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Selection: with tag france [52 articles] 


Extreme wildfire events are linked to global-change-type droughts in the northern Mediterranean

Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, Vol. 18, No. 3. (16 March 2018), pp. 847-856,


Increasing drought conditions under global warming are expected to alter the frequency and distribution of large and high-intensity wildfires. However, our understanding of the impact of increasing drought on extreme wildfires events remains incomplete. Here, we analyzed the weather conditions associated with the extreme wildfires events that occurred in Mediterranean France during the exceptionally dry summers of 2003 and 2016. We identified that these fires were related to two distinct shifts in the fire weather space towards fire weather conditions that ...


How wildfire risk is related to urban planning and Fire Weather Index in SE France (1990–2013)

Science of The Total Environment, Vol. 621 (April 2018), pp. 120-129,


[Highlights] [::] Land use planning in SE France led to increased housing density in 1990-2012 and maintained WUI wildfire risk constant. [::] The number of buildings increased by 30% but WUI area increased by less than 5% as housing density increased. [::] Fire frequency and burned area increase substantially as Fire Weather Index surpasses a threshold value of 90. [Abstract] Wildfires burn > 450,000 ha of forest every year in Euro-Mediterranean countries. Many fires originate in the Wildland Urban Interface (WUI) where housing density and weather ...


Spreading like wildfire

Nature Climate Change, Vol. 7, No. 11. (November 2017), pp. 755-755,


The 2017 wildfire season has seen unusually high fire levels in many parts of the world, with extensive and severe fires occurring in Chile, the Mediterranean, Russia, the US, Canada and even Greenland. Is this a sign of things to come? [Excerpt] During January and February, Chile experienced what their president Michelle Bachelet called “The greatest forest disaster in our history”. The nation was not adequately equipped to tackle these fires, leading the government to enact a state of emergency and accept ...


Sun in parts of UK and France blocked out the smoke from wildfires in Spain and Portugal

Severe Weather Europe, Vol. 2017 (2017), 111799


[Excerpt] [...] Parts of Spain and Portugal are experiencing extreme fires, caused by a combination of a dry spring and summer and likely arson. The thick smoke was advected by southerly winds into the Bay of Biscay, northwestern France (Brittany) and across the United Kingdom. Residents of this area awoke to a dark orange and brown sky, with the Sun either completely blocked or strongly subdued. While smoke from fires being blown large distances is not rare, it is rare for ...


Daily synoptic conditions associated with large fire occurrence in Mediterranean France: evidence for a wind-driven fire regime

International Journal of Climatology, Vol. 37, No. 1. (January 2017), pp. 524-533,


Changes in wildfire activity in the Mediterranean area over recent decades increase the need for a better understanding of the fire–weather relationships and for the development of reliable models to improve fire danger prediction. This study analyses daily synoptic and local weather conditions associated with the occurrence of summer large fires (LFs) in Mediterranean France during recent decades (1973–2013). The links between large fire occurrence and synoptic conditions are analysed with composites of sea level pressure and winds at 925 hPa ...


On the key role of droughts in the dynamics of summer fires in Mediterranean Europe

Scientific Reports, Vol. 7, No. 1. (6 March 2017), 81,


Summer fires frequently rage across Mediterranean Europe, often intensified by high temperatures and droughts. According to the state-of-the-art regional fire risk projections, in forthcoming decades climate effects are expected to become stronger and possibly overcome fire prevention efforts. However, significant uncertainties exist and the direct effect of climate change in regulating fuel moisture (e.g. warmer conditions increasing fuel dryness) could be counterbalanced by the indirect effects on fuel structure (e.g. warmer conditions limiting fuel amount), affecting the transition between climate-driven and ...


What causes large fires in Southern France

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 294 (April 2013), pp. 76-85,


[Highlights] [::] 0.8% Of fires were larger than 100 ha but accounted for 71% of total burned area. [::] On the whole area, the main cause was arson. [::] Occurrence mainly linked to shrubland population, minor road, fall-spring drought. [::] Burned area linked to shrubland fall–winter rain, summer drought, unemployment. [::] The areas the most affected were located to the East on the Mediterranean coast. [Abstract] In Southern France, where most wildfires occur, the fire size has never exceeded 6744 ha since 1991, whereas ...


Evidence of divergent selection for drought and cold tolerance at landscape and local scales in Abies alba Mill. in the French Mediterranean Alps

Molecular Ecology, Vol. 25, No. 3. (February 2016), pp. 776-794,


Understanding local adaptation in forest trees is currently a key research and societal priority. Geographically and ecologically marginal populations provide ideal case studies, because environmental stress along with reduced gene flow can facilitate the establishment of locally adapted populations. We sampled European silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) trees in the French Mediterranean Alps, along the margin of its distribution range, from pairs of high- and low-elevation plots on four different mountains situated along a 170-km east–west transect. The analysis of 267 ...


Decreasing fires in Mediterranean Europe

PLoS ONE, Vol. 11, No. 3. (16 March 2016), e0150663,


Forest fires are a serious environmental hazard in southern Europe. Quantitative assessment of recent trends in fire statistics is important for assessing the possible shifts induced by climate and other environmental/socioeconomic changes in this area. Here we analyse recent fire trends in Portugal, Spain, southern France, Italy and Greece, building on a homogenized fire database integrating official fire statistics provided by several national/EU agencies. During the period 1985-2011, the total annual burned area (BA) displayed a general decreasing trend, with the ...


Spatiotemporal patterns of changes in fire regime and climate: defining the pyroclimates of south-eastern France (Mediterranean Basin)

Climatic Change, Vol. 129, No. 1-2. (2015), pp. 239-251,


The impacts of climate change on fires are expected to be highly variable spatially and temporally. In heavily anthropized landscapes, the great number of factors affecting fire regimes further limits our ability to predict future fire activity caused by climate. To address this, we develop a new framework for analysing regional changes in fire regimes from specific spatiotemporal patterns of fires and climate, so-called pyroclimates. We aim to test the trends of fire activity and climate (1973–2009) across the Mediterranean and ...


Novel quantitative indicators to characterize the protective effect of mountain forests against rockfall

Ecological Indicators, Vol. 67 (August 2016), pp. 98-107,


[Highlights] [::] We modelled rockfall events on 3886 different forests located in all the French Alps. [::] We proposed two indicators to assess reductions of rockfall frequency and intensity. [::] We defined one indicator to evaluate the overall rockfall protection of each forest. [::] The indicators are easily and accurately predicted with three forest characteristics. [::] This approach has direct applications in forest management and rockfall assessment. [Abstract] Natural hazards are frequent in mountain areas where they regularly cause casualties and damages to human infrastructures. Mountain forests contribute ...


Modelling the spatial patterns of ignition causes and fire regime features in southern France: implications for fire prevention policy

International Journal of Wildland Fire, Vol. 25, No. 7. (2016), 785,


A good knowledge of the spatiotemporal patterns of the causes of wildfire ignition is crucial to an effective fire policy. However, little is known about the situation in south-eastern France because the fire database contains unreliable data. We used data for cases with well-established causes from 1973–2013 to determine the location of spatial hotspots, the seasonal distribution, the underlying anthropogenic and environmental drivers and the tendency of five main causes to generate large fires. Anthropogenic ignitions were predominant (88%) near human ...


Tree cover and seasonal precipitation drive understorey flammability in alpine mountain forests

Journal of Biogeography, Vol. 43, No. 9. (September 2016), pp. 1869-1880,


[Aim] Little is known about the understorey flammability of European mountain forests. The aim of this study was to determine the relative effects of climate, vegetation structure and composition on the fuel-driven variation in fire spread and intensity. [Location] The western Alps. [Methods] Fire spread and intensity were simulated under constant moisture and weather conditions for a wide range of understorey fuel parameters measured in the litter, grass and shrub layers. Simulation outputs were used to compare understorey flammability between different forest ecosystem types (FET). The ...


Improving biodiversity indicators of sustainable forest management: tree genus abundance rather than tree genus richness and dominance for understory vegetation in French lowland oak hornbeam forests

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 258 (06 December 2009), pp. S176-S186,


Two different biodiversity indicators based on tree species diversity are being used, in Europe and France respectively, without strong prior scientific validation: (1) tree species or genus richness as a positive indicator, and (2) relative abundance of the main species (“dominance”) as a negative indicator. We tested the relevance of these ecological models as indicators of understory vegetation biodiversity by comparing them to other ecological models, mainly related to tree species composition and abundance. We developed Bayesian statistical models for richness ...


Landownership is an unexplored determinant of forest understory plant composition in Northern France

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 306 (October 2013), pp. 281-291,


[Highlights] [::] Few studies have investigated the influence of forest landownership on biodiversity. [::] We analysed the effect of landownership on plant species and plant traits in 38,751 plots. [::] 70% of the species showed significant differences in frequency among landownerships. [::] Species in public forests were more often urbanophobic and ancient forest species. [::] Implications for large-scaled biodiversity conservation strategies are discussed. [Abstract] Few studies have investigated the influence of landownership on biodiversity. Therefore we analysed how the presence of forest understory plant species varied according to ...


(INRMM-MiD internal record) List of keywords of the INRMM meta-information database - part 16

(February 2014)
Keywords: forest-management   forest-pathogens   forest-pests   forest-product   forest-regeneration   forest-reproductive-material   forest-resource-information   forest-resources   forest-species   forest-species-composition   forest-structure   forest-succession   forest-types   forest-watering   forestcommunities   forestry   forestry-statistics   fortran   foss   fossil-energy   fossil-resources   fp7-european-research-project   fracking   fractal   fragmentation   fragmented-world   frainetto   france   frangula-alnus   frangula-spp   fraxinus-angustifolia   fraxinus-augustifolia   fraxinus-excelsior   fraxinus-mandshurica   fraxinus-ornus   fraxinus-pennsylvanica   fraxinus-spp   free-access   free-access-book   free-riders   free-science-metrics   free-scientific-knowledge   free-scientific-software   free-software   free-software-directory   free-software-license-definition   freebsd   freedom   freemat   freeze-protection   french-alps   frequency   frost   frost-damage   frost-resistance   frost-sensitivity   fruticosa   fuel   fuel-moisture   fuelwood   functional-connectivity   functional-descriptors   functional-programming   functional-traits   funding   fungal-decay   fungal-diseases   fungi   fusarium-circinatum   fusarium-lateritium   future   future-climatic-envelopes   future-earth   future-fire-activity   future-internet   future-trends   fuzzy   gaia   galanthus-plicatus   galicia   gall-attributes   game-theory   garbage-in-garbage-out   gardening   gargano   garrulus-glandarius   gbif   gc-ms   gcm   gdal   gemmae-populi   gender-biases   gene-bank   gene-conservation   general-relation   generalized-additive-model   generalized-additive-models   generalized-linear-model   generalized-linear-models   inrmm-list-of-tags  


List of indexed keywords within the transdisciplinary set of domains which relate to the Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management (INRMM). In particular, the list of keywords maps the semantic tags in the INRMM Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD). [\n] The INRMM-MiD records providing this list are accessible by the special tag: inrmm-list-of-tags ( ). ...


Effectiveness of vegetation barriers for marly sediment trapping

Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, Vol. 29, No. 9. (August 2004), pp. 1161-1169,


Vegetation barriers can be effective in trapping eroded sediment, but little knowledge exists on the characteristics of vegetation barriers efficient in trapping all sediments from an eroded zone upslope. The objective of this study is to quantify the effectiveness of vegetation barriers for marly sediment trapping. Relationships between eroded zones and vegetation barriers – composed of low vegetation, that is to say herbaceous and under-shrub layers – located downslope and sufficient to stop all the sediments eroded above, have been studied ...


Linking plant morphological traits to uprooting resistance in eroded marly lands (Southern Alps, France)

Plant and Soil In Plant and Soil, Vol. 324, No. 1-2. (2009), pp. 31-42,


In marly catchments of the French Southern Alps, soils are subjected to harsh water erosion that can result in concentrated flows uprooting small plants. Evaluating and predicting plant resistance to uprooting from simple plant traits is therefore highly important so that the most efficient plant strategy for future restoration of eroded slopes can be defined. Twelve species growing on marly land were studied. For each species, in-situ lateral uprooting tests were conducted and morphological plant traits were measured on small plants ...


CORINE biotopes manual - Habitat of the European Community: data specifications - part 2



A catalogue of the recognizable communities formed by the flora and fauna in response to the abiotic environment and to each other's influence is a prerequisite to any attempt at characterizing sites in terms of their importance for nature conservation, of inventorying such sites, of constituting coherent networks of protected sites, or of monitoring the evolution of such networks. The present typological list was developed within the context of the biotope project of the Commission of the European Communities CORINE information ...


Prodrome des végétations de France

Keywords: france   vegetation  

Notes à La Flore de Corse, XXV

Candollea, Vol. 70, No. 1. (1 June 2015), pp. 109-140,


These “notes” deal with 110 noteworthy taxa amongst which 21 are new to the island's flora. One of these taxa is native: Reseda alba subsp. hookeri and 20 are introduced: Abies pinsapo, Acer ×coriaceum, Albizia julibrissin, Arundo micrantha, Azolla filiculoides, Bolboschoenus laticarpus, Digitaria ciliaris, Digitaria violascens, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, E. globulus, Genista januensis subsp. lydia, Hedera helix subsp. maroccana, Morus kagayamae, Oenothera rosea, Paspalum vaginatum, Puccinellia festuciformis subsp. lagascana, Silene fuscata, Solanum mauritianum, Veronica filiformis and Vitis riparia × V. rupestris. The ...


Les ostryaies de l'ordre des Quercetalia pubescentis de l'arrière-pays de Nice et de Menton

Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France. Lettres Botaniques, Vol. 130, No. 2. (1 January 1983), pp. 137-152,


Etude des forêts d'Ostrya carpinifolia existant entre la vallée du Var et la frontière italienne et qui appartiennent à l'ordre des Quercetalia pubescentis. 162 relevés ont montré que ces forêts constituent une association bien différenciée, le Seslcrio argentcae-Ostryetum, dans laquelle on peut distinguer, selon l'altitude, deux sous-associations: l'une (campanuletosum persicifoliae) au-dessus de 500–600 m et jusqu'à 1 200 m, l'autre (peucedanctosum veneti) au-dessous de 500–600 m. Ces forêts contiennent beaucoup d'espèces subméditerranéennes, eurasiatiques et eurosibériennes et peu d'espèces méditerranéennes. Elles sont ...


La végétation de la Corse



La végétation de la Corse est indissociable du charme, si particulier, auquel tout visiteur succombe lorsqu'il découvre l'île. Que ce soit le long des côtes - de dunes ou de rochers -, dans le maquis ou en haute _ montagne, le paysage végétal qui la tapisse dans ses moindres reliefs suscite un émerveillement unanime. La conscience de contempler quelque chose de rare s'impose. C'est pourquoi, résolu à rendre accessible au plus grand nombre les connaissances qui s'y rapportent, habituellement réservées aux ...


Augmentation de productivité du chêne pubescent en région méditerranéenne française

Annals of Forest Science, Vol. 56, No. 3. (1999), pp. 211-219,


Quercus humilis increase of productivity in the Mediterranean area. Several recent studies have shown an increasing long-term growth trend for various forest tree species in western Europe. Nevertheless such studies have not yet been performed in Mediterranean Europe. The aim of this work is to analyse changes in productivity of some Mediterranean forest ecosystems compared with other medioeuropean forest ecosystems. Sixteen Quercus humilis (Miller) populations were sampled in south-east France. Tree ring widths were measured for each tree according to three ...


Résultats d’inventaire forestier - résultats standards (campagnes 2008 à 2012): Tome national version régions administratives

Keywords: forest-resources   france   inventories  

Inventaire forestiere: tableaux personnalises

Keywords: forest-resources   france   inventories  


Le module « Tableaux personnalisés » vous permet d’accéder à des résultats d’inventaire forestiers variés, correspondants au plus près à votre besoin. Il s’adresse plus spécifiquement à un public averti qui pourra choisir son domaine géographique (France, interrégions, etc.), son domaine d’étude (forêt / autres utilisations), les variables à calculer (surface, volume, etc.), ses critères de ventilation "arbre" (essence, diamètre) et ses critères de ventilation "placette" (exploitabilité, propriété, etc.). Les résultats proposés peuvent être obtenus selon différents découpages géographiques (administratifs ou écologiques). Le ...


Inbreeding and interspecific hybridization in Eucalyptus gunnii

Silvae Genetica, Vol. 36, No. 5-6. (1987), pp. 194-199


Results of a hybridization programme in France showed that the success and vigour of progeny of self-fertilization and close intraspecific crosses of Eucalyptus gunnii were significantly lower than for wide intraspecific crosses and a range of interspecific crosses. E. gunnii females demonstrated wide crossability, with the success of most interspecific hybrid combinations tried with species from the section Maidenaria being n.s.d. from that of wide intraspecific crosses. The only major barrier to interspecific hybridization found was with E. globulus. There was ...


Prospects for timber frame in multi-storey house building in England, France, Germany, Ireland, the Netherlands and Sweden

Vol. 52 (2009)


[Excerpt: Summary] Many countries across Europe, encouraged by EU policies, have set targets to reduce carbon-dioxide emissions and are adopting legislative methods to ensure buildings and materials help achieve individual country targets. In many cases this has led to an increased use, or at least consideration, of wood as an alternative to conventional construction materials such as steel and concrete. [\n] Apart from building regulations and other policy instruments, the potential for multi-storey timber frame buildings is first of all ...





La flore électronique eFlore est aujourd'hui la source d'informations sur la Flore de France la plus complète du net. Créée par les membres du réseau Tela Botanica, des amateurs éclairés ou des botanistes avertis, elle ne cesse de s'enrichir au fil des années. Il s’agit d’un site collaboratif, réunissant des naturalistes passionnés, et qui a pour objectif de regroupper en un seul lieu le maximum d'informations à la pointe des connaissances sur chaque science de la botanique: données sur la ...


The ‘masking effect’ of silviculture on substrate-induced plant diversity in oak-hornbeam forests from northern France

Biodiversity & Conservation In Biodiversity & Conservation, Vol. 9, No. 11. (2000), pp. 1467-1491,


Traditional measures of plant diversity from phytosociological relevés are used to compare floristical richness and diversity between different oak-hornbeam forest stands of Thiérache (Northern France). Five sets of physiognomically similar forests are distinguished according to the geological substrate: schists and sandstones, loess on schists, loess on calcareous rocks, jurassic limestones, cretaceous marls and clays. Plant species diversity is investigated at two scale levels: a phytocoenotic level and a synusial one which is supposed to partly avoid a possible silviculture-related bias. Two ...


Terres de castanide. Homme et paysage du châtaignier de l’Antiquité à nos jours



De tous ceux qui peuplent nos pays, le châtaignier est certainement le moins " naturel " des arbres. Sa culture a sans doute Ré imaginée dans le Caucase et a gagné pendant l'Antiquité l'Europe occidentale où il poussait déjà à l'état sauvage. Grâce à une sélection méthodique de ses meilleures variétés, il a été littéralement " domestiqué " à la fin du Moyen Age et à l'époque moderne. Consommés sous diverses formes, ses fruits _ d'une grande valeur nutritive _ compensèrent ...


An overview of ecology and silviculture of indigenous oaks in France

Annales des Sciences Forestières, Vol. 53, No. 2-3. (1996), pp. 649-661,


There are nine species of oaks in French forests: Quercus petraea, Q robur, Q pubescens, Q pyrenaica, Q ilex, Q rubra, Q suber, Q coccifera and Q cerris. Among them, five are of major economic and ecological importance, either because of the quality and value of their wood or because of their geographic extension, or both. Two of these species are widespread in the hills and plains of the Atlantic and of the mid-European domains: Q petraea (sessile oak), and Q ...


Les chênaies acidophiles du Médoc

In Phytosociologie et forêsterie, Actes du colloque de Nancy 1985, Vol. 14 (1988), pp. 133-166


La connaissance écologique des milieux forestiers est d'une grande importance pour la gestion forestière. C'est pourquoi on a tenu à prendre en compte dans le cadre de ce colloque toute la chaîne qui part de l'étude des milieux jusqu'à l'utilisation des données écologiques dans la gestion. L'objectif“ pourra paraître ambitieux, voire périlleux mais il a semblé utile de montrer — d'une part les réflexions et le travail mené par les phytosociologues, — d'autre part les besoins des praticiens en matière d'étude des milieux forestiers. Le ...


Treatise on Trees and Shrubs Grown in France and in the Countryside - Version translated by J B Fleishman



[:Excerpt: General Considerations] In countries with a small population, the growth of woodlands occurs naturally and is sufficient for society's needs. This is still the case in Russia, in America, and in several Oceanic islands. It was also true in Gaul at the time of Julius Caesar's conquest. He found wood suitable for construction in the Marseille region, and as his army advanced, impenetrable forests where Druids worshipped peacefully and which provided a secure refuge for those who sought to evade the conqueror's yoke. But this ...


Rapid Invasion of Fraxinus ornus L. Along the Hérault River System in Southern France: The Importance of Seed Dispersal by Water

Journal of Biogeography, Vol. 18, No. 1. (January 1991), pp. 7-12


To document the range extension of a plant species in a region in which it was previously absent, we have examined the distribution pattern of Fraxinus ornus L. 65 years after its introduction to the Hérault River in southern France. Censuses of flowering individuals showed that Fraxinus ornus successfully colonized, but remained mainly restricted to, flood-disturbed riparian habitats in the Hérault River system. The present distribution of this species showed that it spread along the river system at an average rate ...


Impact du changement climatique sur la productivité forestière et le déplacement d'une limite bioclimatique en région méditerranéenne française

Sciences Eaux & Territoires, la revue d'Irstea, Vol. 44 (December 2005), pp. 49-61


Cet article présente l'approche méthodologique utilisée pour l'étude de l'impact du changement climatique sur la productivité de la forêt méditerranéenne et le déplacement de la limite bioclimatique entre pin d'Alep et pin sylvestre. Il donne aussi quelques uns des principaux résultats synthétiques de ces travaux. Les travaux sont surtout basés sur la dendroécologie, étude des relations entre l'environnement et les cernes de croissance des arbres. Le dispositif expérimental comporte une série de placettes alignées le long d'un transect altitudinal sur le ...


Isoenzymes as an aid to clarify the taxonomy of French elms

Heredity, Vol. 74, No. 1. (January 1995), pp. 39-47,


Isoenzymes were used to assess the genetic variability of the three French species of elms: Ulmus laevis Pall. from section Blepharocarpus, Ulmus minor Mill. and Ulmus glabra Huds. from section Ulmus. Three main results were obtained. The first was that these species are segmental tetraploids, i.e. they behave as tetraploids for part of the genome and as diploids for the rest of it. Secondly, we found that there exists a large amount of polymorphism in the French species of elm. Thirdly, ...


Gaps promote plant diversity in beech forests (Luzulo-Fagetum), North Vosges, France

Annals of Forest Science, Vol. 62, No. 5. (July 2005), pp. 429-440,


Windstorms are major di sturbance factors in temperate forests of Western Eur ope. With climatic changes those events are likely to become more frequent. The study of their impacts on plant communitie s is essential. Therefore our objective was to evaluate the differences of the plant community after the 1999 windstorm that blew down appr oximately 968 000 ha across France. This study took place in th e North Vosges (36 800 ha destroyed). Th e differences in species diversit y, ...


The wind and fire disturbance in Central European mountain spruce forests: the regeneration after four years

Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae, Vol. 82, No. 1. (29 March 2013), pp. 13-24,


A strong windstorm in November 2004 resulted in a huge blown-down spruce forest area in the southern part of the Tatra National Park in the Western Carpathians in Slovakia, Central Europe. The aim of this work is to study the vegetation composition of spruce forest at differently managed sites four years after this disturbance. Four study areas were selected for this purpose: (i) an area where the fallen trees were extracted and new seedlings were planted; (ii) an area, which was ...


Expansion of geographic range in the pine processionary moth caused by increased winter temperatures

Ecological Applications, Vol. 15, No. 6. (December 2005), pp. 2084-2096,


Global warming is predicted to cause distributional changes in organisms whose geographic ranges are controlled by temperature. We report a recent latitudinal and altitudinal expansion of the pine processionary moth, Thaumetopoea pityocampa, whose larvae build silk nests and feed on pine foliage in the winter. In north-central France (Paris Basin), its range boundary has shifted by 87 km northwards between 1972 and 2004; in northern Italy (Alps), an altitudinal shift of 110–230 m upwards occurred between 1975 and 2004. By experimentally ...


Secondary succession of Alnus viridis (Chaix) DC. in Vanoise National Park, France: coexistence of sexual and vegetative strategies | Annals of Forest Science

Annals of Forest Science, Vol. 59, No. 4. (2002), pp. 419-428,


In the western Alps, Alnus viridis expansion on subalpine grasslands brings major modifications in the functioning of ecological systems. The aim of this study was to assess which reproduction strategies were responsible for colonization and persistence of the shrub. Indices of vegetative and sexual reproduction were assessed in four 100 m2 sites distinguished by the date of A. viridis settlement to determine the prevalent strategy as a function of age of the A. viridis stand. Results indicated that sexual allocation to reproduction was effective in ...


Scientific Opinion on the pest categorisation of Elm phloem necrosis mycoplasm

EFSA Journal, Vol. 12, No. 7. (July 2014), 3773,


The Panel on Plant Health performed a pest categorisation of Elm phloem necrosis mycoplasma, now renamed Candidatus Phytoplasma ulmi (CPu), for the European Union (EU) territory. CPu is a well-defined phytoplasma species of the genus Candidatus Phytoplasma, for which molecular detection assays are available. CPu is transmitted by grafting and vegetative propagation material as well as by insect vectors. CPu is reported from North America and is present in at least four EU Member States: the Czech Republic, France, Germany and Italy. CPu distribution in Europe ...


  1. Arnaud, G., Malembic-Maher, S., Salar, P., Bonnet, P., Maixner, M., Marcone, C., Boudon-Padieu, E., and Foissac, X., 2007. Multilocus Sequence Typing confirms the close genetic interrelatedness of three distinct Flavescence Dorée Phytoplasma strain lusters and group 16SrV Phytoplasmas infecting grapevine and alder in Europe. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 73, 4001–4010.
  2. Baker, W.L., 1949. Studies on the transmission of the virus causing phloem necrosis of American elm, with notes on the biology of its insect

Modelling and simulating change in reforesting mountain landscapes using a social-ecological framework

Landscape Ecology In Landscape Ecology, Vol. 25, No. 2. (1 February 2010), pp. 267-285,


Natural reforestation of European mountain landscapes raises major environmental and societal issues. With local stakeholders in the Pyrenees National Park area (France), we studied agricultural landscape colonisation by ash (Fraxinus excelsior) to enlighten its impacts on biodiversity and other landscape functions of importance for the valley socio-economics. The study comprised an integrated assessment of land-use and land-cover change (LUCC) since the 1950s, and a scenario analysis of alternative future policy. We combined knowledge and methods from landscape ecology, land change and ...


Direct and indirect effects of shade on four forest tree seedlings in the French Alps

Ecology, Vol. 84, No. 10. (October 2003), pp. 2741-2750,


A number of authors have documented a higher occurrence of tree seedlings below the canopy of adult trees than in openings, particularly in mesic conditions, where increases in resources in openings stimulate the growth of competing shade-intolerant forbs. These patterns may be explained by indirect facilitation. Indirect facilitation has been mainly explored using models, and too few experimental studies have been conducted to understand the conditions under which it is likely to occur. We test here the indirect facilitation model in ...


Biomass, nutrient content, litterfall and nutrient return to the soil in Mediterranean oak forests

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 119, No. 1-3. (June 1999), pp. 39-49,


We estimated above-ground biomass, nutrient content, litterfall and nutrient return to the soil in deciduous and evergreen Quercus pyrenaica Will., Quercus lanuginosa Lamk and evergreen Quercus ilex L. oak forests, respectively, near Salamanca (Spain) and Montpellier (France). The calculated biomass ranged from 64 to 121 Mg ha−1. Perennial material (trunks and branches) represented 96–97% in the four Spanish Q. pyrenaica stands and 93% in the French Q. lanuginosa and Q. ilex stands. Q. pyrenaica had higher P, Mg, Fe and Mn contents than ...


Patterns of Land-use Abandonment Control Tree-recruitment and Forest Dynamics in Mediterranean Mountains

Ecosystems In Ecosystems, Vol. 10, No. 6. (1 September 2007), pp. 936-948,


Mediterranean ecosystems have been impacted for millennia by human practices, particularly agricultural and pastoral activities. Since the middle of the nineteenth century, land-use abandonment has lead to scrubland and forest expansion, especially in mountain areas of the northern Mediterranean basin. This study aimed at analyzing how grazing history affects subsequent forest dynamics at a site located in the limestone foothills of the Southern Alps (France). The approach combines archival documents and dendroecology to investigate the origin, establishment and development of forest ...


Sensitivity of French temperate coniferous forests to climate variability and extreme events (Abies alba, Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris)

Journal of Vegetation Science, Vol. 21, No. 2. (2010), pp. 364-376,


Questions: (1) How do extreme climatic events and climate variability influence radial growth of conifers (silver fir, Norway spruce, Scots pine)? (2) How do elevation and soil water capacity (SWC) modulate sensitivity to climate? Location: The sampled conifer stands are in France, in western lowland and mountain forests, at elevations from 400 to 1700 m, and an SWC from 50 to 190 mm. Methods: We established stand chronologies for total ring width, earlywood and latewood width for the 33 studied ...


Long-term vegetation changes in an Abies alba forest: natural development compared with response to fertilization

Journal of Vegetation Science, Vol. 3, No. 4. (1992), pp. 467-474,


Abstract. A fertilization experiment was set up in 1969 in a mature fir forest (Abies alba Mill.) in the Vosges Mountains in France, at an elevation of 800 m, on poor granites. It consists of 65 plots (250 m2), divided into 8 treatments: control, N, P, Ca, N+P, N+Ca, P+Ca, N+P+Ca. The quantities of fertilizers were: 200 kg.ha-1 N, 150 kg.ha-1 P2O5, 1500 kg.ha-1 CaO. The humus type and the ground vegetation were described in 1969, and descriptions were repeated ...


Extreme tree rings in spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) and fir (Abies alba Mill.) stands in relation to climate, site, and space in the Southern French and Italian Alps

Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research, Vol. 32, No. 1. (February 2000), 1,


The similarity over long distances of dendroecological pointer years (with extreme ring-widths) were studied at both regional and country scales in order to investigate the geographical extension of climate influences on tree-rings. Two common species, Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) and white fir (Abies alba Mill.) were compared. The regional study was carried out on 33 populations located in four alpine valleys along a climatic gradient of summer aridity (Tarentaise, Maurienne, and Briançonnais, in France, and Susa valley in Italy). For ...


Climate-tree-growth relationships of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) in the French Permanent Plot Network (RENECOFOR)

Trees - Structure and Function, Vol. 19, No. 4. (1 June 2005), pp. 385-401,


The influence of climate on the radial growth of Fagus sylvatica was investigated using 15 chronologies developed from mature stands of the French Permanent Plot Network (RENECOFOR) growing under different climatic and soil conditions. The relationships between climate and ring widths were analyzed using extreme growth years, simple correlations and response functions analysis. Monthly climatic regressors were derived by a physiological water balance model that used daily climatic data and stand parameters to estimate soil water deficits. The three most frequent ...

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