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Selection: with tag genetic-variability [69 articles] 


Triggers of tree mortality under drought

Nature, Vol. 558, No. 7711. (27 June 2018), pp. 531-539,


Severe droughts have caused widespread tree mortality across many forest biomes with profound effects on the function of ecosystems and carbon balance. Climate change is expected to intensify regional-scale droughts, focusing attention on the physiological basis of drought-induced tree mortality. Recent work has shown that catastrophic failure of the plant hydraulic system is a principal mechanism involved in extensive crown death and tree mortality during drought, but the multi-dimensional response of trees to desiccation is complex. Here we focus on the ...


Environmental heterogeneity explains the genetic structure of continental and Mediterranean populations of Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl

PLOS ONE, Vol. 7, No. 8. (8 August 2012), e42764,


Tree species with wide distributions often exhibit different levels of genetic structuring correlated to their environment. However, understanding how environmental heterogeneity influences genetic variation is difficult because the effects of gene flow, drift and selection are confounded. We investigated the genetic variation and its ecological correlates in a wind-pollinated Mediterranean tree species, Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl, within a recognised glacial refugium in Croatia. We sampled 11 populations from environmentally divergent habitats within the Continental and Mediterranean biogeographical regions. We combined genetic data ...


Environmental and geographic variables are effective surrogates for genetic variation in conservation planning

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 114, No. 48. (28 November 2017), pp. 12755-12760,


[Significance] To protect biodiversity for the long term, nature reserves and other protected areas need to represent a broad range of different genetic types. However, genetic data are expensive and time-consuming to obtain. Here we show that freely available environmental and geographic variables can be used as effective surrogates for genetic data in conservation planning. This means that conservation planners can, with some confidence, design protected area systems to represent intraspecific genetic diversity without investing in expensive programs to obtain and analyze ...


General introduction and methodological overview

In Ph.D. Thesis: Integrating infra-specific variation of Mediterranean conifers in species distribution models - Applications for vulnerability assessment and conservation (2017), pp. 19-54


[Excerpt] [:Forests ecosystems, climate change and conservation] [...] Despite their importance, we have lost approximately 1.3 % of the total forest area during the last decade, and although deforestation rates are decreasing, they are still high (data for the period 2000-2010 [...]). Nevertheless, fortunately, in some regions, such as Europe, we find an inverse trend with an increasing forest cover [...]. In Europe, 33 % of the total land area (215 million ha) are covered by forests from which more than half ...


  1. Aitken, S.N., Yeaman, S., Holliday, J. a., Wang, T., Curtis-McLane, S., 2008. Adaptation, migration or extirpation: climate change outcomes for tree populations. Evolutionary Applications, 1, 95–111.
  2. Allen, C.D., Macalady, A.K., Chenchouni, H., Bachelet, D., McDowell, N., Vennetier, M., Kitzberger, T., Rigling, A., Breshears, D.D., Hogg, E.H. (Ted), Gonzalez, P., Fensham, R., Zhang, Z., Castro, J., Demidova, N., Lim, J.H., Allard, G., Running, S.W., Semerci, A., Cobb, N., 2010. A global overview of drought and

Environmental versus geographical determinants of genetic structure in two subalpine conifers

New Phytologist, Vol. 201, No. 1. (January 2014), pp. 180-192,


[::] Alpine ecosystems are facing rapid human-induced environmental changes, and so more knowledge about tree adaptive potential is needed. This study investigated the relative role of isolation by distance (IBD) versus isolation by adaptation (IBA) in explaining population genetic structure in Abies alba and Larix decidua, based on 231 and 233 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) sampled across 36 and 22 natural populations, respectively, in the Alps and Apennines. [::] Genetic structure was investigated for both geographical and environmental groups, using analysis of ...


Long-term variability of Abies alba in NW Romania: implications for its conservation management

Diversity and Distributions, Vol. 14, No. 6. (November 2008), pp. 1004-1017,


[Aim] Although Abies alba is not yet prioritized for conservation in many European countries, its importance is acknowledged under the EU Directive on the marketing for forest reproductive material. The Apuseni National Park contains one of the largest areas of remnant native A. alba in central eastern Europe. Here, we examine the antiquity of the present A. alba communities in the forests of NW Romania and the drivers behind their variability over the last 6000 years leading to current distribution ...


Role of geographical provenance in the response of silver fir seedlings to experimental warming and drought

Tree Physiology, Vol. 36, No. 10. (October 2016), pp. 1236-1246,


Changes in climate can alter the distribution and population dynamics of tree species by altering their recruitment patterns, especially at range edges. However, geographical patterns of genetic diversity could buffer the negative consequences of changing climate at rear range edges where populations might also harbour individuals with drought-adapted genotypes. Silver fir ( Abies alba Mill.) reaches its south-western distribution limit in the Spanish Pyrenees, where recent climatic dieback events have disproportionately affected westernmost populations. We hypothesized that silver fir populations from ...


Adaptation, migration or extirpation: climate change outcomes for tree populations

Evolutionary Applications, Vol. 1, No. 1. (1 February 2008), pp. 95-111,


Species distribution models predict a wholesale redistribution of trees in the next century, yet migratory responses necessary to spatially track climates far exceed maximum post-glacial rates. The extent to which populations will adapt will depend upon phenotypic variation, strength of selection, fecundity, interspecific competition, and biotic interactions. Populations of temperate and boreal trees show moderate to strong clines in phenology and growth along temperature gradients, indicating substantial local adaptation. Traits involved in local adaptation appear to be the product of small ...


Global urban signatures of phenotypic change in animal and plant populations

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (03 January 2017), 201606034,


[Significance] Ecoevolutionary feedbacks on contemporary timescales were hypothesized over half a century ago, but only recently has evidence begun to emerge. The role that human activity plays in such dynamics is still unclear. Through a metaanalysis of >1,600 phenotypic changes in species across regions and ecosystem types, we examine the evidence that the rate of phenotypic change has an urban signature. Our findings indicate greater phenotypic change in urbanizing systems compared with natural and nonurban anthropogenic systems. By explicitly linking urban development ...


Landscape genomics and a common garden trial reveal adaptive differentiation to temperature across Europe in the tree species Alnus glutinosa

Molecular Ecology, Vol. 23, No. 19. (1 October 2014), pp. 4709-4721,


The adaptive potential of tree species to cope with climate change has important ecological and economic implications. Many temperate tree species experience a wide range of environmental conditions, suggesting high adaptability to new environmental conditions. We investigated adaptation to regional climate in the drought-sensitive tree species Alnus glutinosa (Black alder), using a complementary approach that integrates genomic, phenotypic and landscape data. A total of 24 European populations were studied in a common garden and through landscape genomic approaches. Genotyping-by-sequencing was used ...


The ash dieback crisis: genetic variation in resistance can prove a long-term solution

Plant Pathology, Vol. 63, No. 3. (June 2014), pp. 485-499,


Over the last two decades, ash dieback has become a major problem in Europe, where the causative fungus has invaded the continent rapidly. The disease is caused by the invasive pathogenic fungus Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidus (anamorph Chalara fraxinea), which causes severe symptoms and dieback in common ash, Fraxinus excelsior. It is becoming a significant threat to biodiversity in forest ecosystems and the economic and aesthetic impacts are immense. Despite the presence of the disease for at least 10 years in Scandinavia, a ...


Structure of Alnus fruticosa Rupr. s. l. and its relationships with other taxa of subgenus Alnobetula (Ehrhart) Peterman

Contemporary Problems of Ecology In Contemporary Problems of Ecology, Vol. 2, No. 6. (1 December 2009), pp. 601-610,


The reliability of morphological parameters of Alnus fruticosa s. l. on the territory of Asian Russia was studied. It has been revealed that the species has a complex internal structure stipulated by the climatic and forest-growing conditions in different parts of the range. The results of phenotypic variability and sequences of internal transcribed spacer ITS1 of nuclear ribosomal DNA of the taxa of the subgenus Alnobetula indicate the species rank of Alnus viridis and subspecies rank of A. fruticosa, A. sinuata, ...


Genetic diversity of geographically isolated Iranian populations of Betula pendula Roth: implications for conservation

Silva Fennica, Vol. 50, No. 3. (2016), pp. 1-12,


The effects of long-term habitat fragmentations on genetic and population differentiation of Betula pendula Roth were investigated using chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) variations. Leaf samples were collected from four small remnant populations across the north of Iran. Three pairs of universal primers were used to amplify cpDNA, large single copy regions of trnC-trnD, trnK1-trnK2 and trnD-trnT. A total of 18 of the cpDNA haplotypes in the four populations were identified, however, no clear phylogeographic structuring of haplotypes could be detected. The total ...


The return of the variance: intraspecific variability in community ecology

Trends in Ecology & Evolution, Vol. 27, No. 4. (1 April 2012), pp. 244-252,


Despite being recognized as a promoter of diversity and a condition for local coexistence decades ago, the importance of intraspecific variance has been neglected over time in community ecology. Recently, there has been a new emphasis on intraspecific variability. Indeed, recent developments in trait-based community ecology have underlined the need to integrate variation at both the intraspecific as well as interspecific level. We introduce new T-statistics (T for trait), based on the comparison of intraspecific and interspecific variances of functional traits ...


Why intraspecific trait variation matters in community ecology

Trends in Ecology & Evolution, Vol. 26, No. 4. (01 April 2011), pp. 183-192,


Natural populations consist of phenotypically diverse individuals that exhibit variation in their demographic parameters and intra- and inter-specific interactions. Recent experimental work indicates that such variation can have significant ecological effects. However, ecological models typically disregard this variation and focus instead on trait means and total population density. Under what situations is this simplification appropriate? Why might intraspecific variation alter ecological dynamics? In this review we synthesize recent theory and identify six general mechanisms by which trait variation changes the outcome ...


Decades of population genetic research reveal the need for harmonization of molecular markers: the grey wolf Canis lupus as a case study

Mammal Review, Vol. 46, No. 1. (January 2016), pp. 44-59,


Following protection measures implemented since the 1970s, large carnivores are currently increasing in number and returning to areas from which they were absent for decades or even centuries. Monitoring programmes for these species rely extensively on non-invasive sampling and genotyping. However, attempts to connect results of such studies at larger spatial or temporal scales often suffer from the incompatibility of genetic markers implemented by researchers in different laboratories. This is particularly critical for long-distance dispersers, revealing the need for harmonized monitoring ...

Visual summary


Genetic variability of the grey wolf Canis lupus in the Caucasus in comparison with Europe and the Middle East: distinct or intermediary population?

PLoS ONE, Vol. 9, No. 4. (8 April 2014), e93828,


Despite continuous historical distribution of the grey wolf (Canis lupus) throughout Eurasia, the species displays considerable morphological differentiation that resulted in delimitation of a number of subspecies. However, these morphological discontinuities are not always consistent with patterns of genetic differentiation. Here we assess genetic distinctiveness of grey wolves from the Caucasus (a region at the border between Europe and West Asia) that have been classified as a distinct subspecies C. l. cubanensis. We analysed their genetic variability based on mtDNA control ...

Visual summary


(INRMM-MiD internal record) List of keywords of the INRMM meta-information database - part 17

(February 2014)
Keywords: genetic-adaptation   genetic-algorithms   genetic-conservation   genetic-correlations   genetic-differentiation   genetic-diversity   genetic-drift   genetic-resources   genetic-structure   genetic-variability   genetic-variation   genetically-modified-organism   genetics   genipa-americana   genomics   genotype-environment-interaction   genotypic-diversity   geobotany   geoffroea-decorticans   geographic-information-systems   geographic-variation   geographical-range-limit   geographical-structure   geography-markup-language   geogrphical-range   geology   geomorphology   geonetwork   geopolitics   georgia   geoscience   geospatial   geospatial-information-services   geospatial-semantic-array-programming   geostatistics   geothermal-energy   geranium-robertianum   germany   germination   ghg   gibberella-circinata   gibbsiella-quercinecans   gibraltar   gilpinia-hercyniae   ginkgo-biloba   ginkgoopsida   gis   glacial   glacial-refugia   glaciers   gleditcia-caspica   gleditsia-spp   gleditsia-triacanthos   gliricidia-sepium   glis-glis   global-biodiversity-information-facility   global-change   global-climate-models   global-fire-emissions-database   global-scale   global-trend   global-warming   globodera-pallida   globodera-rostochiensis   glomerella-gossypii   glossary   glyptostrobus-pensilis   gmelina-arborea   gnetopsida   gnu-bash   gnu-linux   gnu-make   gnu-octave   gnu-project   gnu-r   gold-open-access   gonipterus-platensis   gonipterus-scutellatus   gonipterus-spp   google-scholar   government-policy   gplv2   gplv2orlater   gplv3   gplv3orlater   gplv3orlaterstatistics   graffenrieda-emarginata   grain   granivory   graph-theory   grass-gis   grass-gis-manual   grasslands   grazing   great-britain   greece   green-alder   green-infrastructure   green-open-access   inrmm-list-of-tags  


List of indexed keywords within the transdisciplinary set of domains which relate to the Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management (INRMM). In particular, the list of keywords maps the semantic tags in the INRMM Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD). [\n] The INRMM-MiD records providing this list are accessible by the special tag: inrmm-list-of-tags ( ). ...


Assessment of genetic variability in long-lived Cupressus sempervirens var. horizontalis using SSR markers

Plant Gene and Trait, Vol. 3, No. 8. (2012), pp. 43-49,


The ability of adaptation to environmental changes depends greatly on the genetic diversity of the species. As a member of Cupresacea, Cupressus sempervirens var. horizontalis is one of the four native conifer trees in Iran that distribute in different geographical provinces individually with the high longevity character. Assessing genetic diversity is considered vital for formulating conservation strategies of endangered species such as Cypress. SSR molecular markers were employed to assess genetic diversity. Nei’s gene diversity (HE) ranged from 0.16 to 0.32 ...


The Conservation of Elm Genetic Resources in Europe

In The Elms: Breeding,Conservation, and Disease Management (2000), pp. 281-293,


Throughout Europe, elms are threatened by Dutch elm disease and the destruction of riparian forests. The long-term conservation of elm genetic resources is now being implemented by a European Union (EU) project in collaboration with the EUFORGEN Noble Hardwoods network. The EU RESGEN 78 project involves partner institutes in 9 countries. It aims to achieve better evaluation of the existing collections and effective ex situ long term conservation measures. The ongoing activities include the establishment of a European database, characterization of ...


Chloroplast DNA variation in European white oaks

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 156, No. 1-3. (February 2002), pp. 5-26,


A consortium of 16 laboratories have studied chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) variation in European white oaks. A common strategy for molecular screening, based on restriction analysis of four PCR-amplified cpDNA fragments, was used to allow comparison among the different laboratories. A total of 2613 oak populations (12,214 individual trees from eight species) were sampled from 37 countries, and analysed with the four fragments. They belong to eight related oak species: Quercus robur, Q. petraea, Q. pubescens, Q. frainetto, Q. faginea, Q. pyrenaica, ...


Morphological and molecular differentiation of the croatian populations of Ouercus pubescens Willd. (Fagaceae)

Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae, Vol. 75, No. 2. (2006), pp. 123-130,


Taxonomy of the genus Quercus L. is very complicated and often controversial because of its great variability and intense gene flow among the related species. The purpose of this research was to determine morphological and molecular variation, relationships and taxonomic status of the Croatian populations of Quercus pubescens Willd. using morphological analysis of the leaves and RAPD-PCR technique. The results of the morphological and molecular analyses were very similar, both showing differentiation of the southern (Mediterranean) from the northern (Continental) pubescent ...


Chloroplast DNA variation of white oaks in northern Balkans and in the Carpathian Basin

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 156, No. 1-3. (February 2002), pp. 197-209,


A total of 1113 oak trees from 222 populations originating from eight countries (Austria, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Hungary, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Yugoslavia) were sampled in natural populations or in provenance tests. The sampled trees belong to four different species (Quercus robur, Quercus petraea, Quercus pubescens, Quercus frainetto) and to several putative subspecies. Variation at four chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) fragments was studied using restriction enzymes, resulting in the detection of 12 haplotypes. One haplotype was present in 36% of the trees, and six ...


Funktionen klonalen Wachstums von Bäumen bei der Brachflächen-Sukzession unter besonderer Beachtung von Robinia pseudoacacia

Verhandlungen der Gesellschaft für Ökologie, Vol. 26 (1996), pp. 173-181


Title: Functions of clonal growth of trees in the wasteland-succession with special attention of Robinia pseudoacacia ...


Breeding and cultivation of black locust, Robinia pseudoacacia, in Hungary

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 6, No. 3. (August 1983), pp. 217-244,


Black or common locust was introduced into Hungary between 1710 and 1720. Its present extent is 276 000 ha, 18.2% of the total forest area. Since its introduction, black locust has always been closely associated with farming. Selection breeding followed numerous steps. The best shipmast-type groves in the best stands were surveyed for superior trees which were grafted for clone tests. The National Agricultural Council for Variety Testing approved three selected or introduced locust cultivars in 1973 and five more in 1979. The ...


Clonal structure and recruitment in British wild cherry (Prunus avium L.)

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 242, No. 2-3. (April 2007), pp. 419-430,


The extent of clonal reproduction may significantly influence the genetic structure and reproductive ability of wild cherry (Prunus avium L.) populations. In this study we used simple sequence repeat (SSR) variation to examine the relative frequency and distribution of vegetatively derived wild cherry in two ancient woodlands subject to contrasting management regimes. The probability of identical genotypes arising through sexual reproduction was determined to be negligible, both statistically and through screening a large population of known full-siblings. Only 246 genotypes were ...


Geographic Patterns of Genetic Variation in Eucalyptus globulus ssp. globulus and a Revised Racial Classification

Australian Journal of Botany, Vol. 47, No. 2. (1999), pp. 237-263


The geographic patterns of genetic variation in a wide variety of quantitative traits were studied in Eucalyptus globulus ssp. globulus and its intergrades, leading to a revised racial classification. The analysis was based on 35 traits assessed in five field trials in northern Tasmania from approximately 500 open-pollinated families, encompassing 49 collection localities in native stands. There were significant differences between the collection localities for most traits. While growth and survival traits exhibited weak spatial structuring, there were clear regional patterns ...


Serbian spruce, a narrow endemic, contains much genetic variation

Canadian Journal of Forest Research, Vol. 21, No. 3. (1 March 1991), pp. 363-367,


Serbian spruce (Piceaomorika (Pan?i?) Purk.) is reputedly a self-fertile and morphologically uniform species with a natural distribution restricted to a total area of less than 60?ha in central Yugoslavia. This has led to the conclusion that the species lacks genetic variation. In this study, genetic variation at 19 enzyme loci was investigated in two populations: a natural Yugoslavian population and a cultivated Finnish population. The average expected heterozygosities over 19 loci were 0.13 and 0.15 in the two populations, which are ...


Allozyme analysis of genetic diversity and differentiation in European and Asiatic walnut (Juglans regia L.) populations

Forest Genetics, Vol. 6, No. 2. (1999), pp. 115-127


Genetic structure of 12 anthropised European and 3 natural and naturalised Asiatic populations of walnut (Juglans regia L.) was investigated by means of starch gel electrophoresis for 15 enzyme systems. Population genetic parameters and statistics show overall levels of genetic diversity and differentiation lower in Juglans regia than in other widespread plant species, outlining a significant amount of genetic erosion suffered by this species, mainly in Europe. The levels of differentiation among European and Asiatic populations, higher than ...


Low Chloroplast DNA Diversity in Red Dogwood (Cornus sanguinea L.)

Silvae Genetica, Vol. 57, No. 4-5. (2008), pp. 291-300


The red dogwood Cornus sanguinea L. is a deciduous shrub of the temperate and Mediterranean zones. It is often used in landscape gardening for miscellaneous purposes. Chloroplast DNA markers, the so-called cpDNA haplotypes, are a very potential marker type to characterise the large scale variation pattern within the natural range of a species. In this study, a total of 86 populations and 673 individuals were sampled all over Europe. Eight different haplotypes were recognised by combinations of several PCR-RFLP patterns. They ...


Evidence for hybridization and introgression within a species-rich oak (Quercus spp.) community

BMC Evolutionary Biology, Vol. 7, No. 1. (10 November 2007), 218,


Analysis of interspecific gene flow is crucial for the understanding of speciation processes and maintenance of species integrity. Oaks (genus Quercus, Fagaceae) are among the model species for the study of hybridization. Natural co-occurrence of four closely related oak species is a very rare case in the temperate forests of Europe. We used both morphological characters and genetic markers to characterize hybridization in a natural community situated in west-central Romania and which consists of Quercus robur, Q. petraea, Q. pubescens, and ...


Genetic variation and migration pathways of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait) in the Iberian peninsula

Theoretical and Applied Genetics In Theoretical and Applied Genetics, Vol. 100, No. 1. (2000), pp. 89-95,


The genetic variability and migration pathways of Pinus pinaster after glaciation in the Iberian peninsula was studied by means of 18 loci from 12 natural populations of the species. The analysis showed the existence of three groups of populations with different levels of diversity and patterns of recolonization. The southern Iberian group displays a high level of diversity, with a stepping-stone model of variation. The presence of rare alleles in this group and their position in the phylogenetic tree suggest the ...


Rational design of antibiotic treatment plans: a treatment strategy for managing evolution and reversing resistance

PLOS ONE, Vol. 10, No. 5. (2015), e0122283,


The development of reliable methods for restoring susceptibility after antibiotic resistance arises has proven elusive. A greater understanding of the relationship between antibiotic administration and the evolution of resistance is key to overcoming this challenge. Here we present a data-driven mathematical approach for developing antibiotic treatment plans that can reverse the evolution of antibiotic resistance determinants. We have generated adaptive landscapes for 16 genotypes of the TEM β-lactamase that vary from the wild type genotype “TEM-1” through all combinations of four ...


Recent invasion of the mountain birch Betula pubescens ssp. tortuosa above the treeline due to climate change: genetic and ecological study in northern Sweden

Journal of Evolutionary Biology, Vol. 20, No. 1. (January 2007), pp. 369-380,


Mountain birch, Betula pubescens ssp. tortuosa, forms the treeline in northern Sweden. A recent shift in the range of the species associated with an elevation of the treeline is commonly attributed to climate warming. Using microsatellite markers, we explored the genetic structure of populations along an altitudinal gradient close to the treeline. Low genetic differentiation was found between populations, whereas high genetic diversity was maintained within populations. High level of gene flow compensated for possible losses of genetic diversity at higher ...



In Fruit Breeding, Vol. 8 (2012), pp. 729-769,


The genus Castanea, chestnuts and chinkapins, belongs to the family Fagaceae, which includes other important timber producing genera such as Quercus and Fagus. The genus Castanea is divided into three geographically delimited sections with at least seven consistently recognized interfertile species: 4 species in Asia (C. mollissima, C. henryi, C. seguinii, and C. crenata), two or more species in North America (C. dentata, C. ozarkensis, and C. pumila) and one in Europe and Turkey (C. sativa). The two most important diseases ...


Dynamic conservation of forest genetic resources in 33 European countries

Conservation Biology, Vol. 27, No. 2. (1 April 2013), pp. 373-384,


Dynamic conservation of forest genetic resources (FGR) means maintaining the genetic diversity of trees within an evolutionary process and allowing generation turnover in the forest. We assessed the network of forests areas managed for the dynamic conservation of FGR (conservation units) across Europe (33 countries). On the basis of information available in the European Information System on FGR (EUFGIS Portal), species distribution maps, and environmental stratification of the continent, we developed ecogeographic indicators, a marginality index, and demographic indicators to assess ...


Phylogenetics of Olea (Oleaceae) based on plastid and nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences: Tertiary climatic shifts and lineage differentiation times

Annals of Botany, Vol. 104, No. 1. (01 July 2009), pp. 143-160,


Background and Aims The genus Olea (Oleaceae) includes approx. 40 taxa of evergreen shrubs and trees classified in three subgenera, Olea, Paniculatae and Tetrapilus, the first of which has two sections (Olea and Ligustroides). Olive trees (the O. europaea complex) have been the subject of intensive research, whereas little is known about the phylogenetic relationships among the other species. To clarify the biogeographical history of this group, a molecular analysis of Olea and related genera of Oleaceae is thus necessary. ...


RAPD variation and population genetic structure in Prunus mahaleb (Rosaceae), an animal-dispersed tree

Molecular Ecology, Vol. 9, No. 9. (September 2000), pp. 1293-1305,


We examined the patterns of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) variation among seven Prunus mahaleb (Rosaceae) populations extending over ≈ 100 km2 to examine local differentiation in relation to spatial isolation due to both geographical distance and differences in elevation. No less than 51.4% of the RAPD loci were polymorphic, but very few were fixed and among-population variation accounted for 16.46% of variation in RAPD patterns. Mean gene diversity was 0.1441, with mean Nei’s genetic diversity for individual populations ranging between ...


The Genetics of Garden Plants


Genetic diversity and relationships among Prunus cerasifera (cherry plum) clones

Botany, Vol. 86, No. 11. (22 October 2008), pp. 1311-1318,


Prunus cerasifera (Ehrh.) (cherry or Myrobalan plum) is a diverse species with several recognized subspecies and natural forms. It is used as rootstock or as an ornamental tree, and is considered to be one progenitor of the garden plum (Prunus domestica L.). This study considers the genetic relationships among different P. cerasifera clones, including horticultural cultivars. Twenty nine P. cerasifera accessions of the Prunus Genetic Resources Collection of INRA were analysed using morphological traits, maternally inherited chloroplastic DNA (cpDNA) markers, and biparentally inherited ...


The myrobalan (Prunus cerasifera L.): a useful diploid model for studying the molecular genetics of self-incompatibility in plums

Euphytica In Euphytica, Vol. 166, No. 3. (2009), pp. 385-398,


A series of PCR methods were used to detect S-RNase alleles and SFB alleles and to determine S-genotypes in 25 accessions of myrobalan (Prunus cerasifera L.). Firstly, primers flanking the polymorphic second intron were used to identify S-RNases in agarose gels. These primers amplified one or two bands per accession in 25 accessions. Then consensus primers were designed for amplifying the polymorphic first intron, unique to Prunus S-RNases, for automated fluorescent detection. Each accession produced one or two peaks. New primers ...


Genetic diversity and relationships among Prunus cerasifera (cherry plum) clones

Botany, Vol. 86, No. 11. (2008), pp. 1311-1318,


Prunus cerasifera (Ehrh.) (cherry or Myrobalan plum) is a diverse species with several recognized subspecies and natural forms. It is used as rootstock or as an ornamental tree, and is considered to be one progenitor of the garden plum (Prunus domestica L.). This study considers the genetic relationships among different P. cerasifera clones, including horticultural cultivars. Twenty nine P. cerasifera accessions of the Prunus Genetic Resources Collection of INRA were analysed using morphological traits, maternally inherited chloroplastic DNA (cpDNA) markers, and ...


Isoenzymes as an aid to clarify the taxonomy of French elms

Heredity, Vol. 74, No. 1. (January 1995), pp. 39-47,


Isoenzymes were used to assess the genetic variability of the three French species of elms: Ulmus laevis Pall. from section Blepharocarpus, Ulmus minor Mill. and Ulmus glabra Huds. from section Ulmus. Three main results were obtained. The first was that these species are segmental tetraploids, i.e. they behave as tetraploids for part of the genome and as diploids for the rest of it. Secondly, we found that there exists a large amount of polymorphism in the French species of elm. Thirdly, ...


Fine-scale gene flow and genetic structure in a relic Ulmus laevis population at its northern range

Tree Genetics & Genomes In Tree Genetics & Genomes, Vol. 6, No. 5. (5 March 2010), pp. 643-649,


Ulmus laevis is mainly distributed in Central and Eastern Europe. The present study took place in Southern Denmark, which together with southern Sweden and Finland, is the Northern range of the species distribution area. The study site (Krenkerup Haveskov) is the only presumed natural continuous population of U. laevis in Denmark. The forest is a part of a formerly larger carr forest. Scattered trees (U. laevis) are found in nearby woods. With seven polymorphic microsatellite loci, we revealed a fairly low ...


Population genetic structure in a Mediterranean pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.): a comparison of allozyme markers and quantitative traits

Heredity, Vol. 89, No. 3. (01 September 2002), pp. 199-206,


F-statistics were employed to analyse quantitative and allozyme variation among 19 native populations of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.). Fourteen polymorphic allozyme loci were used to provide an empirical basis for constructing a null hypothesis to test natural selection as a determinant of quantitative evolution in stem form, total height growth and survival at 30 years old. Hidden biases, that may result in a difference between quantitative (QST) and allozyme (FST) differentiation which are not because of the action of natural ...


Genetic differentiation of Sorbus torminalis in Eastern Europe as determined by microsatellite markers

Biologia In Biologia, Vol. 65, No. 5. (1 October 2010), pp. 817-821,


The genetic variation in fourteen Sorbus torminalis (L.) Crantz. populations distributed over the eastern and south-eastern part of its range was studied using seven nuclear microsatellite loci. The differentiation level was relatively high (F ST = 0.228), as expected for a species with a fragmented range. The distance-based approach to the analysis of differentiation patterns (neighbour-joining tree based on pairwise coefficients of differentiation) did not reveal a clear geographical structure. On the other hand, model-based Bayesian methods (BAPS and STRUCTURE) gave ...


Genetically depauperate but widespread: the case of an emblematic Mediterranean pine

Evolution, Vol. 62, No. 3. (March 2008), pp. 680-688,


Genetic variation is generally considered a prerequisite for adaptation to new environmental conditions. Thus the discovery of genetically depauperate but geographically widespread species is unexpected. We used 12 paternally inherited chloroplast microsatellites to estimate population genetic variation across the full range of an emblematic circum-Mediterranean conifer, stone pine (Pinus pinea L.). The same chloroplast DNA haplotype is fixed in nearly all of the 34 investigated populations. Such a low level of variation is consistent with a previous report of very low ...


Population at the edge: increased divergence but not inbreeding towards northern range limit in Acer campestre

Tree Genetics & Genomes, Vol. 10, No. 6. (2014), pp. 1739-1753,


Ecological conditions shape natural distribution of plants. Populations are denser in optimal habitats but become more fragmented in the areas of suboptimal environmental conditions. Usually, fragmentation increases towards the limits of species distribution. Fragmented populations are often characterised by decreased genetic variation, and this effect is frequent in peripheral populations, mostly due to the reduced effective population size. Interestingly, the genetic consequences of fragmentation seem to be relatively weak in forest trees. Using microsatellite markers, we assessed the impact of population ...


Genetic structure of English yew (Taxus baccata L.) in the Wierzchlas Reserve: implications for genetic conservation

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 73, No. 1-3. (May 1995), pp. 221-227,


Genetic structure and mating patterns were studied in Taxus baccata L. in the Wierzchlas Reserve in Poland, using 18 allozyme loci as genetic markers. The population exhibited high levels of genetic variation, with expected heterozygosity estimated for all loci equal to 0.279. The effective number of alleles was 1.37, and 61.11% of loci were polymorphic. Expected heterozygosity calculated for polymorphic loci only was as large as 0.419. The level of inbreeding as measured by Wright's fixation index was generally low for ...


Genetic variability in Italian populations of Cupressus sempervirens L. assessed by SSR and RAPD markers

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