaneously or sequentially rather than singly; this can result in more severe consequences. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the occurrence, development, and transformation of hazard chains and comprehend their rules in order to predict secondary hazards. An effective action for reducing potential losses can be taken to block a hazard chain before it expands and transforms. Many studies have been conducted on hazard chains, some of which are of great significance. ...


Beyond climatological extremes - assessing how the odds of hydrometeorological extreme events in South-East Europe change in a warming climate

Climatic Change In Climatic Change, Vol. 125, No. 3-4. (2014), pp. 381-398,


With record breaking heat waves, dryness, and floods in several parts of the world in recent years the question arises whether and to what extent the hazard of hydrometeorological extreme weather events has changed, and if changes can be attributed to specific causes. The methodology of probabilistic event attribution allows to evaluate such potential changes in the occurence probabilities of particular types of extreme events. We show that such a probabilistic assessment not only provides information on changing hazards in hydrometerological ...


The impacts of climate change on the risk of natural disasters

Disasters, Vol. 30, No. 1. (March 2006), pp. 5-18,


Human emissions of greenhouse gases are already changing our climate. This paper provides an overview of the relation between climate change and weather extremes, and examines three specific cases where recent acute events have stimulated debate on the potential role of climate change: the European heatwave of 2003; the risk of inland flooding, such as recently in Central Europe and Great Britain; and the harsh Atlantic hurricane seasons of 2004 and 2005. Furthermore, it briefly assesses the relation between climate change ...


State of Mediterranean forests 2013



[Abstract] Forest ecosystems and other wooded lands are an important component of landscapes in the Mediterranean region, contributing significantly to rural development, poverty alleviation and food security. They are sources of wood, cork, energy, food and incomes, and they provide important ecosystem services such as biodiversity conservation, soil and water protection, recreation and carbon storage. They are crucial for many of the region’s economic sectors, such as food supply, agriculture, soil and water conservation, drinking water supply, tourism and energy. The ...


Mechanism behind mega-heatwaves pinpointed



Two recent record hot spells traced to feedback loop between dry soils and trapped air. [Excerpt] The 'mega-heatwaves' that parched Europe in 2003 and Russia in 2010 were exacerbated by a vicious feedback loop between soil and atmosphere, researchers report today in Nature Geoscience1. Drying ground added more heat into air close to Earth's surface, a process that repeated over time to produce record-breaking warmth that shrivelled crops, set forests ablaze and claimed tens of thousands of lives. Without the extraordinarily dry ...


In new report, IPCC gets more specific about warming risks

Science, Vol. 344, No. 6179. (4 April 2014), pp. 21-21,


The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's (IPCC's) 31 March report on climate impacts and adaptation echoes many of the concerns raised by the last edition, issued in 2007. It says that climate change is already affecting human communities, agriculture, and natural ecosystems—and impacts are likely to grow in the future. But the report breaks with the past in drawing on an emerging body of social science to identify eight major risks posed by climate change, and to inform an extensive discussion ...


Climate sciences: Global heat waves on the rise

Nature, Vol. 500, No. 7463. (21 August 2013), pp. 380-380,


Heat waves will become more common by 2040. Climate models used by Dim Coumou of the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research in Germany and Alexander Robinson at the Complutense University of Madrid predict that about 20% of Earth's land surface will experience monthly temperatures that are more than three… ...


Climate extremes and the carbon cycle

Nature, Vol. 500, No. 7462. (14 August 2013), pp. 287-295,


The terrestrial biosphere is a key component of the global carbon cycle and its carbon balance is strongly influenced by climate. Continuing environmental changes are thought to increase global terrestrial carbon uptake. But evidence is mounting that climate extremes such as droughts or storms can lead to a decrease in regional ecosystem carbon stocks and therefore have the potential to negate an expected increase in terrestrial carbon uptake. Here we explore the mechanisms and impacts of climate extremes on the terrestrial ...


A global overview of drought and heat-induced tree mortality reveals emerging climate change risks for forests

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 259, No. 4. (05 February 2010), pp. 660-684,


Greenhouse gas emissions have significantly altered global climate, and will continue to do so in the future. Increases in the frequency, duration, and/or severity of drought and heat stress associated with climate change could fundamentally alter the composition, structure, and biogeography of forests in many regions. Of particular concern are potential increases in tree mortality associated with climate-induced physiological stress and interactions with other climate-mediated processes such as insect outbreaks and wildfire. Despite this risk, existing projections of tree mortality are ...

Visual summary


Europe-wide reduction in primary productivity caused by the heat and drought in 2003

Nature, Vol. 437, No. 7058. (22 September 2005), pp. 529-533,


Future climate warming is expected to enhance plant growth in temperate ecosystems and to increase carbon sequestration1, 2. But although severe regional heatwaves may become more frequent in a changing climate3, 4, their impact on terrestrial carbon cycling is unclear. Here we report measurements of ecosystem carbon dioxide fluxes, remotely sensed radiation absorbed by plants, and country-level crop yields taken during the European heatwave in 2003. We use a terrestrial biosphere simulation model5 to assess continental-scale changes in primary productivity during ...

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