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Selection: with tag global-scale [at least 200 articles] 

 

Research and societal benefits of the Global Biodiversity Information Facility

  
BioScience, Vol. 54, No. 6. (1 June 2004), pp. 486-487, https://doi.org/10.1641/0006-3568(2004)054[0486:rasbot]2.0.co;2

Abstract

[Excerpt] [...] Globally, natural history collections and herbaria contain a far vaster amount of information, but because it is not dynamically accessible, even many taxonomists do not know it exists. The good news is that CONABIO's concept is now, in effect, being replicated worldwide through the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF), an Internet- accessible interoperable network of biodiversity databases and information technology tools. In February 2004, GBIF went online with a prototype data portal (www.gbif.net) for simultaneously accessing data from the ...

 

Regulation (EU) No 377/2014 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 3 April 2014 establishing the Copernicus Programme and repealing Regulation (EU) No 911/2010 Text with EEA relevance

  
Official Journal of the European Union, Vol. 57, No. L 122. (24 April 2014), pp. 44-66

Abstract

[Excerpt] [\n] [...] [:Article 1: Subject matter] This Regulation establishes Copernicus, the Union Earth observation and monitoring programme, (Copernicus), and lays down the rules for its implementation. [:Article 2: Scope] 1. Copernicus is a civil, user driven programme under civil control, building on the existing national and European capacities, as well as ensuring continuity with the activities achieved under the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security. [\n] 2. Copernicus consists of the following components: [::(a)] a service component ensuring delivery of information in the following ...

 

Accuracy assessment of GlobeLand30 2010 land cover over China based on geographically and categorically stratified validation sample data

  
Remote Sensing, Vol. 10, No. 8. (02 August 2018), 1213, https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10081213

Abstract

Land cover information is vital for research and applications concerning natural resources and environmental modeling. Accuracy assessment is an important dimension in use and production of land cover information. GlobeLand30 is a relatively new global land cover information product with a fine spatial resolution of 30 m and is potentially useful for many applications. This paper describes the methods for and results from the first country-wide and statistically based accuracy assessment of GlobeLand30 2010 land cover dataset over China. For this, ...

 

Global River Widths from Landsat (GRWL) database

  

Abstract

[Excerpt] If you use the GRWL Database in your work, please cite: Allen and Pavelsky (2018) Global Extent of Rivers and Streams. Science. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aat0636 [\n] Check out the GRWL Database website: http://gaia.geosci.unc.edu/GRWL/ [\n] This long-term repository contains three files: [::1] Simplified GRWL Vector Product: GRWL_summaryStats_V01.01.zip [::2] GRWL Mask (raster): GRWL_mask_V01.01.zip [::3] GRWL Vector Product: GRWL_vector_V01.01.zip [...] ...

 

Global extent of rivers and streams

  
Science, Vol. 361, No. 6402. (10 June 2018), pp. 585-588, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aat0636

Abstract

[Expanding the role of rivers] The surfaces of rivers and streams are interfaces for a host of chemical exchanges with the atmosphere and biosphere. For instance, carbon dioxide outgassing from rivers is estimated to be equivalent to one-fifth of combined emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production. Allen and Pavelsky used satellite imagery to estimate the surface area of rivers and streams (see the Perspective by Palmer and Ruhi). The stunning map that they generated results in an upward revision, by ...

 

Development of a global hybrid forest mask through the synergy of remote sensing, crowdsourcing and FAO statistics

  
Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 162 (June 2015), pp. 208-220, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2015.02.011

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] Forest extent from 8 products was validated using crowdsourced data. [::] The first global 1 km forest cover map (in contrast with tree cover) was elaborated. [::] A hybrid forest map calibrated with FAO FRA data is produced. [::] Both crowdsourced data and result hybrid maps are made publicly available. [Abstract] A number of global and regional maps of forest extent are available, but when compared spatially, there are large areas of disagreement. Moreover, there is currently no global forest map that is consistent with ...

 

Estimating global agricultural effects of geoengineering using volcanic eruptions

  

Abstract

Solar radiation management is increasingly considered to be an option for managing global temperatures1,2, yet the economic effects of ameliorating climatic changes by scattering sunlight back to space remain largely unknown3. Although solar radiation management may increase crop yields by reducing heat stress4, the effects of concomitant changes in available sunlight have never been empirically estimated. Here we use the volcanic eruptions that inspired modern solar radiation management proposals as natural experiments to provide the first estimates, to our knowledge, of ...

 

The extent of forest in dryland biomes

  
Science, Vol. 356, No. 6338. (12 May 2017), pp. 635-638, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aam6527

Abstract

[Mapping the world's dry forests] The extent of forest area in dryland habitats, which occupy more than 40% of Earth's land surface, is uncertain compared with that in other biomes. Bastin et al. provide a global estimate of forest extent in drylands, calculated from high-resolution satellite images covering more than 200,000 plots. Forests in drylands are much more extensive than previously reported and cover a total area similar to that of tropical rainforests or boreal forests. This increases estimates of global forest ...

 

Comment on “The extent of forest in dryland biomes”

  
Science, Vol. 358, No. 6362. (26 October 2017), eaao0166, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aao0166

Abstract

Bastin et al. (Reports, 12 May 2017, p. 635) claim to have discovered 467 million hectares of new dryland forest. We would argue that these additional areas are not completely “new” and that some have been reported before. A second shortcoming is that not all sources of uncertainty are considered; the uncertainty could be much higher than the reported value of 3.5%. ...

 

Response to Comment on “The extent of forest in dryland biomes”

  
Science, Vol. 358, No. 6362. (26 October 2017), eaao2070, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aao2070

Abstract

Schepaschenko et al. question our findings, claiming that we did not refer to all existing maps and that we did not account for all sources of uncertainty. In our response, we detail our selection criteria for reference maps, which clarify why the work of Schepaschenko et al. was not used, and we explain why our uncertainty assessment is complete and how it was misunderstood by Schepaschenko et al. ...

 

Global, 30-m resolution continuous fields of tree cover: Landsat-based rescaling of MODIS vegetation continuous fields with lidar-based estimates of error

  
International Journal of Digital Earth, Vol. 6, No. 5. (21 September 2013), pp. 427-448, https://doi.org/10.1080/17538947.2013.786146

Abstract

We developed a global, 30-m resolution dataset of percent tree cover by rescaling the 250-m MOderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Vegetation Continuous Fields (VCF) Tree Cover layer using circa- 2000 and 2005 Landsat images, incorporating the MODIS Cropland Layer to improve accuracy in agricultural areas. Resulting Landsat-based estimates maintained consistency with the MODIS VCF in both epochs (RMSE = 8.6% in 2000 and 11.9% in 2005), but showed improved accuracy in agricultural areas and increased discrimination of small forest patches. Against lidar ...

 

Risk of increased food insecurity under stringent global climate change mitigation policy

  
Nature Climate Change, Vol. 8, No. 8. (30 July 2018), pp. 699-703, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41558-018-0230-x

Abstract

Food insecurity can be directly exacerbated by climate change due to crop-production-related impacts of warmer and drier conditions that are expected in important agricultural regions1,2,3. However, efforts to mitigate climate change through comprehensive, economy-wide GHG emissions reductions may also negatively affect food security, due to indirect impacts on prices and supplies of key agricultural commodities4,5,6. Here we conduct a multiple model assessment on the combined effects of climate change and climate mitigation efforts on agricultural commodity prices, dietary energy availability and ...

 

Trajectories of the Earth system in the Anthropocene

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 115, No. 33. (14 August 2018), pp. 8252-8259, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1810141115

Abstract

We explore the risk that self-reinforcing feedbacks could push the Earth System toward a planetary threshold that, if crossed, could prevent stabilization of the climate at intermediate temperature rises and cause continued warming on a “Hothouse Earth” pathway even as human emissions are reduced. Crossing the threshold would lead to a much higher global average temperature than any interglacial in the past 1.2 million years and to sea levels significantly higher than at any time in the Holocene. We examine the ...

 

Wildfire science is at a loss for comprehensive data

  
Nature, Vol. 560, No. 7716. (31 July 2018), pp. 7-7, https://doi.org/10.1038/d41586-018-05840-4

Abstract

An international monitoring initiative is crucial for understanding wildfires and reducing their damage, says David Bowman. [Excerpt] [...] we can say little for certain about trends in wildfires worldwide. Data are too scant to say conclusively whether fires are becoming more destructive. If humans are to live sustainably on flammable landscapes, we need a global system for collecting data on fires to gain a coherent picture and assess strategies. [...] Yet the strong links between humans and flammable landscapes make fire a ...

 

Inter-sensor comparison of built-up derived from Landsat, Sentinel-1, Sentinel-2 and SPOT5/SPOT6 over selected cities

  

Abstract

In the last 5 years, several information layers describing human settlements were developed within the Global Human Settlement infrastructure of the Joint Research Centre using Earth Observation data. Each layer was derived from a different satellite (with different various spatial resolutions and radiometric properties) and from images acquired at different time stamps. The next step is to exploit the synergies between the different sensors and possibly integrate the information layers within a single product. To enable those future developments, it is ...

 

High-resolution mapping of global surface water and its long-term changes

  
Nature, Vol. 540, No. 7633. (7 December 2016), pp. 418-422, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature20584

Abstract

The location and persistence of surface water (inland and coastal) is both affected by climate and human activity and affects climate, biological diversity and human wellbeing. Global data sets documenting surface water location and seasonality have been produced from inventories and national descriptions, statistical extrapolation of regional data and satellite imagery, but measuring long-term changes at high resolution remains a challenge. Here, using three million Landsat satellite images, we quantify changes in global surface water over the past 32 years at ...

 

The biomass distribution on Earth

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol. 115, No. 25. (19 June 2018), pp. 6506-6511, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1711842115

Abstract

[Significance] The composition of the biosphere is a fundamental question in biology, yet a global quantitative account of the biomass of each taxon is still lacking. We assemble a census of the biomass of all kingdoms of life. This analysis provides a holistic view of the composition of the biosphere and allows us to observe broad patterns over taxonomic categories, geographic locations, and trophic modes. [Abstract] A census of the biomass on Earth is key for understanding the structure and dynamics of the biosphere. ...

 

Extreme heat waves under 1.5 °C and 2 °C global warming

  
Environmental Research Letters, Vol. 13, No. 5. (01 May 2018), 054006, https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/aab827

Abstract

Severe, extreme, and exceptional heat waves, such as those that occurred over the Balkans (2007), France (2003), or Russia (2010), are associated with increased mortality, human discomfort and reduced labour productivity. Based on the results of a very high-resolution global model, we show that, even at 1.5 °C warming, a significant increase in heat wave magnitude is expected over Africa, South America, and Southeast Asia. Compared to a 1.5 °C world, under 2 °C warming the frequency of extreme heat waves would double over ...

 

Development of new open and free multi-temporal global population grids at 250 m resolution

  
In Proceedings of the 19th AGILE International Conference on Geographic Information Science (2016)

Abstract

Global population grids are increasingly required and used for countless applications in analysis, modeling, and policy-making. However, better and comparable global information requires improved geospatial data on population distribution and densities, in particular concerning temporal and spatial resolution and capacity for change assessment. [\n] This paper presents the development of improved global multi-temporal population grids, ...

 

Operating procedure for the production of the global human settlement layer from Landsat data of the epochs 1975, 1990, 2000, and 2014

  
Vol. 27741 EN (2016), https://doi.org/10.2788/253582

Abstract

A new global information baseline describing the spatial evolution of the human settlements in the past 40 years is presented. It is the most spatially global detailed data available today dedicated to human settlements, and it shows the greatest temporal depth. The core processing methodology relies on a new supervised classification paradigm based on symbolic machine learning. The information is extracted from Landsat image records organized in four collections corresponding to the epochs 1975, 1990, 2000, and 2014. The experiment reported ...

 

The many possible climates from the Paris Agreement’s aim of 1.5 °C warming

  
Nature, Vol. 558, No. 7708. (6 June 2018), pp. 41-49, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-018-0181-4

Abstract

The United Nations’ Paris Agreement includes the aim of pursuing efforts to limit global warming to only 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels. However, it is not clear what the resulting climate would look like across the globe and over time. Here we show that trajectories towards a ‘1.5 °C warmer world’ may result in vastly different outcomes at regional scales, owing to variations in the pace and location of climate change and their interactions with society’s mitigation, adaptation and vulnerabilities to climate change. ...

 

A global human settlement layer from optical HR/VHR RS data: concept and first results

  
IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, Vol. 6, No. 5. (October 2013), pp. 2102-2131, https://doi.org/10.1109/jstars.2013.2271445

Abstract

A general framework for processing high and very-high resolution imagery in support of a Global Human Settlement Layer (GHSL) is presented together with a discussion on the results of the first operational test of the production workflow. The test involved the mapping of 24.3 million km2 of the Earth surface spread in four continents, corresponding to an estimated population of 1.3 billion people in 2010. The resolution of the input image data ranges from 0.5 to 10 meters, collected by a ...

 

Global MODIS fraction of green vegetation cover for monitoring abrupt and gradual vegetation changes

  
Remote Sensing, Vol. 10, No. 4. (23 April 2018), 653, https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10040653

Abstract

The presence and distribution of green vegetation cover in the biosphere are of paramount importance in investigating cause-effect phenomena at the land/atmosphere interface, estimating primary production rates as part of global carbon and water cycle assessments and evaluating soil protection and land use change over time. The fraction of green vegetation cover (FCover) as estimated from satellite observations has already been demonstrated to be an extraordinarily useful product for understanding vegetation cover changes, for supporting ecosystem service assessments over areas with ...

 

Alternative pathways to the 1.5 °C target reduce the need for negative emission technologies

  
Nature Climate Change, Vol. 8, No. 5. (13 April 2018), pp. 391-397, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41558-018-0119-8

Abstract

Mitigation scenarios that achieve the ambitious targets included in the Paris Agreement typically rely on greenhouse gas emission reductions combined with net carbon dioxide removal (CDR) from the atmosphere, mostly accomplished through large-scale application of bioenergy with carbon capture and storage, and afforestation. However, CDR strategies face several difficulties such as reliance on underground CO2 storage and competition for land with food production and biodiversity protection. The question arises whether alternative deep mitigation pathways exist. Here, using an integrated assessment model, ...

 

Pathways limiting warming to 1.5°C: a tale of turning around in no time?

  
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, Vol. 376, No. 2119. (13 April 2018), 20160457, https://doi.org/10.1098/rsta.2016.0457

Abstract

We explore the feasibility of limiting global warming to 1.5°C without overshoot and without the deployment of carbon dioxide removal (CDR) technologies. For this purpose, we perform a sensitivity analysis of four generic emissions reduction measures to identify a lower bound on future CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and industrial processes. Final energy demand reductions and electrification of energy end uses as well as decarbonization of electricity and non-electric energy supply are all considered. We find the lower bound of ...

 

Attribution of recent temperature behaviour reassessed by a neural-network method

  
Scientific Reports, Vol. 7, No. 1. (15 December 2017), https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-18011-8

Abstract

Attribution studies on recent global warming by Global Climate Model (GCM) ensembles converge in showing the fundamental role of anthropogenic forcings as primary drivers of temperature in the last half century. However, despite their differences, all these models pertain to the same dynamical approach and come from a common ancestor, so that their very similar results in attribution studies are not surprising and cannot be considered as a clear proof of robustness of the results themselves. Thus, here we adopt a ...

 

Fire forbids fifty-fifty forest

  
PLOS ONE, Vol. 13, No. 1. (19 January 2018), e0191027, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0191027

Abstract

Recent studies have interpreted patterns of remotely sensed tree cover as evidence that forest with intermediate tree cover might be unstable in the tropics, as it will tip into either a closed forest or a more open savanna state. Here we show that across all continents the frequency of wildfires rises sharply as tree cover falls below ~40%. Using a simple empirical model, we hypothesize that the steepness of this pattern causes intermediate tree cover (30‒60%) to be unstable for a ...

 

New global forest/non-forest maps from ALOS PALSAR data (2007–2010)

  
Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 155 (December 2014), pp. 13-31, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2014.04.014

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] Global mosaics of ALOS-SAR data were generated annually from 2007 to 2010. [::] Region variability in L-band HH and HV gamma-naught (γ0) for forests was observed. [::] Region-specific thresholds were applied to produce a global forest/non-forest map. [::] The overall agreement was 95%. [::] Annual decreases of HH and HV γ0 suggest a decrease in forest and smoothing Earth. [Abstract] Four global mosaics of Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) Phased Arrayed L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) HH and HV polarization data were generated at 25 m ...

 

Global land cover mapping at 30m resolution: A POK-based operational approach

  
ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Vol. 103 (May 2015), pp. 7-27, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.isprsjprs.2014.09.002

Abstract

Global Land Cover (GLC) information is fundamental for environmental change studies, land resource management, sustainable development, and many other societal benefits. Although GLC data exists at spatial resolutions of 300 m and 1000 m, a 30 m resolution mapping approach is now a feasible option for the next generation of GLC products. Since most significant human impacts on the land system can be captured at this scale, a number of researchers are focusing on such products. This paper reports the operational ...

 

Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification

  
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, Vol. 11, No. 5. (11 October 2007), pp. 1633-1644, https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-11-1633-2007

Abstract

Although now over 100 years old, the classification of climate originally formulated by Wladimir Köppen and modified by his collaborators and successors, is still in widespread use. It is widely used in teaching school and undergraduate courses on climate. It is also still in regular use by researchers across a range of disciplines as a basis for climatic regionalisation of variables and for assessing the output of global climate models. Here we have produced a new global map of climate using ...

 

Spatially-explicit models of global tree density

  
Scientific Data, Vol. 3 (16 August 2016), 160069, https://doi.org/10.1038/sdata.2016.69

Abstract

Remote sensing and geographic analysis of woody vegetation provide means of evaluating the distribution of natural resources, patterns of biodiversity and ecosystem structure, and socio-economic drivers of resource utilization. While these methods bring geographic datasets with global coverage into our day-to-day analytic spheres, many of the studies that rely on these strategies do not capitalize on the extensive collection of existing field data. We present the methods and maps associated with the first spatially-explicit models of global tree density, which relied ...

 

Global models underestimate large decadal declining and rising water storage trends relative to GRACE satellite data

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (22 January 2018), 201704665, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1704665115

Abstract

[Significance] We increasingly rely on global models to project impacts of humans and climate on water resources. How reliable are these models? While past model intercomparison projects focused on water fluxes, we provide here the first comprehensive comparison of land total water storage trends from seven global models to trends from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites, which have been likened to giant weighing scales in the sky. The models underestimate the large decadal (2002–2014) trends in water storage relative to ...

 

A global map of travel time to cities to assess inequalities in accessibility in 2015

  
Nature, Vol. 553, No. 7688. (10 January 2018), pp. 333-336, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature25181

Abstract

The economic and man-made resources that sustain human wellbeing are not distributed evenly across the world, but are instead heavily concentrated in cities. Poor access to opportunities and services offered by urban centres (a function of distance, transport infrastructure, and the spatial distribution of cities) is a major barrier to improved livelihoods and overall development. Advancing accessibility worldwide underpins the equity agenda of ‘leaving no one behind’ established by the Sustainable Development Goals of the United Nations. This has renewed international ...

 

Greater future global warming inferred from Earth’s recent energy budget

  
Nature, Vol. 552, No. 7683. (6 December 2017), pp. 45-50, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature24672

Abstract

Climate models provide the principal means of projecting global warming over the remainder of the twenty-first century but modelled estimates of warming vary by a factor of approximately two even under the same radiative forcing scenarios. Across-model relationships between currently observable attributes of the climate system and the simulated magnitude of future warming have the potential to inform projections. Here we show that robust across-model relationships exist between the global spatial patterns of several fundamental attributes of Earth’s top-of-atmosphere energy budget ...

 

Less than 2 °C? An economic-environmental evaluation of the Paris Agreement

  
Ecological Economics, Vol. 146 (April 2018), pp. 69-84, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2017.10.007

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] 188 countries' INDCs have been analysed from a policies, finance and emissions point of view. [::] Policies and finance are faced up with socio-economic and biophysical constraints. [::] Unilateralism and finance approach lead to mismatches between policies and global objectives. [::] Constraints and mismatches could explain the Paris Agreement ineffectiveness. [Abstract] The literature dedicated to the analysis of the different climate agreements has usually focused on the effectiveness of the aims for emissions in the light of the advance in climate change. This article quantifies ...

 

2017 hurricanes and aerosols simulation

  
In Scientific Visualization Studio (November 2017), 12772

Abstract

[Excerpt] Tracking aerosols over land and water from August 1 to November 1, 2017. Hurricanes and tropical storms are obvious from the large amounts of sea salt particles caught up in their swirling winds. The dust blowing off the Sahara, however, gets caught by water droplets and is rained out of the storm system. Smoke from the massive fires in the Pacific Northwest region of North America are blown across the Atlantic to the UK and Europe. This visualization is a ...

 

Open geospatial data: an assessment of global boundary datasets

  
In Proceedings of the 20th annual GIS Research UK (GISRUK 2012) (2012), 35

Abstract

[Excerpt: Conclusion] Through comparison of GAUL, GADM and UNSALB boundary datasets we found that each dataset has advantages and drawbacks in terms of accuracy and usability, but overall GAUL was the best dataset due to the accuracy and completeness of the dataset. While UNSALB boundaries have the highest rate of accuracy because of validation with national mapping agencies, it is limited in geographic scope. Although GADM has a global scale, many of the boundaries are outdated and it is unclear whether GADM organizers have utilized public feedback ...

 

Warning signs for stabilizing global CO 2 emissions

  
Environmental Research Letters, Vol. 12, No. 11. (01 November 2017), 110202, https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/aa9662

Abstract

Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil fuels and industry comprise ~90% of all CO2 emissions from human activities. For the last three years, such emissions were stable, despite continuing growth in the global economy. Many positive trends contributed to this unique hiatus, including reduced coal use in China and elsewhere, continuing gains in energy efficiency, and a boom in low-carbon renewables such as wind and solar. However, the temporary hiatus appears to have ended in 2017. For 2017, we project emissions ...

 

Global carbon budget 2017

  
Earth System Science Data Discussions (13 November 2017), pp. 1-79, https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2017-123

Abstract

Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere – the "global carbon budget" – is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and methodology to quantify the five major components of the global carbon budget and their uncertainties. CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production ...

 

Towards real-time verification of CO2 emissions

  
Nature Climate Change, Vol. 7, No. 12. (13 November 2017), pp. 848-850, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41558-017-0013-9

Abstract

The Paris Agreement has increased the incentive to verify reported anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions with independent Earth system observations. Reliable verification requires a step change in our understanding of carbon cycle variability. [\n] Emissions of CO2 from fossil fuels and industry did not change from 2014 to 2016, yet there was a record increase in CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. This apparent inconsistency is explained by the response of the natural carbon cycle to the 2015–2016 El Niño event, but it raises ...

 

High resolution global gridded data for use in population studies

  
Scientific Data, Vol. 4 (31 January 2017), 170001, https://doi.org/10.1038/sdata.2017.1

Abstract

Recent years have seen substantial growth in openly available satellite and other geospatial data layers, which represent a range of metrics relevant to global human population mapping at fine spatial scales. The specifications of such data differ widely and therefore the harmonisation of data layers is a prerequisite to constructing detailed and contemporary spatial datasets which accurately describe population distributions. Such datasets are vital to measure impacts of population growth, monitor change, and plan interventions. To this end the WorldPop Project ...

 

Impact of population growth and population ethics on climate change mitigation policy

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 114, No. 46. (14 November 2017), pp. 12338-12343, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1618308114

Abstract

[Significance] We investigate how future population growth is relevant to climate change policy. The answer depends importantly on ethical questions about whether our ultimate goal should be to increase the number of people who are happy or rather to increase the average level of people’s happiness. We calculate the best (optimal) emissions reduction pathway given each of these two different goals that society might have and calculate how much cheaper it would be to avoid dangerous interference with the climate given a ...

 

How population growth relates to climate change

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 114, No. 46. (14 November 2017), pp. 12103-12105, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1717178114

Abstract

[Excerpt] Currently, around 7.5 billion people live on our planet and scenarios for the future show a plausible range from 8.5 to over 12 billion before the population will level off or start to decline, depending on the future course of fertility and mortality (1, 2). These people will also have to cope with the consequences of climate change that may be in the range of 1.5 °C to more than 3 °C, depending on the scale of mitigation efforts. The ...

 

Enhanced poleward propagation of storms under climate change

  
Nature Geoscience (13 November 2017), https://doi.org/10.1038/s41561-017-0001-8

Abstract

Earth’s midlatitudes are dominated by regions of large atmospheric weather variability—often referred to as storm tracks— which influence the distribution of temperature, precipitation and wind in the extratropics. Comprehensive climate models forced by increased greenhouse gas emissions suggest that under global warming the storm tracks shift poleward. While the poleward shift is a robust response across most models, there is currently no consensus on what the underlying dynamical mechanism is. Here we present a new perspective on the poleward shift, which ...

 

World’s carbon emissions set to spike by 2% in 2017

  
Nature, Vol. 551, No. 7680. (13 November 2017), https://doi.org/10.1038/nature.2017.22995

Abstract

Increased coal use in China appears to be driving the first increase in global greenhouse-gas output since 2014. [Excerpt] [...] Humanity’s carbon emissions are likely to surge by 2% in 2017, driven mainly by increased coal consumption in China, scientists reported on 13 November. The unexpected rise would end a three-year period in which emissions have remained flat despite a growing global economy. [...] Several factors caused the world’s CO2 emissions to level out from 2014 to 2016, including an economic slowdown ...

 

GlobalTreeSearch online database

  
(2017)

Abstract

[Excerpt] GlobalTreeSearch is the most comprehensive list of tree species and their country-level distributions. The database is the result of over two years of work to gather both tree species names and their country level distributions. Our intention is for GlobalTreeSearch to be used as a tool for monitoring and managing tree species diversity, forests and carbon stocks on a global, regional or national level. It will also be used as the basis of the Global Tree Assessment, coordinated by BGCI ...

 

GlobalTreeSearch: the first complete global database of tree species and country distributions

  
Journal of Sustainable Forestry, Vol. 36, No. 5. (4 July 2017), pp. 454-489, https://doi.org/10.1080/10549811.2017.1310049

Abstract

This article presents, for the first time, an overview of all known tree species by scientific name and country level distribution, and describes an online database GlobalTreeSearch that provides access to this information. Based on our comprehensive analysis of published data sources and expert input, the number of tree species currently known to science is 60,065, representing 20% of all angiosperm and gymnosperm plant species. Nearly half of all tree species (45%) are found in just 10 families, with the 3 ...

 

Fossil CO2 and GHG emissions of all world countries

  
Vol. 107877 (2017), https://doi.org/10.2760/709792

Abstract

[Excerpt: Executive summary] [::Policy context] Part of the Paris Agreement is the implementation of a transparency framework to be implemented bottom-up based on the national GHG emission inventories of all Parties reported to the UNFCCC. In addition, 5-yearly global stocktakes are planned from 2023 onwards to monitor emission trends and the efforts of the individual Parties. Reported inventories however neither cover the entire globe, nor the entire time period. The Commission’s in-house Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) estimates anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions for all world countries thereby contributing ...

 

Well below 2 °C: mitigation strategies for avoiding dangerous to catastrophic climate changes

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 114, No. 39. (26 September 2017), pp. 10315-10323, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1618481114

Abstract

The historic Paris Agreement calls for limiting global temperature rise to “well below 2 °C.” Because of uncertainties in emission scenarios, climate, and carbon cycle feedback, we interpret the Paris Agreement in terms of three climate risk categories and bring in considerations of low-probability (5%) high-impact (LPHI) warming in addition to the central (∼50% probability) value. The current risk category of dangerous warming is extended to more categories, which are defined by us here as follows: >1.5 °C as dangerous; >3 ...

 

Emission budgets and pathways consistent with limiting warming to 1.5[thinsp][deg]C

  
Nature Geoscience, Vol. advance online publication (18 September 2017), https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo3031

Abstract

The Paris Agreement has opened debate on whether limiting warming to 1.5 °C is compatible with current emission pledges and warming of about 0.9 °C from the mid-nineteenth century to the present decade. We show that limiting cumulative post-2015 CO2 emissions to about 200 GtC would limit post-2015 warming to less than 0.6 °C in 66% of Earth system model members of the CMIP5 ensemble with no mitigation of other climate drivers, increasing to 240 GtC with ambitious non-CO2 mitigation. We combine a simple climate–carbon-cycle model ...

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