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Selection: with tag free-software [147 articles] 


AMORE: A MORE flexible neural network package

In The Comprehensive R Archive Network (2014)


This package was born to release the TAO robust neural network algorithm to the R users. It has grown and I think it can be of interest for the users wanting to implement their own training algorithms as well as for those others whose needs lye only in the "user space". ...


An Introduction to R - Notes on R: a programming environment for data analysis and graphics



[Excerpt: The R environment] R is an integrated suite of software facilities for data manipulation, calculation and graphical display. Among other things it has [::] an effective data handling and storage facility, [::] a suite of operators for calculations on arrays, in particular matrices, [::] a large, coherent, integrated collection of intermediate tools for data analysis, [::] graphical facilities for data analysis and display either directly at the computer or on hardcopy, and [::] a well developed, simple and effective programming language (called ‘S’) which includes conditionals, ...


Caliver: an R package for CALIbration and VERification of forest fire gridded model outputs

PLOS ONE, Vol. 13, No. 1. (2 January 2018), e0189419,


The name caliver stands for CALIbration and VERification of forest fire gridded model outputs. This is a package developed for the R programming language and available under an APACHE-2 license from a public repository. In this paper we describe the functionalities of the package and give examples using publicly available datasets. Fire danger model outputs are taken from the modeling components of the European Forest Fire Information System (EFFIS) and observed burned areas from the Global Fire Emission Database (GFED). Complete ...


cffdrs: an R package for the Canadian Forest Fire Danger Rating System

Ecological Processes, Vol. 6, No. 1. (31 January 2017), 5,


[Introduction] The Canadian Forest Fire Danger Rating System (CFFDRS) is a globally known wildland fire risk assessment system, and two major components, the fire weather index system and the fire behavior prediction system, have been extensively used both nationally and internationally to aid operational wildland fire decision making. [Methods] In this paper, we present an overview of an R package cffdrs, which is developed to calculate components of the CFFDRS, and highlight some of its functionality. In particular, we demonstrate how these functions could ...


A new fully gap-free time series of land surface temperature from MODIS LST data

Remote Sensing, Vol. 9, No. 12. (20 December 2017), 1333,


Temperature time series with high spatial and temporal resolutions are important for several applications. The new MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) collection 6 provides numerous improvements compared to collection 5. However, being remotely sensed data in the thermal range, LST shows gaps in cloud-covered areas. We present a novel method to fully reconstruct MODIS daily LST products for central Europe at 1 km resolution and globally, at 3 arc-min. We combined temporal and spatial interpolation, using emissivity and elevation as covariates ...


Steps towards transparency in research publishing

Nature, Vol. 549, No. 7673. (26 September 2017), pp. 431-431,


As research and editorial processes become increasingly open, scientists and editors need to be proactive but also alert to risks. [Excerpt] [...] The examples given here relate to initiatives by the Nature Research journals, some of which follow pioneering work by other publishers. [...] One such initiative is the checklist introduced by Nature and the Nature journals in 2013 for life-sciences submissions. [...] Malcolm Macleod of the University of Edinburgh, UK, and his colleagues [..] looked at the completeness of reporting in journals ...


How innovations thrive in GRASS GIS

In North Carolina GIS Conference, NCGIS2017 (2017)


[Poster topic highlights] [::] Algorithms and models included in GRASS GIS remain available long term (Chemin et al., 2015). [::] Analytical tools are not limited to one domain but spread across many fields. [::] New tools can be built based on functionality or code of the existing ones regardless of the particular domain of problems they belong to. [::] Both the functionality and the code are evaluated by the community of users and developers in different fields and scales. [General GRASS GIS highlights] [::] The GRASS GIS development team ...


Robust modelling of the impacts of climate change on the habitat suitability of forest tree species

Keywords: abies-alba   array-of-factors   artificial-neural-networks   bioclimatic-predictors   change-factor   climate-change   data-uncertainty   diversity   environmental-modelling   europe   extrapolation-uncertainty   featured-publication   forest-resources   free-scientific-knowledge   free-scientific-software   free-software   fuzzy   gdal   genetic-diversity   geospatial   geospatial-semantic-array-programming   gnu-bash   gnu-linux   gnu-octave   habitat-suitability   integration-techniques   mastrave-modelling-library   maximum-habitat-suitability   modelling-uncertainty   multiplicity   peseta-series   python   regional-climate-models   relative-distance-similarity   robust-modelling   semantic-array-programming   semantic-constraints   semantics   spatial-disaggregation   sres-a1b   supervised-training   unsupervised-training  


[::] In Europe, forests play a strategic multifunctional role, serving economic, social and environmental purposes. However, their complex interaction with climate change is not yet well understood. [::] The JRC PESETA project series proposes a consistent multi-sectoral assessment of the impacts of climate change in Europe. [::] Within the PESETA II project, a robust methodology is introduced for modelling the habitat suitability of forest tree species (2071-2100 time horizon). [::] Abies alba (the silver fir) is selected as case study: a main European tree ...


  1. European Commission, 2013. Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions - A new EU forest strategy: for forests and the forest based sector. No. COM(2013) 659 final. Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament. , INRMM-MiD:12642065 .
  2. European Commission, 2013. Commission staff working document accompanying the document: Communication from the commission to

The importance of free and open source software and open standards in modern scientific publishing

Publications, Vol. 1, No. 2. (26 June 2013), pp. 49-55,


In this paper we outline the reasons why we believe a reliance on the use of proprietary computer software and proprietary file formats in scientific publication have negative implications for the conduct and reporting of science. There is increasing awareness and interest in the scientific community about the benefits offered by free and open source software. We discuss the present state of scientific publishing and the merits of advocating for a wider adoption of open standards in science, particularly where it ...


Robots and free software

In A World with Robots, Vol. 84 (2017), pp. 63-76,


This article examines whether the arguments put forward by Free Software advocates in the context of computers also apply for robots. It summarises their key arguments and explores whether or not they appear transferable to robot cases. Doing so, it comes to the conclusion that, in the majority of cases, the reasons that may make the use of Free Software over proprietary software preferable in other technologies, equally apply in the case of robots. ...


Bash reference manual: reference documentation for Bash edition 4.4, for Bash version 4.4



[Excerpt: Introduction] [::What is Bash?] Bash is the shell, or command language interpreter, for the GNU operating system. The name is an acronym for the ‘Bourne-Again SHell’, a pun on Stephen Bourne, the author of the direct ancestor of the current Unix shell sh, which appeared in the Seventh Edition Bell Labs Research version of Unix. [\n] Bash is largely compatible with sh and incorporates useful features from the Korn shell ksh and the C shell csh. It is intended to be a ...


Multi-dimensional weighted median: the module "wmedian" of the Mastrave modelling library

In Semantic Array Programming with Mastrave - Introduction to Semantic Computational Modelling (2012)


Weighted median (WM) filtering is a well known technique for dealing with noisy images and a variety of WM-based algorithms have been proposed as effective ways for reducing uncertainties or reconstructing degraded signals by means of available information with heterogeneous reliability. Here a generalized module for applying weighted median filtering to multi-dimensional arrays of information with associated multi-dimensional arrays of corresponding weights is presented. Weights may be associated to single elements or to groups of elements along given dimensions of the ...


A manifesto for reproducible science

Nature Human Behaviour, Vol. 1, No. 1. (10 January 2017), 0021,


Improving the reliability and efficiency of scientific research will increase the credibility of the published scientific literature and accelerate discovery. Here we argue for the adoption of measures to optimize key elements of the scientific process: methods, reporting and dissemination, reproducibility, evaluation and incentives. There is some evidence from both simulations and empirical studies supporting the likely effectiveness of these measures, but their broad adoption by researchers, institutions, funders and journals will require iterative evaluation and improvement. We discuss the goals ...


Position paper for the endorsement of Free Software and Open Standards in Horizon 2020 and all publicly-funded research

In Free Software Foundation Europe (January 2017)


The Free Software Foundation Europe (FSFE) is a charity that empowers users to control technology by advocating for Free Software. In a digital world, Free Software is the fundament of Open Knowledge, Open Innovation and Open Science. [\n] Software is an integral part of today’s society. Our daily interactions, transactions, education, communication channels, work and life environments rely heavily on software. "Free Software" refers to all programs distributed under terms and licences that allow users to run the software for any purpose, ...


When free software isn't (practically) superior

GNU Operating System (2011)


[Excerpt] The Open Source Initiative's mission statement reads, “Open source is a development method for software that harnesses the power of distributed peer review and transparency of process. The promise of open source is better quality, higher reliability, more flexibility, lower cost, and an end to predatory vendor lock-in.” [\n] For more than a decade now, the Free Software Foundation has argued against this “open source” characterization of the free software movement. Free software advocates have primarily argued against this framing because ...


Social software

Nature Methods, Vol. 4, No. 3. (01 March 2007), pp. 189-189,


Software that is custom-developed as part of novel methods is as important for the method's implementation as reagents and protocols. Such software, or the underlying algorithms, must be made available to readers upon publication. [Excerpt] "An inherent principle of publication is that others should be able to replicate and build upon the authors' published claims. Therefore, a condition of publication in a Nature journal is that authors are required to make materials, data and associated protocols available to readers promptly on request." ...


ePiX tutorial and reference manual



[Excerpt: Introduction] ePiX, a collection of batch utilities, creates mathematically accurate figures, plots, and animations containing LATEX typography. The input syntax is easy to learn, and the user interface resembles that of LATEX itself: You prepare a scene description in a text editor, then “compile” the input file into a picture. LATEX- and web-compatible output types include a LATEX picture-like environment written with PSTricks, tikz, or eepic macros; vector images (eps, ps, and pdf); and bitmapped images and movies (png, mng, and gif). [\n] ePiX’s strengths include: [::] Quality of ...


Why scientists must share their research code

Nature (13 September 2016),


'Reproducibility editor' Victoria Stodden explains the growing movement to make code and data available to others. [Excerpt] [...] [::What does computational reproducibility mean?] It means that all details of computation — code and data — are made routinely available to others. If I can run your code on your data, then I can understand what you did. We need to expose all the steps that went into any discovery that relies on a computer. [::What’s the scientific value of running the same data with the ...


Energy distance

Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Computational Statistics, Vol. 8, No. 1. (January 2016), pp. 27-38,


Energy distance is a metric that measures the distance between the distributions of random vectors. Energy distance is zero if and only if the distributions are identical, thus it characterizes equality of distributions and provides a theoretical foundation for statistical inference and analysis. Energy statistics are functions of distances between observations in metric spaces. As a statistic, energy distance can be applied to measure the difference between a sample and a hypothesized distribution or the difference between two or more samples ...


Fast computing for distance covariance

Technometrics (25 June 2015), pp. 0-0,


Distance covariance and distance correlation have been widely adopted in measuring dependence of a pair of random variables or random vectors. If the computation of distance covariance and distance correlation is implemented directly accordingly to its definition then its computational complexity is O(n2) which is a disadvantage compared to other faster methods. In this paper we show that the computation of distance covariance and distance correlation of real valued random variables can be implemented by an O(n log n) algorithm and ...


Disciplinary action

Nature, Vol. 495, No. 7442. (27 March 2013), pp. 409-410,


How scientists share and reuse information is driven by technology but shaped by discipline. [Excerpt] [\n] [...] The transformation of research publishing is less a revolution and more a war of attrition. Battle lines were drawn long ago and all sides are well dug-in. In 2001, this journal published a series of viewpoints on the future of ‘e-access to the primary literature’ (see Those attitudes seem strikingly familiar today. At the time, the founders of the Public Library of Science initiative (then PLS, ...



In Free Software Directory (July 2009)


An optimal interpolation toolbox for Octave. This package provides functions to perform a n-dimensional optimal interpolations of arbitrarily distributed data points ...


Promoting research resource identification at JCN

Journal of Comparative Neurology, Vol. 522, No. 8. (01 June 2014), pp. 1707-1707,


[Excerpt] [\n] [...] [\n] The attention of scientists, editors, and policymakers alike have all turned recently to the issue of reproducibility in scientific research, focusing on research spanning from the pharmaceutical industry (Begley and Ellis, 2012) to the highest levels of government (Collins and Tabak, 2014; see also McNutt, 2014). While these commentaries point out that scientific misconduct is quite rare, they do point to a confluence of factors that hinder the reproducibility of scientific findings, including the identification of key reagents, such ...


Equations and FORTRAN program for the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index System

Vol. 33 (1985)


Improved official equations are presented for the 1984 version of the Canadian Forest Fires Weather Index System. The most recent mathematical refinements serve to further rationalize the Fine Fuel Moisture Code and render it more compatible with other developments in the Canadian Forest Fire Danger Rating System. The effect of these changes is so slight that no problems are anticipated in converting from the previous version to this new one. Also given is a FORTRAN program intended as a standard for ...


Updated source code for calculating fire danger indices in the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index System

Vol. NOR-X-424 (2015)


This report presents updated versions of the FORTRAN 77 program originally published by the Canadian Forest Service in 1985 and used to calculate the Canadian forest fire weather indices from daily weather observations. The updated program is presented here in FORTRAN 95, C, C++, Python, Java and SAS/IML programming languages to meet the needs of various users. The updated versions are easier to understand and use than the original source code. The updated source codes were written in a modular programming style, consisting of a main program and ...


  1. Canadian Forestry Service. 1984. Tables for the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index System. (4th ed.) Environ. Can., Can. For. Serv., Ottawa, ON. For. Tech. Rep. 25. Also available at .
  2. Chapman, S. J. 2004. FORTRAN 90/95 for scientists and engineers. McGraw Hill Higher Education, Toronto, ON. Also available at .
  3. De Groot, W.J.; Field, R.D.; Brady, M.A.; Roswintiarti, O.; Mohamad, M. 2006. Development of the

The Resource Identification Initiative: a cultural shift in publishing

Neuroinformatics, Vol. 14, No. 2. (2016), pp. 169-182,


A central tenet in support of research reproducibility is the ability to uniquely identify research resources, i.e., reagents, tools, and materials that are used to perform experiments. However, current reporting practices for research resources are insufficient to identify the exact resources that are reported or to answer basic questions such as “How did other studies use resource X?” To address this issue, the Resource Identification Initiative was launched as a pilot project to improve the reporting standards for research resources in ...


(INRMM-MiD internal record) List of keywords of the INRMM meta-information database - part 16

(February 2014)
Keywords: forest-management   forest-pathogens   forest-pests   forest-product   forest-regeneration   forest-reproductive-material   forest-resource-information   forest-resources   forest-species   forest-species-composition   forest-structure   forest-succession   forest-types   forest-watering   forestcommunities   forestry   forestry-statistics   fortran   foss   fossil-energy   fossil-resources   fp7-european-research-project   fracking   fractal   fragmentation   fragmented-world   frainetto   france   frangula-alnus   frangula-spp   fraxinus-angustifolia   fraxinus-augustifolia   fraxinus-excelsior   fraxinus-mandshurica   fraxinus-ornus   fraxinus-pennsylvanica   fraxinus-spp   free-access   free-access-book   free-riders   free-science-metrics   free-scientific-knowledge   free-scientific-software   free-software   free-software-directory   free-software-license-definition   freebsd   freedom   freemat   freeze-protection   french-alps   frequency   frost   frost-damage   frost-resistance   frost-sensitivity   fruticosa   fuel   fuel-moisture   fuelwood   functional-connectivity   functional-descriptors   functional-programming   functional-traits   funding   fungal-decay   fungal-diseases   fungi   fusarium-circinatum   fusarium-lateritium   future   future-climatic-envelopes   future-earth   future-fire-activity   future-internet   future-trends   fuzzy   gaia   galanthus-plicatus   galicia   gall-attributes   game-theory   garbage-in-garbage-out   gardening   gargano   garrulus-glandarius   gbif   gc-ms   gcm   gdal   gemmae-populi   gender-biases   gene-bank   gene-conservation   general-relation   generalized-additive-model   generalized-additive-models   generalized-linear-model   generalized-linear-models   inrmm-list-of-tags  


List of indexed keywords within the transdisciplinary set of domains which relate to the Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management (INRMM). In particular, the list of keywords maps the semantic tags in the INRMM Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD). [\n] The INRMM-MiD records providing this list are accessible by the special tag: inrmm-list-of-tags ( ). ...


European atlas of forest tree species

Keywords: bioeconomy   chorology   classification   climate   constrained-spatial-multi-frequency-analysis   data-heterogeneity   data-integration   data-uncertainty   disasters   disturbances   ecological-zones   ecology   ecosystem-services   europe   floods   forest-fires   forest-pests   forest-resources   free-software   geospatial   geospatial-semantic-array-programming   gis   gnu-bash   gnu-linux   gnu-octave   habitat-suitability   integrated-modelling   integrated-natural-resources-modelling-and-management   integration-techniques   knowledge-integration   landslides   mastrave-modelling-library   modelling-uncertainty   open-data   paleoecology   relative-distance-similarity   reproducible-research   review   science-policy-interface   science-society-interface   semantic-array-programming   semantic-constraints   semantics   semap   software-uncertainty   soil-erosion   soil-resources   species-distribution   tree-species   uncertainty   water-resources   windstorm  


[Excerpt] The European Atlas of Forest Tree Species is the first comprehensive publication of such a unique and essential environmental resource, that is, our trees. Leading scientists and forestry professionals have contributed in the many stages of the production of this atlas, through the collection of ground data on the location of tree species, elaboration of the distribution and suitability maps, production of the photographic material and compilation of the different chapters. The European Atlas of Forest Tree Species is both ...


License compatibility and relicensing

In Licenses (2016)


If you want to combine two free programs into one, or merge code from one into the other, this raises the question of whether their licenses allow combining them. [\n] There is no problem merging programs that have the same license, if it is a reasonably behaved license, as nearly all free licenses are.(*) [\n] What then when the licenses are different? In general we say that several licenses are compatible if there is a way to merge code under those various licenses ...


Adding terms to the GPL

MMM Tech Law & Business Report (2014), 7921


[Excerpt] Many of us are called to review our clients’ use of open source software. Frequently, we are given a report with the name of the software and the name of the license to that software, with nothing else. One can then look up the open source license, often from a neutral source such as The Open Source Initiative’s website, where the text of many open source software licenses can be found. [\n] This process of reviewing open source licenses is only accurate if the license ...


GNU Coding Standards



[Excerpt: About the GNU Coding Standards] The GNU Coding Standards were written by Richard Stallman and other GNU Project volunteers. Their purpose is to make the GNU system clean, consistent, and easy to install. This document can also be read as a guide to writing portable, robust and reliable programs. It focuses on programs written in C, but many of the rules and principles are useful even if you write in another programming language. The rules often state reasons for writing ...


The unsung heroes of scientific software

Nature, Vol. 529, No. 7584. (4 January 2016), pp. 115-116,


Creators of computer programs that underpin experiments don’t always get their due — so the website Depsy is trying to track the impact of research code. [Excerpt] For researchers who code, academic norms for tracking the value of their work seem grossly unfair. They can spend hours contributing to software that underpins research, but if that work does not result in the authorship of a research paper and accompanying citations, there is little way to measure its impact. [\n] [...] Depsy’s creators hope that their ...


Study of a collaborative repository of semantic metadata and models for regional environmental datasets' multivariate transformations

edited by Giorgio Guariso


A semantic modelling procedure is introduced to ease array-based multivariate transformations of public environmental data, along with the architecture of a collaborative repository of modelling meta-information based on the procedure. [\n] The procedure, Semantic Array Programming (SemAP), is intended as a lightweight paradigm to support integrated natural resources modelling and management (INRMM), in the context of wide-scale transdisciplinary modelling for environment (WSTMe, here tested from catchment up to regional and continental scale). [\n] It is a common experience among computational scientists, ...


  1. Aalde, H., Gonzalez, P., Gytarsky, M., Krug, T., Kurz, W. A., Ogle, S., Raison, J., Schoene, D., Ravindranath, N. H., Elhassan, N. G., Heath, L. S., Higuchi, N., Kainja, S., Matsumoto, M., Sanz Sánchez, M. J., Somogyi, Z., 2006. Forest Land. Vol. 4 of IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, Prepared by the National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Ch. 4, 83 pp. .

The reusable holdout: preserving validity in adaptive data analysis

Science, Vol. 349, No. 6248. (07 August 2015), pp. 636-638,


[Editor's summary: Testing hypotheses privately] Large data sets offer a vast scope for testing already-formulated ideas and exploring new ones. Unfortunately, researchers who attempt to do both on the same data set run the risk of making false discoveries, even when testing and exploration are carried out on distinct subsets of data. Based on ideas drawn from differential privacy, Dwork et al. now provide a theoretical solution. Ideas are tested against aggregate information, whereas individual data set components remain confidential. Preserving that ...


The integration of land change modeling framework FUTURES into GRASS GIS 7

In Free and Open Source Software for Geospatial - Open innovation for Europe, Vol. 12 (2015), pp. 21-24


Many valuable models and tools developed by scientists are often inaccessible to their potential users because of non-existent sharing infrastructure or lack of documentation. Case in point is the FUTure Urban-Regional Environment Simulation (FUTURES), a patch-based land change model for generating scenario-based regional forecasts of urban growth pattern. Despite a high- impact publication, few scientists, planners, or policy makers have adopted FUTURES due to complexity in use and lack of direct access. We seek to address these issues by integrating FUTURES into GRASS GIS, a free and open source ...


  1. Bivand, R. (2007). Using the R–Grass interface. OSGeo Journal, 1, 36-38.
  2. Chemin, Y Petras, V., Petrasova, A., Landa, M., Gebbert, S., Zambelli, P., Neteler, M., Löwe, P., Di Leo, M. (2015). GRASS GIS: a peer-reviewed scientific platform and future research repository. Geophysical Research Abstracts 17, 8314+. INRMM-MiD:13544126
  3. Di Leo, M., de Rigo, D., Rodriguez-Aseretto, D., Bosco, C., Petroliagkis, T., Camia, A., San-Miguel-Ayanz, J. (2013). Dynamic data driven ensemble for wildfire behaviour

Open Source software and GIS

In Open source GIS a GRASS GIS approach, Vol. 773 (2008), pp. 1-6,


Over the past decade, Geographical Information Systems (GIS) have evolved from a highly specialized niche to a technology that affects nearly every aspect of our lives, from finding driving directions to managing natural disasters. While just a few years ago the use of GIS was restricted to a group of researchers, planners and government workers, now almost everybody can create customized maps or overlay GIS data. On the other hand, many complex problems related to urban and regional planning, environmental protection, or business management, require ...


Introduction to the Command Line



[Excerpt: Outline] This book is an introduction to using the shell with a focus on empowering GNU/Linux newbies. This page has an outline. The book itself is being written at: [\n] [\n] It is meant to be fun and encourage the reader to play, so it is not organized in a formal manner (for instance, discussing all metacharacters in one place). Instead, features are introduced in the context of useful tasks. Rarely used features are not discussed. [\n] The main topic is ...


GRASS GIS manual:

In GRASS Development Team, 2014. GRASS GIS 7.1svn Reference Manual (2014)


[Excerpt] The suite is a toolset for multiscale analysis of landscape structure. It aims at implementing metrics as found in external software for quantitative measures of landscape structure like FRAGSTATS (McGarigal and Marks 1995). [\n] The suite offers a set of patch and diversity indices. It supports analysis of landscapes composed of a mosaic of patches, but, more generally, the modules work with any two-dimensional raster map whose cell values are integer (e.g., 1, 2) or floating point (e.g., 1.1, ...


GRASS GIS manual:

In GRASS Development Team, 2014. GRASS GIS 7.1svn Reference Manual (2014)

Abstract - Performs surface interpolation from vector points map by splines. Spatial approximation and topographic analysis from given point or isoline data in vector format to floating point raster format using regularized spline with tension. ...





[Introduction] pktools is a collection of programs written in C++ for image processing with a focus on remote sensing applications. It relies on the Geospatial Data Abstraction Library (GDAL, and OGR. [\n] All utilities in pktools use command line options and have a built in help [::] use the -h option to get help [::] pktools ALWAYS use -i for input and -o for output (unlike GDAL utilities that commonly use last argument as output and second but last argument as input) ...


Open code for open science?

Nature Geoscience, Vol. 7, No. 11. (30 October 2014), pp. 779-781,


Open source software is often seen as a path to reproducibility in computational science. In practice there are many obstacles, even when the code is freely available, but open source policies should at least lead to better quality code. ...


GRASS GIS manual: r.watershed

In GRASS Development Team, 2014. GRASS GIS 7.1svn Reference Manual (2014)


r.watershed - Calculates hydrological parameters and RUSLE factors. ...


An introduction to R : a programming environment for data analysis and graphics



This tutorial manual provides a comprehensive introduction to R, a software package for statistical computing and graphics. R supports a wide range of statistical techniques, and is easily extensible via user-defined functions written in its own language or using C, C++ or Fortran. One of R's strengths is the ease with which well-designed publication-quality plots can be produced. This is a printed copy of the tutorial manual from the R distribution, with additional examples, notes and corrections. It is based on ...


Apache License, Version 2.0

Keywords: apache2-0   free-software   licensing  


Apache License Version 2.0, January 2004 ...


Copyleft and the GNU General Public License: a comprehensive tutorial and guide



[Preface] This tutorial is the culmination of nearly a decade of studying and writing about software freedom licensing and the GPL. Each part of this tutorial is a course unto itself, educating the reader on a myriad of topics from the deep details of the GPLv2 and GPLv3, common business models in the copyleft licensing area (both the friendly and unfriendly kind), best practices for compliance with the GPL, for engineers, managers, and lawyers, as well as real-world case studies of ...


GRASS GIS manual: r.slope.aspect

In GRASS Development Team, 2014. GRASS GIS 7.1svn Reference Manual (2004)


r.slope.aspect - Generates raster maps of slope, aspect, curvatures and partial derivatives from an elevation raster map. Aspect is calculated counterclockwise from east. ...


  1. Horn, B. K. P. (1981). Hill Shading and the Reflectance Map, Proceedings of the IEEE, 69(1):14-47.
  2. Mitasova, H. (1985). Cartographic aspects of computer surface modeling. PhD thesis. Slovak Technical University , Bratislava
  3. Hofierka, J., Mitasova, H., Neteler, M., 2009. Geomorphometry in GRASS GIS. In: Hengl, T. and Reuter, H.I. (Eds), Geomorphometry: Concepts, Software, Applications. Developments in Soil Science, vol. 33, Elsevier, 387-410 pp,

Minimal make - A minimal tutorial on make



[Excerpt] I would argue that the most important tool for reproducible research is not Sweave or knitr but GNU make. Consider, for example, all of the files associated with a manuscript. In the simplest case, I would have an R script for each figure plus a LaTeX file for the main text. And then a BibTeX file for the references. Compiling the final PDF is a bit of work: [::] Run each R script through R to produce the relevant figure. [::] Run latex and ...


What does it mean for your computer to be loyal?

GNU Operating System (2014)


We say that running free software on your computer means that its operation is under your control. Implicitly this presupposes that your computer will do what your programs tell it to do, and no more. In other words, that your computer will be loyal to you. [\n] In 1990 we took that for granted; nowadays, many computers are designed to be disloyal to their users. It has become necessary to spell out what it means for your computer to be a loyal ...


Annual Coverity scan report finds open source and proprietary software quality better than industry average for second consecutive year



[Excerpt] The Coverity Scan Open Source Report has become a widely accepted standard for measuring the state of open source quality. During the past eight years, the Coverity Scan service has analyzed several hundreds of millions of lines of code from more than 1,500 open source projects – including C/C++ projects such as NetBSD, FreeBSD, LibreOffice and Linux, and Java projects such as Apache Hadoop, HBase and Cassandra. The Scan service has helped developers find and fix more than 94,000 defects ...


Curricula for ICT in education - Version #1.01



[Overview] The National Policy on ICT in school education has set the goal of preparing youth to participate creatively in the establishment, sustenance and growth of a knowledge society leading to all round socio-economic development of the nation and to be geared for global competitiveness. The National Curriculum Framework which guides the teaching-learning effort in schools cautions that technology used as a mere medium to disseminate infor- mation tends to bypass the teacher. It expresses a firm belief that teachers and children ...

This page of the database may be cited as:
Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management - Meta-information Database.

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Publication metadata

Bibtex, RIS, RSS/XML feed, Json, Dublin Core

Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD).
This database integrates a dedicated meta-information database in CiteULike (the CiteULike INRMM Group) with the meta-information available in Google Scholar, CrossRef and DataCite. The Altmetric database with Article-Level Metrics is also harvested. Part of the provided semantic content (machine-readable) is made even human-readable thanks to the DCMI Dublin Core viewer. Digital preservation of the meta-information indexed within the INRMM-MiD publication records is implemented thanks to the Internet Archive.
The library of INRMM related pubblications may be quickly accessed with the following links.
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Full-text and abstracts of the publications indexed by the INRMM meta-information database are copyrighted by the respective publishers/authors. They are subject to all applicable copyright protection. The conditions of use of each indexed publication is defined by its copyright owner. Please, be aware that the indexed meta-information entirely relies on voluntary work and constitutes a quite incomplete and not homogeneous work-in-progress.
INRMM-MiD was experimentally established by the Maieutike Research Initiative in 2008 and then improved with the help of several volunteers (with a major technical upgrade in 2011). This new integrated interface is operational since 2014.