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Selection: with tag global-change [69 articles] 

 

Fears rise for US climate report as Trump officials take reins

  
Nature, Vol. 548, No. 7665. (1 August 2017), pp. 15-16, https://doi.org/10.1038/548015a

Abstract

Officials at the US Environmental Protection Agency are consulting global-warming sceptics as they weigh up a technical review. ...

 

The impact of hunting on tropical mammal and bird populations

  
Science, Vol. 356, No. 6334. (14 April 2017), pp. 180-183, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aaj1891

Abstract

[Quantifying hunting-induced defaunation] As the human population grows and increasingly encroaches on remaining wildlife habitat, hunting threatens many species. Benítez-López et al. conducted a large-scale meta-analysis of hunting trends and impacts across the tropics (see the Perspective by Brashares and Gaynor). Bird and mammal populations were considerably lower in areas where hunting occurred. Although commercial hunting and proximity to roads and urban centers were the most damaging factors, all hunting had worrying impacts, even in protected areas. Protection and alternative approaches for ...

 

Bushmeat hunting and extinction risk to the world's mammals

  
Royal Society Open Science, Vol. 3, No. 10. (01 October 2016), 160498, https://doi.org/10.1098/rsos.160498

Abstract

Terrestrial mammals are experiencing a massive collapse in their population sizes and geographical ranges around the world, but many of the drivers, patterns and consequences of this decline remain poorly understood. Here we provide an analysis showing that bushmeat hunting for mostly food and medicinal products is driving a global crisis whereby 301 terrestrial mammal species are threatened with extinction. Nearly all of these threatened species occur in developing countries where major coexisting threats include deforestation, agricultural expansion, human encroachment and ...

 

Transdisciplinary global change research: the co-creation of knowledge for sustainability

  
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, Vol. 5, No. 3-4. (September 2013), pp. 420-431, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cosust.2013.07.001

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] A new framework for integrated, transdisciplinary global change research for sustainability is introduced. [::] From a practical perspective three different dimensions of integration (scientific, international and sectoral) are discussed. [::] Co-design of research agendas and co-production of knowledge are discussed as necessary integration approaches to address Future Earth research challenges. [Abstract] The challenges formulated within the Future Earth framework set the orientation for research programmes in sustainability science for the next ten years. Scientific disciplines from natural and social science will collaborate both among ...

 

Intraspecific trait variation across scales: implications for understanding global change responses

  
Global Change Biology, Vol. 22, No. 1. (January 2016), pp. 137-150, https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.13000

Abstract

Recognition of the importance of intraspecific variation in ecological processes has been growing, but empirical studies and models of global change have only begun to address this issue in detail. This review discusses sources and patterns of intraspecific trait variation and their consequences for understanding how ecological processes and patterns will respond to global change. We examine how current ecological models and theories incorporate intraspecific variation, review existing data sources that could help parameterize models that account for intraspecific variation in ...

 

A review of the combination among global change factors in forests, shrublands and pastures of the Mediterranean Region: beyond drought effects

  
Global and Planetary Change, Vol. 148 (January 2017), pp. 42-54, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloplacha.2016.11.012

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] Different global change factors combine causing unprecedented ecological effects. [::] Much more complex interactions arise when combinations occur together. [::] Drought should be considered when designing and applying management policies. [::] Conserving Mediterranean terrestrial ecosystems is a collective effort. [Abstract] Climate change, alteration of atmospheric composition, land abandonment in some areas and land use intensification in others, wildfires and biological invasions threaten forests, shrublands and pastures all over the world. However, the impacts of the combinations between global change factors are not well understood despite ...

 

Forest resilience and tipping points at different spatio-temporal scales: approaches and challenges

  
Journal of Ecology, Vol. 103, No. 1. (January 2015), pp. 5-15, https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2745.12337

Abstract

[::] Anthropogenic global change compromises forest resilience, with profound impacts to ecosystem functions and services. This synthesis paper reflects on the current understanding of forest resilience and potential tipping points under environmental change and explores challenges to assessing responses using experiments, observations and models. [::] Forests are changing over a wide range of spatio-temporal scales, but it is often unclear whether these changes reduce resilience or represent a tipping point. Tipping points may arise from interactions across scales, as processes such as ...

 

Complex responses to global change at alpine treeline

  
Physical Geography, Vol. 22, No. 4. (1 July 2001), pp. 333-342, https://doi.org/10.1080/02723646.2001.10642747

Abstract

A focus of geography is the study of complexity: we include many interacting processes when we study places. Another view of complexity in geography is that complex pattern, in particular spatial pattern, can arise from few or simple interactions, if they are nonlinear. Environmental responses to global change are likely to be nonlinear and thus complex. Shifts in ecotones–the boundaries of vegetation types or biomes–may be indicative of such complex response to global change. One reason for expecting nonlinearity is that ...

 

Meeting the Sustainable Development Goals leads to lower world population growth

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, No. 50. (13 December 2016), pp. 14294-14299, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1611386113

Abstract

[Significance] The future of world population growth matters for future human well-being and interactions with the natural environment. We show the extent to which world population growth could be reduced by fully implementing the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) whose health and education targets have direct and indirect consequences on future mortality and fertility trends. Although this assessment is consistent with the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways scenarios used in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change context, it is inconsistent with the prediction range of ...

 

The human dimension of fire regimes on Earth

  
Journal of Biogeography, Vol. 38, No. 12. (2011), pp. 2223-2236, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2699.2011.02595.x

Abstract

Humans and their ancestors are unique in being a fire-making species, but ‘natural’ (i.e. independent of humans) fires have an ancient, geological history on Earth. Natural fires have influenced biological evolution and global biogeochemical cycles, making fire integral to the functioning of some biomes. Globally, debate rages about the impact on ecosystems of prehistoric human-set fires, with views ranging from catastrophic to negligible. Understanding of the diversity of human fire regimes on Earth in the past, present and future remains rudimentary. ...

 

Driving forces of global wildfires over the past millennium and the forthcoming century

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 107, No. 45. (09 November 2010), pp. 19167-19170, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1003669107

Abstract

Recent bursts in the incidence of large wildfires worldwide have raised concerns about the influence climate change and humans might have on future fire activity. Comparatively little is known, however, about the relative importance of these factors in shaping global fire history. Here we use fire and climate modeling, combined with land cover and population estimates, to gain a better understanding of the forces driving global fire trends. Our model successfully reproduces global fire activity record over the last millennium and ...

 

Ecosystem service supply and vulnerability to global change in Europe

  
Science, Vol. 310, No. 5752. (25 November 2005), pp. 1333-1337, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1115233

Abstract

Global change will alter the supply of ecosystem services that are vital for human well-being. To investigate ecosystem service supply during the 21st century, we used a range of ecosystem models and scenarios of climate and land-use change to conduct a Europe-wide assessment. Large changes in climate and land use typically resulted in large changes in ecosystem service supply. Some of these trends may be positive (for example, increases in forest area and productivity) or offer opportunities (for example, “surplus land” ...

 

Human-caused climate change is now a key driver of forest fire activity in the western United States

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (10 October 2016), 201612926, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1612926113

Abstract

[Excerpt] Effects of climate warming on natural and human systems are becoming increasingly visible across the globe. For example, the shattering of past yearly records for global high temperatures seems to be a near-annual event, with the five hottest years since 1880 all occurring since 2005. Not coincidentally, the single hottest year on record, 2015, also broke records for area burned by wildfire in the United States [...], eclipsing the previous high mark set just one decade prior. Scientists have known ...

 

Global fire size distribution is driven by human impact and climate

  
Global Ecology and Biogeography, Vol. 24, No. 1. (January 2015), pp. 77-86, https://doi.org/10.1111/geb.12246

Abstract

[Aim] In order to understand fire's impacts on vegetation dynamics, it is crucial that the distribution of fire sizes be known. We approached this distribution using a power-law distribution, which derives from self-organized criticality theory (SOC). We compute the global spatial variation in the power-law exponent and determine the main factors that explain its spatial distribution. [Location] Global, at 2° grid resolution. [Methods] We use satellite-derived MODIS burned-area data (MCD45) to obtain global individual fire size data for 2002–2010, grouped together for each 2° grid. A ...

 

Has land use pushed terrestrial biodiversity beyond the planetary boundary? A global assessment

  
Science, Vol. 353, No. 6296. (14 July 2016), pp. 288-291, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aaf2201

Abstract

[Crossing “safe” limits for biodiversity loss] The planetary boundaries framework attempts to set limits for biodiversity loss within which ecological function is relatively unaffected. Newbold et al. present a quantitative global analysis of the extent to which the proposed planetary boundary has been crossed (see the Perspective by Oliver). Using over 2 million records for nearly 40,000 terrestrial species, they modeled the response of biodiversity to land use and related pressures and then estimated, at a spatial resolution of ∼1 km2, the ...

 

Global trends in wildfire and its impacts: perceptions versus realities in a changing world

  
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, Vol. 371, No. 1696. (05 June 2016), 20150345, https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2015.0345

Abstract

Wildfire has been an important process affecting the Earth’s surface and atmosphere for over 350 million years and human societies have coexisted with fire since their emergence. Yet many consider wildfire as an accelerating problem, with widely held perceptions both in the media and scientific papers of increasing fire occurrence, severity and resulting losses. However, important exceptions aside, the quantitative evidence available does not support these perceived overall trends. Instead, global area burned appears to have overall declined over past decades, and there is increasing evidence that there is ...

 

State of the world's plants - 2016

  
(2016)

Abstract

This report provides, for the first time, a baseline assessment of our current knowledge on the diversity of plants on earth, the global threats these plants currently face, and the policies in place and their effectiveness in dealing with these threats. [\n] On the diversity of plants, we can report that there are now an estimated ~391,000 vascular plants known to science of which 369,000 are flowering plants. Around 2000 new vascular plant species are described each year. In 2015 these included ...

 

Does land degradation increase poverty in developing countries?

  
PLoS ONE, Vol. 11, No. 5. (11 May 2016), e0152973, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0152973

Abstract

Land degradation is a global problem that particularly impacts the poor rural inhabitants of low and middle-income countries. We improve upon existing literature by estimating the extent of rural populations in 2000 and 2010 globally on degrading and improving agricultural land, taking into account the role of market access, and analyzing the resulting impacts on poverty. Using a variety of spatially referenced datasets, we estimate that 1.33 billion people worldwide in 2000 were located on degrading agricultural land (DAL), of which ...

 

Coextinction and persistence of dependent species in a changing world

  
Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, Vol. 43, No. 1. (2012), pp. 183-203, https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-ecolsys-110411-160304

Abstract

The extinction of a single species is rarely an isolated event. Instead, dependent parasites, commensals, and mutualist partners (affiliates) face the risk of coextinction as their hosts or partners decline and fail. Species interactions in ecological networks can transmit the effects of primary extinctions within and between trophic levels, causing secondary extinctions and extinction cascades. Documenting coextinctions is complicated by ignorance of host specificity, limitations of historical collections, incomplete systematics of affiliate taxa, and lack of experimental studies. Host shifts may ...

 

(INRMM-MiD internal record) List of keywords of the INRMM meta-information database - part 15

  
(February 2014)
Keywords: generalized-linear-models   genetic-adaptation   genetic-algorithms   genetic-conservation   genetic-correlations   genetic-differentiation   genetic-diversity   genetic-drift   genetic-resources   genetic-structure   genetic-variability   genetic-variation   genetically-modified-organism   genetics   genipa-americana   genomics   genotype-environment-interaction   genotypic-diversity   geobotany   geoffroea-decorticans   geographic-variation   geographical-range-limit   geographical-structure   geography-markup-language   geogrphical-range   geology   geomorphology   geonetwork   geopolitics   georgia   geospatial   geospatial-information-services   geospatial-semantic-array-programming   geostatistics   geothermal-energy   geranium-robertianum   germany   germination   ghg   gibberella-circinata   gibbsiella-quercinecans   gibraltar   ginkgo-biloba   ginkgoopsida   gis   glacial   glacial-refugia   glaciers   gleditsia-spp   gleditsia-triacanthos   gliricidia-sepium   glis-glis   global-biodiversity-information-facility   global-change   global-climate-models   global-scale   global-trend   global-warming   glossary   glyptostrobus-pensilis   gmelina-arborea   gnetopsida   gnu-bash   gnu-linux   gnu-make   gnu-octave   gnu-project   gnu-r   gold-open-access   google-scholar   government-policy   gplv2   gplv2orlater   gplv3   gplv3orlater   gplv3orlaterstatistics   graffenrieda-emarginata   grain   graph-theory   grass-gis   grass-gis-manual   grasslands   grazing   greece   green-alder   green-infrastructure   green-open-access   green-water   greenland   gregarina-typographi   gremmeniella-abietina   grevillea-robusta   gridded-data   ground-vegetation   groundwater   groundwater-table-depth   growing-stock   growth   growth-model   inrmm-list-of-tags  

Abstract

List of indexed keywords within the transdisciplinary set of domains which relate to the Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management (INRMM). In particular, the list of keywords maps the semantic tags in the INRMM Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD). [\n] The INRMM-MiD records providing this list are accessible by the special tag: inrmm-list-of-tags ( http://mfkp.org/INRMM/tag/inrmm-list-of-tags ). ...

 

Greater sensitivity to drought accompanies maize yield increase in the U.S. Midwest

  
Science, Vol. 344, No. 6183. (2014), pp. 516-519, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1251423

Abstract

The U.S. Corn Belt accounts for a sizeable portion of the world's maize growth. Various influences have increased yields over the years. Lobell et al. (p. 516; see the Perspective by Ort and Long) now show that sensitivity to drought has been increasing as well. It seems that as plants have been bred for increased yield under ideal conditions, the plants become more sensitive to non-ideal conditions. A key factor may be the planting density. Although today's maize varieties are more ...

 

Humanity's unsustainable environmental footprint

  
Science, Vol. 344, No. 6188. (2014), pp. 1114-1117, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1248365

Abstract

Within the context of Earth’s limited natural resources and assimilation capacity, the current environmental footprint of humankind is not sustainable. Assessing land, water, energy, material, and other footprints along supply chains is paramount in understanding the sustainability, efficiency, and equity of resource use from the perspective of producers, consumers, and government. We review current footprints and relate those to maximum sustainable levels, highlighting the need for future work on combining footprints, assessing trade-offs between them, improving computational techniques, estimating maximum sustainable ...

 

Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Synthesis - A Report of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment

  
(2005)

Abstract

[Excerpt] Everyone in the world depends completely on Earth’s ecosystems and the services they provide, such as food, water, disease management, climate regulation, spiritual fulfillment, and aesthetic enjoyment. Over the past 50 years, humans have changed these ecosystems more rapidly and extensively than in any comparable period of time in human history, largely to meet rapidly growing demands for food, fresh water, timber, fiber, and fuel. This transformation of the planet has contributed to substantial net gains in human well-being and economic development. But not all regions ...

Visual summary

 

Disequilibrium vegetation dynamics under future climate change

  
American Journal of Botany, Vol. 100, No. 7. (01 July 2013), pp. 1266-1286, https://doi.org/10.3732/ajb.1200469

Abstract

• Premise of the study: Near-future climate changes are likely to elicit major vegetation changes. Disequilibrium dynamics, which occur when vegetation comes out of equilibrium with climate, are potentially a key facet of these. Understanding these dynamics is crucial for making accurate predictions, informing conservation planning, and understanding likely changes in ecosystem function on time scales relevant to society. However, many predictive studies have instead focused on equilibrium end-points with little consideration of the transient trajectories. • Methods: We review what we ...

 

Strong upslope shifts in Chimborazo's vegetation over two centuries since Humboldt

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (14 September 2015), 201509938, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1509938112

Abstract

[Significance] Tropical regions harbor the majority of the world’s biodiversity, but there is debate about whether montane species here are able to track global warming at the same rate as in temperate regions. By following in Humboldt's footsteps and revisiting his pioneering documentation of vegetation elevation ranges, we show that the limit of plant growth has already been strongly pushed upslope. Although the rate of plant range shifts matches that found in other studies, the total magnitude of change in vegetation and ...

Visual summary

 

Boreal forest health and global change

  
Science, Vol. 349, No. 6250. (21 August 2015), pp. 819-822, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aaa9092

Abstract

The boreal forest, one of the largest biomes on Earth, provides ecosystem services that benefit society at levels ranging from local to global. Currently, about two-thirds of the area covered by this biome is under some form of management, mostly for wood production. Services such as climate regulation are also provided by both the unmanaged and managed boreal forests. Although most of the boreal forests have retained the resilience to cope with current disturbances, projected environmental changes of unprecedented speed and ...

 

Forest health and global change

  
Science, Vol. 349, No. 6250. (21 August 2015), pp. 814-818, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aac6759

Abstract

Humans rely on healthy forests to supply energy, building materials, and food and to provide services such as storing carbon, hosting biodiversity, and regulating climate. Defining forest health integrates utilitarian and ecosystem measures of forest condition and function, implemented across a range of spatial scales. Although native forests are adapted to some level of disturbance, all forests now face novel stresses in the form of climate change, air pollution, and invasive pests. Detecting how intensification of these stresses will affect the ...

 

Forestry in the Anthropocene

  
Science, Vol. 349, No. 6250. (21 August 2015), pp. 771-771, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aad2208

Abstract

[Excerpt] Human activity has had enormous effects on the species composition of floras and faunas, creating new ecological biomes worldwide. A principal challenge in forestry research and conservation is how to deal with these novel ecosystems. Most attention to this phenomenon is centered on the negative effects of species introductions and the need to stem the tide of species invasion. However, we need to scientifically understand new ecosystems and learn to recognize adaptive species combinations that will function sustainably in changing ...

 

Pests Under Global Change — Meeting Your Future Landlords?

  
In Terrestrial Ecosystems in a Changing World (2007), pp. 211-226, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-32730-1_17

Abstract

[Introduction] The term global change embraces a range of natural and anthropogenic environmental changes that are occurring around the world (Vitousek 1994), including changes in atmospheric composition, climate, land use and land cover, and the prevalence of non-indigenous species. This synthesis describes contemporary approaches to the assessment of the vulnerability of ecosystems and human societies to plant pests (arthropods, plant pathogens and weeds that are injurious to plants) in relation to global change. Animal and human health have been covered elsewhere in recent reviews (Sutherst 2001, 2004). While the detailed impacts of ...

 

Dealing with femtorisks in international relations

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 111, No. 49. (09 December 2014), pp. 17356-17362, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1400229111

Abstract

The contemporary global community is increasingly interdependent and confronted with systemic risks posed by the actions and interactions of actors existing beneath the level of formal institutions, often operating outside effective governance structures. Frequently, these actors are human agents, such as rogue traders or aggressive financial innovators, terrorists, groups of dissidents, or unauthorized sources of sensitive or secret information about government or private sector activities. In other instances, influential “actors” take the form of climate change, communications technologies, or socioeconomic globalization. ...

 

A Synthesis of Information on Rapid Land-cover Change for the Period 1981–2000

  
BioScience, Vol. 55, No. 2. (01 February 2005), pp. 115-124, https://doi.org/10.1641/0006-3568(2005)055[0115:asoior]2.0.co;2

Abstract

This article presents a synthesis of what is known about areas of rapid land-cover change around the world over the past two decades, based on data compiled from remote sensing and censuses, as well as expert opinion. Asia currently has the greatest concentration of areas of rapid land-cover changes, and dryland degradation in particular. The Amazon basin remains a major hotspot of tropical deforestation. Rapid cropland increase, often associated with large-scale deforestation, is prominent in Southeast Asia. Forest degradation in Siberia, ...

 

Global Biodiversity Scenarios for the Year 2100

  
Science, Vol. 287, No. 5459. (10 March 2000), pp. 1770-1774, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.287.5459.1770

Abstract

Scenarios of changes in biodiversity for the year 2100 can now be developed based on scenarios of changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide, climate, vegetation, and land use and the known sensitivity of biodiversity to these changes. This study identified a ranking of the importance of drivers of change, a ranking of the biomes with respect to expected changes, and the major sources of uncertainties. For terrestrial ecosystems, land-use change probably will have the largest effect, followed by climate change, nitrogen deposition, ...

 

The past ecology of Abies alba provides new perspectives on future responses of silver fir forests to global warming

  
Ecological Monographs, Vol. 83, No. 4. (November 2013), pp. 419-439, https://doi.org/10.1890/12-2231.1

Abstract

Paleoecology can provide valuable insights into the ecology of species that complement observation and experiment-based assessments of climate impact dynamics. New paleoecological records (e.g., pollen, macrofossils) from the Italian Peninsula suggest a much wider climatic niche of the important European tree species Abies alba (silver fir) than observed in its present spatial range. To explore this discrepancy between current and past distribution of the species, we analyzed climatic data (temperature, precipitation, frost, humidity, sunshine) and vegetation-independent paleoclimatic reconstructions (e.g., lake levels, ...

 

Barriers in the science-policy-practice interface: toward a knowledge-action-system in global environmental change research

  
Global Environmental Change, Vol. 20, No. 2. (17 May 2010), pp. 266-277, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2009.11.006

Abstract

This paper presents the results of a case study analysis from the knowledge domains of vulnerability and resilience. We analyzed 20 scientific assessments to provide empirical evidence for successes and failures in collaborative knowledge production, i.e., the joint creation of assessments reports by researchers and decision makers in policy and practice. It became clear that the latter typically use insufficiently the research-based knowledge available and researchers typically produce insufficiently knowledge that is directly usable. We found a number of functional, structural, ...

 

Double exposure: assessing the impacts of climate change within the context of economic globalization

  
Global Environmental Change, Vol. 10, No. 3. (October 2000), pp. 221-232, https://doi.org/10.1016/s0959-3780(00)00021-2

Abstract

This paper considers synergisms between the impacts of two global processes, climate change and economic globalization. Both processes entail long-term changes that will have differential impacts throughout the world. Despite widespread recognition that there will be “winners” and “losers” with both climate change and globalization, the two issues are rarely examined together. In this paper, we introduce the concept of double exposure as a framework for examining the simultaneous impacts of climate change and globalization. Double exposure refers to the fact ...

 

Loss and damage: when adaptation is not enough

  
UNEP Global Environmental Alert Service, Vol. 2014 (2014), 111

Abstract

The negative consequences of climate change are an increasingly prominent discussion point in global climate change negotiations. This topic has recently risen to global attention with the establishment of the "Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss and Damage associated with Climate Change Impacts". Mounting scientific evidence suggests that despite global mitigation and adaptation efforts, residual losses and damages from climate change are inevitable. More information is needed on future climate change impacts and on where the limits of adaptation lie. This will ...

 

Unifying niche shift studies: insights from biological invasions

  
Trends in Ecology & Evolution, Vol. 29, No. 5. (7 August 2014), pp. 260-269, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2014.02.009

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] We propose a unifying framework for assessing niche shifts from empirical data. [::] We base it on a review of studies of niche changes during biological invasions. [::] It decomposes niche changes and accounts for environmental availability and analogy. [::] This unifying framework allows proper comparison of existing and future niche studies. [::] It can also guide management under global change and the design of niche change experiments. [Summary] Assessing whether the climatic niche of a species may change ...

 

Reply to Feeley and Machovina: trophic ecology complements estimates of land use change due to food production

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 111, No. 9. (04 March 2014), pp. E795-E795, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1324144111

Abstract

[Excerpt] Feeley and Machovina assert that even though humans occupy a low trophic level, we have larger ecosystem impacts than any other species because of the sheer volume of food consumed (linked to population size) and the inefficiency of its production (1). The authors argue that large differences in the impact on resource use exist between dietary preferences (e.g., differing proportions of beef, pork, or poultry in a diet), even if human diets are represented by the same trophic level. We are ...

 

Increasing preference for beef magnifies human impact on world’s food web

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 111, No. 9. (04 March 2014), pp. E794-E794, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1323071111

Abstract

Bonhommeau et al.’s report, “Eating up the world’s food web and the human trophic level” (1), provides a valuable perspective on the role of human food consumption within the global ecosystem. However, the ranking of human beings at a similar trophic level as other animals downplays the effects that humans have on the Earth in comparison with other species. The sheer volume of food consumed by humans and our growing preference for inefficient food sources cause us to have increasingly disproportionate ...

 

A coherent set of future land use change scenarios for Europe

  
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment In Scenario-Based Studies of Future Land Use in Europe, Vol. 114, No. 1. (May 2006), pp. 57-68, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2005.11.027

Abstract

This paper presents a range of future, spatially explicit, land use change scenarios for the EU15, Norway and Switzerland based on an interpretation of the global storylines of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) that are presented in the special report on emissions scenarios (SRES). The methodology is based on a qualitative interpretation of the SRES storylines for the European region, an estimation of the aggregate totals of land use change using various land use change models and the allocation ...

 

Climate policies under wealth inequality

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 111, No. 6. (11 February 2014), pp. 2212-2216, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1323479111

Abstract

[Significance] One of the greatest challenges in addressing global environmental problems such as climate change, which involves public goods and common-pool resources, is achieving cooperation among peoples. There are great disparities in wealth among nations, and this heterogeneity can make agreements much more difficult to achieve (e.g., regarding implementation of climate change mitigation). This paper incorporates wealth inequality into a public goods dilemma, including an asymmetric distribution of wealth representative of existing inequalities among nations. Without homophily (imitation of like agents), ...

 

Predictive ecology: systems approaches

  
Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences, Vol. 367, No. 1586. (19 January 2012), pp. 163-169, https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2011.0191

Abstract

The world is experiencing significant, largely anthropogenically induced, environmental change. This will impact on the biological world and we need to be able to forecast its effects. In order to produce such forecasts, ecology needs to become more predictive--to develop the ability to understand how ecological systems will behave in future, changed, conditions. Further development of process-based models is required to allow such predictions to be made. Critical to the development of such models will be achieving a balance between the ...

 

Investing in irrigation: Reviewing the past and looking to the future

  
Agricultural Water Management, Vol. 97, No. 4. (22 April 2010), pp. 551-560, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2009.07.012

Abstract

This article gives a brief review of the development and current situation in global irrigation, and looks at the drivers affecting irrigation performance, development and modernization. The article concludes that the options for new developments are limited, and that future investment will need to be more precisely targeted to specific niches in different agroecological and economic contexts. The paper notes the powerful implications of global climatic change on irrigation through changes in hydrology and water supply that, in conjunction with (1) ...

 

Forests of the Mediterranean region: gaps in knowledge and research needs

  
Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 132, No. 1. (June 2000), pp. 97-109, https://doi.org/10.1016/s0378-1127(00)00383-2

Abstract

Mediterranean forests are characterised by a remarkable set of features that make them naturally and aesthetically attractive, on the one hand, but also quite fragile, on the other, therefore calling for careful strategies for their conservation and management. An exceptionally large variation of environmental conditions characterises the Mediterranean countries, where the environment can limit forest growth and succession but can also give rise, more often than it is supposed, to lush, mesic forest ecosystems, similar to those of central Europe. Moreover, ...

 

Global Change and Mercury

  
Science, Vol. 341, No. 6153. (27 September 2013), pp. 1457-1458, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1242838

Abstract

More than 140 nations recently agreed to a legally binding treaty on reductions in human uses and releases of mercury that will be signed in October of this year. This follows the 2011 rule in the United States that for the first time regulates mercury emissions from electricity-generating utilities. Several decades of scientific research preceded these important regulations. However, the impacts of global change on environmental mercury concentrations and human exposures remain a major uncertainty affecting the potential effectiveness of regulatory ...

 

Growth trends and dynamics in sub-alpine forest stands in the Varaita Valley (Piedmont, Italy) and their relationships with human activities and global change

  
Journal of Vegetation Science, Vol. 12, No. 2. (April 2001), pp. 219-230, https://doi.org/10.2307/3236606

Abstract

A study of the forest lines, tree lines and the structures of the sub-alpine forest was performed in Vallone Vallanta and in Alevé forest in the Varaita Valley (Cottian Alps, Piedmont, Italy). Forest- and tree lines were analysed over 1728 ha while forest structures were studied on six 3000-m2 plots located at the tree line (2), at the forest line (2) and inside the sub-alpine forest (2). Dendro-ecological analysis of living plants and stumps showed that Larix decidua was more abundant ...

 

Navigating the Anthropocene: improving Earth system governance

  
Science, Vol. 335, No. 6074. (16 March 2012), pp. 1306-1307, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1217255

Abstract

Science assessments indicate that human activities are moving several of Earth's sub-systems outside the range of natural variability typical for the previous 500,000 years (1, 2). Human societies must now change course and steer away from critical tipping points in the Earth system that might lead to rapid and irreversible change (3). This requires fundamental reorientation and restructuring of national and international institutions toward more effective Earth system governance and planetary stewardship. ...

 

Does the terrestrial biosphere have planetary tipping points?

  
Trends in Ecology & Evolution, Vol. 28, No. 7. (1 July 2013), pp. 396-401, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2013.01.016

Abstract

Tipping points where systems shift radically and potentially irreversibly into a different state have received considerable attention in ecology. Although there is convincing evidence that human drivers can cause regime shifts at local and regional scales, the increasingly invoked concept of planetary scale tipping points in the terrestrial biosphere remains unconfirmed. By evaluating potential mechanisms and drivers, we conclude that spatial heterogeneity in drivers and responses, and lack of strong continental interconnectivity, probably induce relatively smooth changes at the ...

 

Multiscale regime shifts and planetary boundaries

  
Trends in Ecology & Evolution, Vol. 28, No. 7. (1 July 2013), pp. 389-395, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2013.05.019

Abstract

"The history of life reveals repeated planetary-scale tipping points."The pace of global changes is often slow even after a tipping point is exceeded."The risk of long-term damage to Earth systems that support humanity is increasing."Planetary-scale governance is needed to safeguard humans and ecosystems. Life on Earth has repeatedly displayed abrupt and massive changes in the past, and there is no reason to expect that comparable planetary-scale regime shifts will not continue in the future. Different lines of evidence indicate that regime ...

 

Climate science: Vast costs of Arctic change

  
Nature, Vol. 499, No. 7459. (24 July 2013), pp. 401-403, https://doi.org/10.1038/499401a

Abstract

Methane released by melting permafrost will have global impacts that must be better modelled, say Gail Whiteman, Chris Hope and Peter Wadhams. ...

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