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Selection: with tag habitat-suitability [112 articles] 


Mechanisms of plant survival and mortality during drought: why do some plants survive while others succumb to drought?

New Phytologist, Vol. 178, No. 4. (1 June 2008), pp. 719-739,


Severe droughts have been associated with regional-scale forest mortality worldwide. Climate change is expected to exacerbate regional mortality events; however, prediction remains difficult because the physiological mechanisms underlying drought survival and mortality are poorly understood. We developed a hydraulically based theory considering carbon balance and insect resistance that allowed development and examination of hypotheses regarding survival and mortality. Multiple mechanisms may cause mortality during drought. A common mechanism for plants with isohydric regulation of water status results from avoidance of drought-induced ...


Oak decline as illustrated through plant–climate interactions near the northern edge of species range

The Botanical Review, Vol. 82, No. 1. (2016), pp. 1-23,


This paper investigates historical growth and climate records among the oak sites representing the northern edge of species range in northernmost Europe (Finland). This is to characterize plant–climate interactions for a multitude of sites where oak decline has recently been observed and understand this most recent decline in the context of the past decline studies elsewhere. Further, our paper demonstrates the procedures the tree-ring data can be used in isolating those factors significantly contributing to decline. Our findings point towards complex ...


Climate-driven tree mortality: insights from the piñon pine die-off in the United States

New Phytologist, Vol. 200, No. 2. (October 2013), pp. 301-303,


The global climate is changing, and a range of negative effects on plants has already been observed and will likely continue into the future. One of the most apparent consequences of climate change is widespread tree mortality (Fig. 1). Extensive tree die-offs resulting from recent climate change have been documented across a range of forest types on all forested continents (Allen et al., 2010). The exact physiological mechanisms causing this mortality are not yet well understood (e.g. McDowell, 2011), but they ...


Climate extremes: observations, modeling, and impacts

Science In Science, Vol. 289, No. 5487. (22 September 2000), pp. 2068-2074,


One of the major concerns with a potential change in climate is that an increase in extreme events will occur. Results of observational studies suggest that in many areas that have been analyzed, changes in total precipitation are amplified at the tails, and changes in some temperature extremes have been observed. Model output has been analyzed that shows changes in extreme events for future climates, such as increases in extreme high temperatures, decreases in extreme low temperatures, and increases in intense ...


Why input matters: selection of climate data sets for modelling the potential distribution of a treeline species in the Himalayan region

Ecological Modelling, Vol. 359 (2017), pp. 92-102


[Highlights] [::] Generalized Linear Models were used to model the potential distribution of Betula utilis in the Himalayan region. [::] Evaluation of predictive ability between climate data sets derived from different statistical methods. [::] Comparison of ‘interpolated’ (i.e. WORLDCLIM) and ‘quasi-mechanistical statistical downscaling’ (i.e. CHELSA) climate data. [::] Models based CHELSA climate data had higher predictive power, WORLDCLIM consistently overpredicted the potential habitat. [::] Unmindful usage of climatic variables for environmental niche models may potentially cause misleading projections. [Abstract] Betula utilis is a major constituent of alpine treeline ...


Modelling the potential distribution of Betula utilis in the Himalaya

Global Ecology and Conservation, Vol. 11 (July 2017), pp. 69-83,


[Highlights] [::] We modelled for the first time potential distribution of Betula utilis in the Himalayan mountains on a broad scale. [::] Two temperature and three precipitation variables are useful for predicting the current potential distribution of B. utilis. [::] We applied Generalized Linear Models and evaluated model performance using a multi-faceted approach. [::] Comparison between the current predictions and the distribution range decribed in the vegetation map of Schweinfurth (1957). [::] New starting point for modelling treeline dynamics and treeline shifts in the Himalaya under ...


Ancestral alliances: plant mutualistic symbioses with fungi and bacteria

Science, Vol. 356, No. 6340. (25 May 2017), eaad4501,


[Taking a look at plant-microbe relationships] Ever since plants colonized land, they have evolved a range of mutualistic associations with bacteria and fungi. Indeed, such associations were probably required for plants to grow on harsh, nutrient-poor surfaces. Martin et al. review the spectrum of plant-microbe symbioses and their evolution, including evidence from the Rhynie Chert of the Devonian period and modern associations. Surprisingly, diverse functional plant-microbial symbioses have several common conserved features, including signaling pathways, immune evasion, and root development. [Structured Abstract] [::Background] Among the ...


Concluding remarks

Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology, Vol. 22 (01 January 1957), pp. 415-427,


This concluding survey of the problems considered in the Symposium naturally falls into three sections. In the first brief section certain of the areas in which there is considerable difference in outlook are discussed with a view to ascertaining the nature of the differences in the points of view of workers in different parts of the field; no aspect of the Symposium has been more important than the reduction of areas of dispute. In the second section a rather detailed analysis ...


Robust modelling of the impacts of climate change on the habitat suitability of forest tree species

Keywords: abies-alba   array-of-factors   artificial-neural-networks   bioclimatic-predictors   change-factor   climate-change   data-uncertainty   diversity   environmental-modelling   europe   extrapolation-uncertainty   featured-publication   forest-resources   free-scientific-knowledge   free-scientific-software   free-software   fuzzy   gdal   genetic-diversity   geospatial   geospatial-semantic-array-programming   gnu-bash   gnu-linux   gnu-octave   habitat-suitability   integration-techniques   mastrave-modelling-library   maximum-habitat-suitability   modelling-uncertainty   multiplicity   peseta-series   python   regional-climate-models   relative-distance-similarity   robust-modelling   semantic-array-programming   semantic-constraints   semantics   spatial-disaggregation   sres-a1b   supervised-training   unsupervised-training  


[::] In Europe, forests play a strategic multifunctional role, serving economic, social and environmental purposes. However, their complex interaction with climate change is not yet well understood. [::] The JRC PESETA project series proposes a consistent multi-sectoral assessment of the impacts of climate change in Europe. [::] Within the PESETA II project, a robust methodology is introduced for modelling the habitat suitability of forest tree species (2071-2100 time horizon). [::] Abies alba (the silver fir) is selected as case study: a main European tree ...


  1. European Commission, 2013. Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions - A new EU forest strategy: for forests and the forest based sector. No. COM(2013) 659 final. Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament. , INRMM-MiD:12642065 .
  2. European Commission, 2013. Commission staff working document accompanying the document: Communication from the commission to

Competition theory, evolution, and the concept of an ecological niche

Acta Biotheoretica, Vol. 31, No. 3. (1982), pp. 165-179,


This article examines some of the main tenets of competition theory in light of the theory of evolution and the concept of an ecological niche. The principle of competitive exclusion and the related assumption that communities exist at competitive equilibrium - fundamental parts of many competition theories and models - may be violated if non-equilibrium conditions exist in natural communities or are incorporated into competition models. Furthermore, these two basic tenets of competition theory are not compatible with the theory of ...


Novel climates, no-analog communities, and ecological surprises

Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, Vol. 5, No. 9. (November 2007), pp. 475-482,


No-analog communities (communities that are compositionally unlike any found today) occurred frequently in the past and will develop in the greenhouse world of the future. The well documented no-analog plant communities of late-glacial North America are closely linked to “novel” climates also lacking modern analogs, characterized by high seasonality of temperature. In climate simulations for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change A2 and B1 emission scenarios, novel climates arise by 2100 AD, primarily in tropical and subtropical regions. These future novel ...


Do hypervolumes have holes?

The American Naturalist, Vol. 187, No. 4. (15 February 2016), pp. E93-E105,


Hypervolumes are used widely to conceptualize niches and trait distributions for both species and communities. Some hypervolumes are expected to be convex, with boundaries defined by only upper and lower limits (e.g., fundamental niches), while others are expected to be maximal, with boundaries defined by the limits of available space (e.g., potential niches). However, observed hypervolumes (e.g., realized niches) could also have holes, defined as unoccupied hyperspace representing deviations from these expectations that may indicate unconsidered ecological or evolutionary processes. Detecting ...


A cautionary note on the use of hypervolume kernel density estimators in ecological niche modelling

Global Ecology and Biogeography (August 2016),


Blonder et al. (2014, Global Ecology and Biogeography, 23, 595–609) introduced a new multivariate kernel density estimation (KDE) method to infer Hutchinsonian hypervolumes in the modelling of ecological niches. The authors argued that their KDE method matches or outperforms several methods for estimating hypervolume geometries and for conducting species distribution modelling. Further clarification, however, is appropriate with respect to the assumptions and limitations of KDE as a method for species distribution modelling. Using virtual species and controlled environmental scenarios, we show ...


Fine-grain modeling of species’ response to climate change: holdouts, stepping-stones, and microrefugia

Trends in Ecology & Evolution, Vol. 29, No. 7. (July 2014), pp. 390-397,


[Highlights] [::] Understanding of microclimates may revolutionize climate change biology. [::] Microrefugia will be rare under future climate change. [::] Conservation strategies should focus on managing holdouts and stepping stones. [Abstract] Microclimates have played a critical role in past species range shifts, suggesting that they could be important in biological response to future change. Terms are needed to discuss these future effects. We propose that populations occupying microclimates be referred to as holdouts, stepping stones and microrefugia. A holdout is a population that persists in a ...


Niches and distributional areas: concepts, methods, and assumptions

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 106, No. Supplement 2. (17 November 2009), pp. 19644-19650,


Estimating actual and potential areas of distribution of species via ecological niche modeling has become a very active field of research, yet important conceptual issues in this field remain confused. We argue that conceptual clarity is enhanced by adopting restricted definitions of “niche” that enable operational definitions of basic concepts like fundamental, potential, and realized niches and potential and actual distributional areas. We apply these definitions to the question of niche conservatism, addressing what it is that is conserved and showing ...


What does ecological modelling model? A proposed classification of ecological niche models based on their underlying methods

Ecological Modelling, Vol. 222, No. 8. (01 April 2011), pp. 1343-1346,


Species distribution model is the term most frequently used in ecological modelling, but other authors used instead predictive habitat distribution model or species-habitat models. A consensual ecological modelling terminology that avoids misunderstandings and takes into account the ecological niche theory does not exist at present. Moreover, different studies differ in the type of niche that is represented by similar distribution models. I propose to use as standard ecological modelling terminology the terms “ecological niche”, “potential niche”, “realized niche” models (for modelling ...


The ability of climate envelope models to predict the effect of climate change on species distributions

Global Change Biology, Vol. 12, No. 12. (1 December 2006), pp. 2272-2281,


Climate envelope models (CEMs) have been used to predict the distribution of species under current, past, and future climatic conditions by inferring a species' environmental requirements from localities where it is currently known to occur. CEMs can be evaluated for their ability to predict current species distributions but it is unclear whether models that are successful in predicting current distributions are equally successful in predicting distributions under different climates (i.e. different regions or time periods). We evaluated the ability of CEMs ...


Distinct effects of climate warming on populations of silver fir (Abies alba) across Europe

Journal of Biogeography, Vol. 42, No. 6. (June 2015), pp. 1150-1162,


[Aim] Climate change is expected to modify growth trends of forests around the world. However, this modification may vary in strength and intensity across a species' biogeographical range. Here, we study European populations of silver fir (Abies alba) across its southern distribution limits in Spain, Italy and Romania. We hypothesized that growth trends of silver fir will differ across its distribution range, with a marked decline in growth in drought-prone regions near the species' southernmost biogeographical limits. [Location] Europe (Spain, Italy, Romania). [Methods] We collected tree-ring ...


Model-based uncertainty in species range prediction

Journal of Biogeography, Vol. 33, No. 10. (October 2006), pp. 1704-1711,


[Aim]  Many attempts to predict the potential range of species rely on environmental niche (or ‘bioclimate envelope’) modelling, yet the effects of using different niche-based methodologies require further investigation. Here we investigate the impact that the choice of model can have on predictions, identify key reasons why model output may differ and discuss the implications that model uncertainty has for policy-guiding applications. [Location]  The Western Cape of South Africa. [Methods]  We applied nine of the most widely used modelling techniques to model potential ...


Predicting the impacts of climate change on the distribution of species: are bioclimate envelope models useful?

Global Ecology and Biogeography, Vol. 12, No. 5. (1 September 2003), pp. 361-371,


Modelling strategies for predicting the potential impacts of climate change on the natural distribution of species have often focused on the characterization of a species’ bioclimate envelope. A number of recent critiques have questioned the validity of this approach by pointing to the many factors other than climate that play an important part in determining species distributions and the dynamics of distribution changes. Such factors include biotic interactions, evolutionary change and dispersal ability. This paper reviews and evaluates criticisms of bioclimate ...


Improving generalized regression analysis for the spatial prediction of forest communities

Journal of Biogeography, Vol. 33, No. 10. (October 2006), pp. 1729-1749,


Abstract Aim  This study used data from temperate forest communities to assess: (1) five different stepwise selection methods with generalized additive models, (2) the effect of weighting absences to ensure a prevalence of 0.5, (3) the effect of limiting absences beyond the environmental envelope defined by presences, (4) four different methods for incorporating spatial autocorrelation, and (5) the effect of integrating an interaction factor defined by a regression tree on the residuals of an initial environmental model. Location  State of Vaud, ...


Habitat, environment and niche: what are we modelling?

Oikos, Vol. 115, No. 1. (October 2006), pp. 186-191,


The terms 'habitat', 'environment' and 'niche' are used inconsistently, and with some confusion, within the ecological literature on species distribution and abundance modelling. Here I suggest interrelated working definitions of these terms whereby the concept of habitat remains associated with descriptive/correlative analyses of the environments of organisms, while the niche concept is reserved for mechanistic analyses. To model the niche mechanistically, it is necessary to understand the way an organism's morphology, physiology, and especially behaviour, determine the kinds of environment it ...


Estimating potential habitat for 134 eastern US tree species under six climate scenarios

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 254, No. 3. (February 2008), pp. 390-406,


We modeled and mapped, using the predictive data mining tool Random Forests, 134 tree species from the eastern United States for potential response to several scenarios of climate change. Each species was modeled individually to show current and potential future habitats according to two emission scenarios (high emissions on current trajectory and reasonable conservation of energy implemented) and three climate models: the Parallel Climate Model, the Hadley CM3 model, and the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory model. Since we model potential suitable ...


Modelling potential impacts of climate change on the bioclimatic envelope of species in Britain and Ireland

Global Ecology and Biogeography, Vol. 11, No. 6. (November 2002), pp. 453-462,


[Aim] Climate change has the potential to have significant impacts on the distribution of species and on the composition of habitats. This paper identifies the potential changes in the future distribution of species under the UKCIP98 climate change scenarios, in order that such changes can be taken into account in conservation management. [Location] The model was applied to Britain and Ireland. [Methods] A model based on an artificial neural network was used to predict the changing bioclimate envelopes of species in Britain and ...


The status of our scientific understanding of lodgepole pine and mountain pine beetles - A focus on forest ecology and fire behavior

Global Fire Initiative technical report, Vol. 2008, No. 2. (2008), pp. 1-13


A synthesis of our current knowledge about the effects of the mountain pine beetle epidemic on lodgepole pine forests and fire behavior, with a geographic focus on Colorado and southern Wyoming. [Excerpt: Implications for future forests] Models for predicting future climates have progressed dramatically in recent years, but their accuracy is questionable for planning purposes, particularly at local levels. Nonetheless, model predictions suggest significant alterations in climate from past observed patterns. These predictions are supported by recent climate events that themselves had largely been predicted several years ago. Therefore, the potential ...


Grassland species loss resulting from reduced niche dimension

Nature, Vol. 446, No. 7137. (25 March 2007), pp. 791-793,


Intact ecosystems contain large numbers of competing but coexisting species. Although numerous alternative theories have provided potential explanations for this high biodiversity, there have been few field experiments testing between these theories. In particular, theory predicts that higher diversity of coexisting competitors could result from greater niche dimensionality1, for example larger numbers of limiting resources or factors. Alternatively, diversity could be independent of niche dimensionality because large numbers of species can coexist when limited by just one or two factors if ...


Where, why and how? Explaining the low-temperature range limits of temperate tree species

Journal of Ecology, Vol. 104, No. 4. (July 2016), pp. 1076-1088,


Attempts at explaining range limits of temperate tree species still rest on correlations with climatic data that lack a physiological justification. Here, we present a synthesis of a multidisciplinary project that offers mechanistic explanations. Employing climatology, biogeography, dendrology, population and reproduction biology, stress physiology and phenology, we combine results from in situ elevational (Swiss Alps) and latitudinal (Alps vs. Scandinavia) comparisons, from reciprocal common garden and phytotron studies for eight European broadleaf tree species. [\n] We show that ...


The effect of species geographical distribution estimation methods on richness and phylogenetic diversity estimates

International Journal of Geographical Information Science, Vol. 26, No. 11. (1 November 2012), pp. 2097-2109,


Diversity assessments are widely used in various fields of knowledge and rely on good estimates of species distribution. There are several methods available to estimate species distribution and the effect of using them is not clearly understood. In this research, we assess the effect of species distributions derived from four geographical distribution estimation methods on derived species richness and phylogenetic diversity (PD). We used the following four most common approaches to determine species geographical distributions: (1) range-wide occurrences are records of ...


Influence of different species range types on the perception of macroecological patterns

Systematics and Biodiversity, Vol. 9, No. 2. (1 June 2011), pp. 159-170,


In the face of increasing availability and use of distribution data, large-scale approaches of mapping species distribution patterns have become a central component of development of large-scale conservation policies. Particularly in tropical regions and for non-vertebrate taxa, knowledge on distribution patterns at large spatial extents remains woefully limited. Datasets are often geographically and taxonomically incomplete, have presence-only character and lack abundance information. One intermediate step for the application of such data common to most approaches is the construction of species geographic ...


Bias in species range estimates from minimum convex polygons: implications for conservation and options for improved planning

Animal Conservation, Vol. 6, No. 1. (February 2003), pp. 19-28,


Minimum convex polygons (convex hulls) are an internationally accepted, standard method for estimating species' ranges, particularly in circumstances in which presence-only data are the only kind of spatially explicit data available. One of their main strengths is their simplicity. They are used to make area statements and to assess trends in occupied habitat, and are an important part of the assessment of the conservation status of species. We show by simulation that these estimates are biased. The bias increases with sample ...


The relationship between potential solar radiation and spruce bark beetle catches in pheromone traps

Annals of Forest Research, Vol. 55, No. 2. (2012), pp. 243-252


We analysed the relationship between the amount of potential solar radiation and spruce bark beetle Ips typographus (L.) catches in pheromone traps in an unmanaged nature reserve in the Carpathians (middle Slovakia region), from 2006 through 2009. This relationship was analysed under outbreak conditions. The number of traps varied in different years from 70 to 92. The traps were installed in spruce-forest-dominated stands affected by a windstorm in 2004. A GPS device was used to mark the position of the pheromone ...


Multiscale computation of solar radiation for predictive vegetation modelling

Annals of Forest Science, Vol. 64, No. 8. (2007), pp. 899-909,


The recent development of large environmental databases allow the analysis of the ecological behaviour of species or communities over large territories. Solar radiation is a fundamental component of ecological processes, but is poorly used at this scale due to the lack of available data. Here we present a GIS program allowing to calculate solar radiation as well locally as at large scale, taking into account both topographical (slope, aspect, altitude, shadowing) and global (cloudiness and latitude) parameters. This model was applied ...


Range expansions transition from pulled to pushed waves as growth becomes more cooperative in an experimental microbial population

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, No. 25. (21 June 2016), pp. 6922-6927,


[Significance] Species undergo range shifts in response to changing climate or following an introduction to a new environment. Invasions often incur significant economic cost and threaten biodiversity. Ecological theory predicts two distinct types of expansion waves, pulled and pushed, depending on the degree of cooperativity in the population. Although pulled and pushed invasions differ dramatically in how population-level properties such as the expansion rate depend on the organism-level properties such as rates of growth and dispersal, these theoretical predictions have not been ...


Seven shortfalls that beset large-scale knowledge of biodiversity

Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, Vol. 46, No. 1. (2015), pp. 523-549,


Ecologists and evolutionary biologists are increasingly using big-data approaches to tackle questions at large spatial, taxonomic, and temporal scales. However, despite recent efforts to gather two centuries of biodiversity inventories into comprehensive databases, many crucial research questions remain unanswered. Here, we update the concept of knowledge shortfalls and review the tradeoffs between generality and uncertainty. We present seven key shortfalls of current biodiversity data. Four previously proposed shortfalls pinpoint knowledge gaps for species taxonomy (Linnean), distribution (Wallacean), abundance (Prestonian), and evolutionary ...


(INRMM-MiD internal record) List of keywords of the INRMM meta-information database - part 16

(February 2014)
Keywords: growth-rates   growth-responses   growth-trends   growth-variability   growth-yield   guajacum-officinale   guajacum-sanctum   guidos-mspa   gvsig   gymmocladus-spp   gymnospermae   gypsonoma-aceriana   gypsonoma-haimbachiana   h-index   habitat   habitat-area   habitat-availability   habitat-classification   habitat-conservation   habitat-description   habitat-suitability   hadgem2-ao   haematoxylum-campechianum   hagenia-abyssinica   haiti   half-sib-families   hamamelis-spp   handbook   handicraft   hardiness   hardware   hardwood   heat-storage   heat-transfer   heating   heatwaves   heavy-metal   heavy-metals   hedera-helix   hedera-spp   height-differentiation   height-growth   helianthus-spp   helianthus-tuberosus   hellenica   hellinger-distance   hemiptera   herbal-medicines   herbicide-control   herbivory   herbivory-impact   herpotrichia-juniperi   heterobasidion   heterobasidion-abietinum   heterobasidion-annosum   heterobasidion-parviporum   heuristics   hevea-brasiliensis   hibiscus-elatus   hibiscus-tiliaceus   hidden-goal   hidden-knowledge   high-impact-publication   high-resolution-data   hill-slope-curvature   hillslope   hilly-areas   himalayan-region   hippophae-rhamnoides   histamine-release   historical-perspective   history   holocene   homeostasis   homogenous-spatial-units   homonyms   honey   honey-production   honeydew   honeydew-honey   hopea-odorata   horticulture   host   host-chemistry   host-defense   host-plant   host-range   host-resistance   host-taxonomy   hotspot   human-behaviour   human-centered-automation   human-diseases   human-health   human-impact   human-influence   human-machine-interface   human-refuge   humboldt   inrmm-list-of-tags  


List of indexed keywords within the transdisciplinary set of domains which relate to the Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management (INRMM). In particular, the list of keywords maps the semantic tags in the INRMM Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD). [\n] The INRMM-MiD records providing this list are accessible by the special tag: inrmm-list-of-tags ( ). ...


Future risks of pest species under changing climatic conditions

PLoS ONE, Vol. 11, No. 4. (7 April 2016), e0153237,


Most agricultural pests are poikilothermic species expected to respond to climate change. Currently, they are a tremendous burden because of the high losses they inflict on crops and livestock. Smallholder farmers in developing countries of Africa are likely to suffer more under these changes than farmers in the developed world because more severe climatic changes are projected in these areas. African countries further have a lower ability to cope with impacts of climate change through the lack of suitable adapted management ...


European atlas of forest tree species

Keywords: bioeconomy   chorology   classification   climate   constrained-spatial-multi-frequency-analysis   data-heterogeneity   data-integration   data-uncertainty   disasters   disturbances   ecological-zones   ecology   ecosystem-services   europe   floods   forest-fires   forest-pests   forest-resources   free-software   geospatial   geospatial-semantic-array-programming   gis   gnu-bash   gnu-linux   gnu-octave   habitat-suitability   integrated-modelling   integrated-natural-resources-modelling-and-management   integration-techniques   knowledge-integration   landslides   mastrave-modelling-library   modelling-uncertainty   open-data   paleoecology   relative-distance-similarity   reproducible-research   review   science-policy-interface   science-society-interface   semantic-array-programming   semantic-constraints   semantics   semap   software-uncertainty   soil-erosion   soil-resources   species-distribution   tree-species   uncertainty   water-resources   windstorm  


[Excerpt] The European Atlas of Forest Tree Species is the first comprehensive publication of such a unique and essential environmental resource, that is, our trees. Leading scientists and forestry professionals have contributed in the many stages of the production of this atlas, through the collection of ground data on the location of tree species, elaboration of the distribution and suitability maps, production of the photographic material and compilation of the different chapters. The European Atlas of Forest Tree Species is both ...


Vegetation-microclimate feedbacks in woodland-grassland ecotones

Global Ecology and Biogeography, Vol. 22, No. 4. (April 2013), pp. 364-379,


[Aim] Climatic conditions exert a strong control on the geographic distribution of many woodland-to-grassland transition zones (or ‘tree lines’). Because woody plants have, in general, a weaker cold tolerance than herbaceous vegetation, their altitudinal or latitudinal limits are strongly controlled by cold sensitivity. While temperature controls on the dynamics of woodland–grassland ecotones are relatively well established, the ability of woody plants to modify their microclimate and to create habitat for seedling establishment and growth may involve a variety of processes that are ...


Climate modulates the effects of tree diversity on forest productivity

Journal of Ecology (1 December 2015), pp. n/a-n/a,


[Summary] [::] Despite growing evidence that, on average, diverse forests tend to be more productive than species-poor ones, individual studies often report strongly contrasting relationships between tree species richness and above-ground wood production (AWP). In the attempt to reconcile these apparently inconsistent results, we explored whether the strength and shape of AWP–diversity relationships shifts along spatial and temporal environmental gradients in forests across Europe. [::] We used tree ring data from a network of permanent forest plots distributed at six sites across Europe ...


Know your limits – The need for better data on species responses to soil variables

Basic and Applied Ecology, Vol. 16, No. 7. (November 2015), pp. 563-572,


Species distribution modelling has largely focused on larger spatial scales and the significance of climatic variables for future species ranges. In this study, we argue that more attention should be paid to local processes and the responses of species along soil gradients, as habitat destruction and change in terms of an altered edaphic environment are the main factors behind the decline of many plant species in Central Europe. Examples from deciduous forests and calcareous dry grasslands show that response optima and ...


Eucalyptus: cold hardy species & cultivation in Europe


Validation of species–climate impact models under climate change

Global Change Biology, Vol. 11, No. 9. (1 September 2005), pp. 1504-1513,


Increasing concern over the implications of climate change for biodiversity has led to the use of species–climate envelope models to project species extinction risk under climate-change scenarios. However, recent studies have demonstrated significant variability in model predictions and there remains a pressing need to validate models and to reduce uncertainties. Model validation is problematic as predictions are made for events that have not yet occurred. Resubstituition and data partitioning of present-day data sets are, therefore, commonly used to test the predictive ...


Assessing the potential distribution of insect pests: case studies on large pine weevil (Hylobius abietis L) and horse-chestnut leaf miner (Cameraria ohridella) under present and future climate conditions in European forests

EPPO Bulletin, Vol. 45, No. 2. (1 August 2015), pp. 273-281,


Forest insect pests represent a serious threat to European forests and their negative effects could be exacerbated by climate change. This paper illustrates how species distribution modelling integrated with host tree species distribution data can be used to assess forest vulnerability to this threat. Two case studies are used: large pine weevil (Hylobius abietis L) and horse-chestnut leaf miner (Cameraria ohridella Deschka & Dimič) both at pan-European level. The proposed approach integrates information from different sources. Occurrence data of insect pests ...

Visual summary


Ecological behavior of Quercus suber and Quercus ilex inferred by topographic wetness index (TWI)

Trees In Trees, Vol. 27, No. 5. (2013), pp. 1201-1215,


The ecological behaviors of a network of pure evergreen oak stands (Quercus suber L. and Quercus ilex L.) in the Central-Western Mediterranean Basin were investigated toward climatic and edaphic factors implemented with the application of topographic wetness index (TWI). A Categorical Principal Component Analysis (Catpca) using climatic and soil physico-chemical parameters was performed on 23 cork oak and holm oak pure stands with the aim to understand better the effectiveness of TWI for characterizing soil ecology of the two species. Catpca ...


Larch (Larix decidua Mill.)

In Trees III, Vol. 16 (1991), pp. 446-470,
edited by Y. P. S. Bajaj


The genus Larix includes about 15 species of deciduous trees, widely distributed over the cooler regions of the Northern Hemisphere. They grow in central and northern Europe, in North America, and in Asia, from the Himalayas to Siberia and Japan. The altitudinal range of Larix extends from sea level to the upper treeline in mountains. Many larch species grow in the cool regions of Asia, where they belong to the economically most important species (Krüssmann 1979; Horsman 1988). ...


Predicting habitat suitability with machine learning models: The potential area of Pinus sylvestris L. in the Iberian Peninsula

Ecological Modelling, Vol. 197, No. 3-4. (August 2006), pp. 383-393,


We present a modelling framework for predicting forest areas. The framework is obtained by integrating a machine learning software suite within the GRASS Geographical Information System (GIS) and by providing additional methods for predictive habitat modelling. Three machine learning techniques (Tree-Based Classification, Neural Networks and Random Forest) are available in parallel for modelling from climatic and topographic variables. Model evaluation and parameter selection are measured by sensitivity-specificity ROC analysis, while the final presence and absence maps are obtained through maximisation of ...


Does the interpolation accuracy of species distribution models come at the expense of transferability?

Ecography, Vol. 35, No. 3. (March 2012), pp. 276-288,


Model transferability (extrapolative accuracy) is one important feature in species distribution models, required in several ecological and conservation biological applications. This study uses 10 modelling techniques and nationwide data on both (1) species distribution of birds, butterflies, and plants and (2) climate and land cover in Finland to investigate whether good interpolative prediction accuracy for models comes at the expense of transferability – i.e. markedly worse performance in new areas. Models’ interpolation and extrapolation performance was primarily assessed using AUC (the ...


Spatial patterns of dispersal, seed predation and germination during colonization of abandoned grassland by Quercus petraea and Corylus avellana

Vegetatio, Vol. 125, No. 2. (August 1996), pp. 193-205,


Key processes during recruitment of Quercus petraea and Corylus avellana were investigated in abandoned calcareous grasslands and adjacent scrub using the following methods: (1) observation of hoarding animals during the main period of ripening of acorns and hazel nuts, (2) exposition of seeds on the soil surface and in 5–6 cm depth to test differences in predation and germination, and (3) mapping of seedlings in the grasslands. European jays (Garrulus glandarius) and mice were the main disperser of seeds. Jays preferred ...


Is my species distribution model fit for purpose? Matching data and models to applications

Global Ecology and Biogeography, Vol. 24, No. 3. (February 2015), pp. 276-292,


Species distribution models (SDMs) are used to inform a range of ecological, biogeographical and conservation applications. However, users often underestimate the strong links between data type, model output and suitability for end-use. We synthesize current knowledge and provide a simple framework that summarizes how interactions between data type and the sampling process (i.e. imperfect detection and sampling bias) determine the quantity that is estimated by a SDM. We then draw upon the published literature and simulations to illustrate and evaluate the ...

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Evaluating anthropogenic risk of grassland and forest habitat degradation using land-cover data

Landscape Online, Vol. 13 (2009)


The effects of landscape context on habitat quality are receiving increased attention in conservation biology. The objective of this research is to demonstrate a landscape-level approach to mapping and evaluating the anthropogenic risks of grassland and forest habitat degradation by examining habitat context as defined by intensive anthropogenic land uses at multiple spatial scales. A landscape mosaic model classifies a given location according to the amounts of intensive agriculture and intensive development in its surrounding landscape, providing measures of anthropogenic risks ...

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