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Selection: with tag fragmentation [85 articles] 


Generalized 3D fragmentation index derived from lidar point clouds

Open Geospatial Data, Software and Standards, Vol. 2, No. 1. (20 April 2017),


[Background] Point clouds with increased point densities create new opportunities for analyzing landscape structure in 3D space. Taking advantage of these dense point clouds we have extended a 2D forest fragmentation index developed for regional scale analyses into a 3D index for analyzing vegetation structure at a much finer scale. [Methods] Based on the presence or absence of points in a 3D raster (voxel model) the 3D fragmentation index is used to evaluate the configuration of a cell’s 3D neighborhood resulting in fragmentation classes ...


Why mountain passes are higher in the tropics

The American Naturalist, Vol. 101, No. 919. (1 May 1967), pp. 233-249,


This paper is designed to draw attention to the relation between tropical climatic uniformity at a given site and the effectiveness of topographic barriers adjacent to the site in preventing movements of plants and animals. This is not an attempt to explain tropical species diversity (see Pianka, 1966, for a review of this subject), but rather to discuss a factor that should be considered in any discussion of the relation between topographic and climatic diversity, and population isolation. Simpson (1964) states ...


Stay or go - How topographic complexity influences alpine plant population and community responses to climate change

Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics (November 2017),


In the face of climate change, populations have two survival options − they can remain in situ and tolerate the new climatic conditions (“stay”), or they can move to track their climatic niches (“go”). For sessile and small-stature organisms like alpine plants, staying requires broad climatic tolerances, realized niche shifts due to changing biotic interactions, acclimation through plasticity, or rapid genetic adaptation. Going, in contrast, requires good dispersal and colonization capacities. Neither the magnitude of climate change experienced locally nor the ...


An ecoregion-based approach to protecting half the terrestrial realm

BioScience (14 April 2017),


We assess progress toward the protection of 50% of the terrestrial biosphere to address the species-extinction crisis and conserve a global ecological heritage for future generations. Using a map of Earth's 846 terrestrial ecoregions, we show that 98 ecoregions (12%) exceed Half Protected; 313 ecoregions (37%) fall short of Half Protected but have sufficient unaltered habitat remaining to reach the target; and 207 ecoregions (24%) are in peril, where an average of only 4% of natural habitat remains. We propose a ...


A global map of roadless areas and their conservation status

Science, Vol. 354, No. 6318. (16 December 2016), pp. 1423-1427,


[Too many roads] Roads have done much to help humanity spread across the planet and maintain global movement and trade. However, roads also damage wild areas and rapidly contribute to habitat degradation and species loss. Ibisch et al. cataloged the world's roads. Though most of the world is not covered by roads, it is fragmented by them, with only 7% of land patches created by roads being greater than 100 km2. Furthermore, environmental protection of roadless areas is insufficient, which could lead ...


Spatial vegetation patterns and imminent desertification in Mediterranean arid ecosystems

Nature, Vol. 449, No. 7159. (13 September 2007), pp. 213-217,


Humans and climate affect ecosystems and their services1, which may involve continuous and discontinuous transitions from one stable state to another2. Discontinuous transitions are abrupt, irreversible and among the most catastrophic changes of ecosystems identified1. For terrestrial ecosystems, it has been hypothesized that vegetation patchiness could be used as a signature of imminent transitions3, 4. Here, we analyse how vegetation patchiness changes in arid ecosystems with different grazing pressures, using both field data and a modelling approach. In the modelling approach, ...


Long-term variability of Abies alba in NW Romania: implications for its conservation management

Diversity and Distributions, Vol. 14, No. 6. (November 2008), pp. 1004-1017,


[Aim] Although Abies alba is not yet prioritized for conservation in many European countries, its importance is acknowledged under the EU Directive on the marketing for forest reproductive material. The Apuseni National Park contains one of the largest areas of remnant native A. alba in central eastern Europe. Here, we examine the antiquity of the present A. alba communities in the forests of NW Romania and the drivers behind their variability over the last 6000 years leading to current distribution ...


Connecting models, data, and concepts to understand fragmentation's ecosystem-wide effects

Ecography, Vol. 40, No. 1. (January 2017), pp. 1-8,


[Excerpt: Conclusions] The body of experimental and theoretical work that has accumulated on the problem of habitat fragmentation has slowly matured over the years, and this Special Issue highlights this growth. Yet, it also provides a springboard to the new frontiers in fragmentation research. These areas include in particular the interplay between evolutionary and metacommunity dynamics with fragments, and this interface should be the subject of inquiry that integrates theory, experiment, and observation with resources at hand. New large-scale, experimental research should ...


Adaptation, migration or extirpation: climate change outcomes for tree populations

Evolutionary Applications, Vol. 1, No. 1. (1 February 2008), pp. 95-111,


Species distribution models predict a wholesale redistribution of trees in the next century, yet migratory responses necessary to spatially track climates far exceed maximum post-glacial rates. The extent to which populations will adapt will depend upon phenotypic variation, strength of selection, fecundity, interspecific competition, and biotic interactions. Populations of temperate and boreal trees show moderate to strong clines in phenology and growth along temperature gradients, indicating substantial local adaptation. Traits involved in local adaptation appear to be the product of small ...


Temperate and boreal rainforest relicts of Europe

In Temperate and Boreal Rainforests of the World: Ecology and Conservation (2011), pp. 154-180,
Keywords: abies-alba   acer-pseudoplatanus   aconitum-spp   alces-alces   alnus-glutinosa   alnus-incana   anemone-trifolia   aquila-chrysaetos   arthonia-leucopellaea   asplenium-scolopendrium   athyrium-filix-femina   balkan-peninsula   betula-pendula   betula-pubescens   biodiversity   bison-bonasus   boreal-forests   buteo-buteo   calluna-vulgaris   canis-lupus   capreolus-capreolus   carduus-personata   central-europe   cervus-elaphus   cervus-nippon   cicerbita-alpine   conservation   cortusa-matthioli   corylus-avellana   dryocopus-martius   dryopteris-carthusiana   dryopteris-dilatata   dryopteris-spp   endangered-species   epimedium-alpinum   euphorbia-austriaca   europe   fagus-sylvatica   felis-silvestris   forest-resources   fragmentation   fraxinus-excelsior   grazing   gymnocarpium-dryopteris   habitat-conservation   hacquetia-epipactis   hotspot   ilex-aquifolium   lagopus-muta   lamium-orvala   larix-eurolepis   lichens   lobaria-amplissima   lobaria-scrobiculata   lunaria-rediviva   lynx-lynx   lyrurus-tetrix   meles-meles   milvus-milvus   norway   omphalodes-verna   picea-abies   picea-sitchensis   pinus-contorta   pleurospermum-austriacum   populus-tremula   prunus-avium   pseudotsuga-menziesii   pyrenula-laevigata   quercus-petraea   quercus-robur   quercus-spp   rainforest   rhododendron-ponticum   rupicapra-rupicapra   salix-caprea   salix-spp   sanicula-europaea   saxifraga-rotundifolia   sorbus-aucuparia   strix-uralensis   sus-scrofa   taxus-baccata   temperate-forests   tetrao-urogallus   thalictrum-aquilegifolium   thelotrema-lepadinum   tilia-cordata   tilia-platyphyllos   ulmus-glabra   vaccinium-myrtillus  


European temperate rainforests are disjunctly distributed from ~45° to 69°N latitude, where they are influenced by maritime climates (see figure 6-1). Storms originating in the North Atlantic and the Mediterranean (Balkans) provide for mild winters, cool summers, and adequate precipitation to sustain rainforests throughout the year. Due to extensive deforestation, however, today’s European rainforests are mere fragments of primeval rainforests. A reminder of a bygone era when rainforests flourished, they are barely hanging on as contemporary rainforest relicts (see box 6-1). ...


Bistability, spatial interaction, and the distribution of tropical forests and savannas

Ecosystems (2016), pp. 1-12,


Recent work has indicated that tropical forest and savanna can be alternative stable states under a range of climatic conditions. However, dynamical systems theory suggests that in case of strong spatial interactions between patches of forest and savanna, a boundary between both states is only possible at conditions in which forest and savanna are equally stable, called the ‘Maxwell point.’ Frequency distributions of MODIS tree-cover data at 250 m resolution were used to estimate such Maxwell points with respect to the ...


Predicting the impacts of edge effects in fragmented habitats

Biological Conservation, Vol. 55, No. 1. (1991), pp. 77-92,


We propose a protocol for assessing the ecological impacts of edge effects in fragments of natural habitat surrounded by induced (artificial) edges. The protocol involves three steps: (1) identification of focal taxa of particular conservation or management interest, (2) measurement of an ‘edge function’ that describes the response of these taxa to induced edges, and (3) use of a ‘Core-Area Model’ to extrapolate edge function parameters to existing or novel situations. The Core-Area Model accurately estimates the total area of pristine ...


Curbing an onslaught of 2 billion cars



Nature could soon be imperiled by twice as many vehicles and enough new roads to encircle the planet more than 600 times. [Excerpt] By 2010, our planet had reached a remarkable milestone: one billion cars—or, to be precise, one billion motorized vehicles, including cars, trucks, buses, and motorcycles but excluding off-road vehicles such as tractors and bulldozers. Of course, the overwhelming majority of these vehicles are powered by fossil fuels. And if that figure isn’t troubling enough, by 2030, it’s projected that ...


Effects of habitat fragmentation on biodiversity

Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, Vol. 34, No. 1. (2003), pp. 487-515,


The literature on effects of habitat fragmentation on biodiversity is huge. It is also very diverse, with different authors measuring fragmentation in different ways and, as a consequence, drawing different conclusions regarding both the magnitude and direction of its effects. Habitat fragmentation is usually defined as a landscape-scale process involving both habitat loss and the breaking apart of habitat. Results of empirical studies of habitat fragmentation are often difficult to interpret because (a) many researchers measure fragmentation at the patch scale, ...


Changes to plant species richness in forest fragments: fragment age, disturbance and fire history may be as important as area

Journal of Biogeography, Vol. 29, No. 5-6. (May 2002), pp. 749-765,


[Aim] The impact of fragmentation on a eucalypt forest was investigated by examining the effects of fragment size, time since fragmentation, degree of anthropogenic disturbance to fragment interiors, and time since fire, on native and exotic plant species richness per unit area. [Location] Two areas of dry open-forest were studied on the central coast of New South Wales in south-eastern Australia. Fifty forest fragments were located at Tomago, an area progressively fragmented over the last 60 years, most recently by clearing for sand-mining. Also ...


Relative contribution of edge and interior zones to patch size effect on species richness: an example for woody plants

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 259, No. 3. (18 January 2010), pp. 266-274,


In order to understand the capacity of habitats to conserve species, many authors have searched for a species–area relationship (SAR) to evaluate the effect of patch size on species richness in habitat fragments. However, a range of different processes may underlie or obscure this relationship. For woody plant species in forest fragments, as for other taxa, considering forest edges separately in the investigation of SAR is particularly relevant. The objective of our study was to evaluate edge influence on SAR in ...


Understorey plant species richness and composition in metropolitan forest archipelagos: effects of forest size, adjacent land use and distance to the edge

Global Ecology and Biogeography, Vol. 15, No. 1. (January 2006), pp. 50-62,


[Aim] To address the relative role of adjacent land use, distance to forest edge, forest size and their interactions on understorey plant species richness and composition in perimetropolitan forests. [Location] The metropolitan area of Barcelona, north-eastern Spain. [Methods]  Twenty sampling sites were distributed in two forest size-categories: small forest patches (8–90 ha) and large forest areas (> 18,000 ha). For each forest-size category, five sites were placed adjacent to crops and five sites adjacent to urban areas. Vascular plant species were recorded and human ...


Habitat destruction: death by a thousand cuts

In Conservation Biology for All (01 January 2010), pp. 73-87,


[Excerpt] Humankind has dramatically transformed much of the Earth’s surface and its natural ecosystems. This process is not new—it has been ongoing for millennia—but it has accelerated sharply over the last two centuries, and especially in the last several decades. [\n] Today, the loss and degradation of natural habitats can be likened to a war of attrition. Many natural ecosystems are being progressively razed, bulldozed, and felled by axes or chainsaws, until only small scraps of their original extent survive. Forests have been hit especially hard: the global area of forests has been reduced ...


Biomass collapse in Amazonian forest fragments

Science, Vol. 278, No. 5340. (7 November 1997), pp. 1117-1118,


Rain forest fragments in central Amazonia were found to experience a dramatic loss of above-ground tree biomass that is not offset by recruitment of new trees. These losses were largest within 100 meters of fragment edges, where tree mortality is sharply increased by microclimatic changes and elevated wind turbulence. Permanent study plots within 100 meters of edges lost up to 36 percent of their biomass in the first 10 to 17 years after fragmentation. Lianas (climbing woody vines) increased near edges ...


(INRMM-MiD internal record) List of keywords of the INRMM meta-information database - part 14

(February 2014)
Keywords: forest-fires   forest-floor-low-light-availability   forest-focus   forest-focus-monitoring   forest-inventories   forest-land-reclamation   forest-loss   forest-management   forest-pathogens   forest-pests   forest-product   forest-regeneration   forest-reproductive-material   forest-resource-information   forest-resources   forest-species   forest-species-composition   forest-structure   forest-succession   forest-types   forest-watering   forestcommunities   forestry   forestry-statistics   fortran   fossil-energy   fossil-resources   fp7-european-research-project   fracking   fractal   fragmentation   fragmented-world   frainetto   france   frangula-alnus   frangula-spp   fraxinus   fraxinus-angustifolia   fraxinus-augustifolia   fraxinus-excelsior   fraxinus-mandshurica   fraxinus-ornus   fraxinus-pennsylvanica   fraxinus-spp   free-access   free-access-book   free-riders   free-science-metrics   free-scientific-knowledge   free-scientific-software   free-software   free-software-directory   free-software-license-definition   freedom   freemat   french-alps   frequency   frost-resistance   frost-sensitivity   fruticosa   fuel   fuel-moisture   fuelwood   functional-connectivity   functional-descriptors   functional-programming   functional-traits   fungal-decay   fungal-diseases   fungi   fusarium-circinatum   fusarium-lateritium   future   future-climatic-envelopes   future-earth   future-internet   future-trends   fuzzy   gaia   galanthus-plicatus   galicia   gall-attributes   game-theory   gardening   gargano   garrulus-glandarius   gbif   gc-ms   gcm   gdal   gemmae-populi   gender-biases   gene-bank   gene-conservation   general-relation   generalized-additive-model   generalized-additive-models   generalized-linear-model   inrmm-list-of-tags  


List of indexed keywords within the transdisciplinary set of domains which relate to the Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management (INRMM). In particular, the list of keywords maps the semantic tags in the INRMM Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD). [\n] The INRMM-MiD records providing this list are accessible by the special tag: inrmm-list-of-tags ( ). ...


Green paper on forest protection and information in the EU: preparing forests for climate change

COM Documents, Vol. 2010, No. COM/2010/0066 final. (1 March 2010)


[Excerpt: Introduction] The purpose of this Green Paper is to launch the debate on options for a European Union (EU) approach to forest protection and information in the framework of the EU Forest Action Plan, as announced by the Commission in the White Paper "Adapting to Climate Change: towards a European Framework for action"[1]. The Council conclusions of 25 June 2009 on this White Paper underlined that climate change has had and will have an impact, inter alia, on forests. As these ...


Commission staff working document - impact assessment, Part 1 accompanying the document: Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions - An EU strategy on adaptation to climate change

Commission Staff Working Document, Vol. 2013, No. SWD/2013/0132 final. (16 April 2013)


[Excerpt: Climate change and the need for adaptation] The increase in global surface temperature is the most obvious aspect of anthropogenic climate change. The average temperature for the European land area for the last decade (2002-2011) is 1.3°C above the preindustrial average, which makes the increase over Europe faster than the global average. Moreover, significant economic losses[6] and human fatalities associated with extreme weather events, such as heat waves, droughts and heavy precipitation, have been registered. [\n] Climate change will continue for ...


Extinction debt of forest plants persists for more than a century following habitat fragmentation

Ecology, Vol. 87, No. 3. (March 2006), pp. 542-548,


Following habitat fragmentation individual habitat patches may lose species over time as they pay off their “extinction debt.” Species with relatively low rates of population extinction and colonization (“slow” species) may maintain extinction debts for particularly prolonged periods, but few data are available to test this prediction. We analyzed two unusually detailed data sets on forest plant distributions and land-use history from Lincolnshire, United Kingdom, and Vlaams-Brabant, Belgium, to test for an extinction debt in relation to species-specific extinction and colonization ...


The biodiversity-dependent ecosystem service debt

Ecology Letters, Vol. 18, No. 2. (February 2015), pp. 119-134,


Habitat destruction is driving biodiversity loss in remaining ecosystems, and ecosystem functioning and services often directly depend on biodiversity. Thus, biodiversity loss is likely creating an ecosystem service debt: a gradual loss of biodiversity-dependent benefits that people obtain from remaining fragments of natural ecosystems. Here, we develop an approach for quantifying ecosystem service debts, and illustrate its use to estimate how one anthropogenic driver, habitat destruction, could indirectly diminish one ecosystem service, carbon storage, by creating an extinction debt. We estimate ...


Genetic consequences of habitat fragmentation in long-lived tree species: the case of the Mediterranean holm oak (Quercus ilex, L.)

Journal of Heredity, Vol. 101, No. 6. (01 November 2010), pp. 717-726,


Large-scale forest fragmentation can increase interpopulation genetic differentiation and erode the genetic variability of remnant plant populations. In this study, we analyze the extent of clonality and the genetic variability and structure within a holm oak (Quercus ilex) population from Central Spain at 3 patches showing different degrees of fragmentation. For this purpose, we have typed 191 individuals (105 adults and 86 saplings) at 9 microsatellite loci. Microsatellite markers revealed an extensive clonal structure in this species, with most analyzed clumps ...


Increasing human dominance of tropical forests

Science, Vol. 349, No. 6250. (21 August 2015), pp. 827-832,


Tropical forests house over half of Earth’s biodiversity and are an important influence on the climate system. These forests are experiencing escalating human influence, altering their health and the provision of important ecosystem functions and services. Impacts started with hunting and millennia-old megafaunal extinctions (phase I), continuing via low-intensity shifting cultivation (phase II), to today’s global integration, dominated by intensive permanent agriculture, industrial logging, and attendant fires and fragmentation (phase III). Such ongoing pressures, together with an intensification of global environmental ...


Forest history and the development of old-growth characteristics in fragmented boreal forests

Journal of Vegetation Science, Vol. 20, No. 1. (1 February 2009), pp. 91-106,


[Questions] Can small and isolated high-conservation value forests (e.g. designated woodland key habitats) maintain old-growth forest characteristics and functionality in fragmented landscapes? To what extent have past disturbances (natural and anthropogenic) influenced the development of old-growth characteristics of these forests? How long does it take for selectively cut stands to attain conditions resembling old-growth forests? [Location] Southern boreal zone of central Sweden. [Methods] We linked multiple lines of evidence from historical records, biological archives, and analyses of current forest structure to reconstruct the ...


Genetic effects of chronic habitat fragmentation on tree species: the case of Sorbus aucuparia in a deforested Scottish landscape

Molecular Ecology, Vol. 13, No. 3. (March 2004), pp. 573-584,


Sustainable forest restoration and management practices require a thorough understanding of the influence that habitat fragmentation has on the processes shaping genetic variation and its distribution in tree populations. We quantified genetic variation at isozyme markers and chloroplast DNA (cpDNA), analysed by polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) in severely fragmented populations of Sorbus aucuparia (Rosaceae) in a single catchment (Moffat) in southern Scotland. Remnants maintain surprisingly high levels of gene diversity (HE) for isozymes (HE = 0.195) and cpDNA ...


Landscape fragmentation assessment using a single measure

Wildlife Society Bulletin, Vol. 28, No. 4. (2000), pp. 875-881


Measurement of fragmentation is crucial for determining its consequences and to develop policy for nature conservation. We propose a fragmentation measure |Φ| which combines, using a multidimensional Euclidean distance, 4 main characteristics of frag-mented landscapes: total habitat area, total habitat perimeter, number of patches, and patch isolation. Its properties can be summarized as: 1) |Φ| reflects the overall fragmen-tation status; 2) every component of |Φ| is accepted as a measure of fragmentation; 3) every component of |Φ| is a normalized variable; ...


Changes and status of mangrove habitat in Ganges delta: case study in Indian part of Sundarbans

International Journal of Geology, Earth & Environmental Sciences, Vol. 4, No. 3. (2014), pp. 109-118


This paper quantifies the changes and present status of mangrove forest in Indian part of Sundarban from 1975 to 2014 using Landsat MSS (1975), TM (1990), ETM (2002) and OLM (2014) satellite imageries. The study used two image processing techniques: Maximum Likelihood Classification for the Land use and land cover analysis and NDVI for the vegetation characteristics and their temporal changes. The research found that the area of mangrove gradually decreases from 203752 hector (44%) to 132723 hector (31 %) and the barren land increases from ...


  1. Alongi, D., (2008). Mangrove forests: resilience, protection from tsunamis, and responses to global climate change. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 76, 1-13.
  2. Bado, N.R., and Froehlich, J.W., (1998). Community-Based Mangrove Rehabilitation: A Lesson Learned from East Sinjai, South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Indonesia: The World Bank.
  3. Berger, U., Rivera-Monroy, V.H., Doyle, T.W., Dahdouh-guebas, F., Duke, N.C., Fontalvo Herazo, M.L., and Twilley, R., (2008). Advances and limitations of individual-based models to analyze

Habitat-based statistical models for predicting the spatial distribution of butterflies and day-flying moths in a fragmented landscape

Journal of Applied Ecology, Vol. 37, No. s1. (September 2000), pp. 60-72,


1. Most species’ surveys and biodiversity inventories are limited by time and money. Therefore, it would be extremely useful to develop predictive models of animal distributions based on habitat, and to use these models to estimate species' densities and range sizes in poorly sampled regions. 2. In this study, two sets of data were collected. The first set consisted of over 2000 butterfly transect counts, which were used to determine the relative density of each species in 16 major habitat types in a 35-km2 ...


Natural disturbance and patch dynamics: an introduction

In The Ecology of Natural Disturbance and Patch Dynamics (1985), pp. 3-13,


The idea of a 'patch' implies a relatively discrete spatial pattern, incorporating relationships both with other patches and with surrounding non-patch areas. 'Disturbance' and 'perturbation', often used synonymously, are here distinguished, the former involving environmental fluctuations and destructive events, even if these are normal to the system, the latter indicating any change in a parameter that defines a system and viewed in terms of that whole system. Endogenous and exogenous causes of disturbance are noted, and implications for changes in the ...


Landscape structure effects on forest plant diversity at local scale: Exploring the role of spatial extent

Ecological Complexity, Vol. 21 (March 2015), pp. 44-52,


[Highlights] [::] Landscape structure effects on plant diversity were assessed at different scales. [::] Multiple regression models and variance partitioning techniques were applied. [::] The predictive power of the model increases with increasing extent. [::] Landscape structure explains a large part of variance in forest specialist species. [::] The medium extent combines high variance explained and the low collinearity. [Abstract] Since landscape attributes show different patterns at different spatial extents, it is fundamental to identify how the relation between landscape structure and plant species diversity at local scale ...


Global-Scale Patterns of Forest Fragmentation

Conservation Ecology, Vol. 4, No. 2. (2000), 3


We report an analysis of forest fragmentation based on 1-km resolution land-cover maps for the globe. Measurements in analysis windows from 81 km2 (9×9 pixels, "small" scale) to 59,049 km2 (243×243 pixels, "large" scale) were used to characterize the fragmentation around each forested pixel. We identified six categories of fragmentation (interior, perforated, edge, transitional, patch, and undetermined) from the amount of forest and its occurrence as adjacent forest pixels. Interior forest exists only at relatively small scales; at larger scales, forests ...


Landscape indices as measures of the effects of fragmentation: can pattern reflect process?

Vol. 98 (2003)


This review examines landscape indices and their usefulness in reflecting the effects of ecosystem fragmentation. Rapid fragmentation of natural ecosystems by anthropogenic activity spurred the development of landscape indices, which occurred in three phases. In proliferation, indices were introduced to quantify aspects of fragmentation, including composition, shape, and configuration. In re-evaluation, several studies demonstrated that landscape indices vary with varying landscape attributes, correlate highly with one another, and relate differently to different processes. Finally, in re-direction, efforts shifted towards developing new or modified indices motivated by ecological theory or incorporating ...


Edge geometry influences patch-level habitat use by an edge specialist in south-eastern Australia

Landscape Ecology In Landscape Ecology, Vol. 23, No. 4. (2008), pp. 377-389,


We investigated patterns in habitat use by the noisy miner (Manorina melanocephala) along farmland-woodland edges of large patches of remnant vegetation (>300 ha) in the highly fragmented box-ironbark woodlands and forests of central Victoria, Australia. Noisy miners exclude small birds from their territories, and are considered a significant threat to woodland bird communities in the study region. Seventeen different characteristics of edge habitat were recorded, together with the detection or non-detection of noisy miners along 129 500-m segments of patch edge. Habitat ...


Effects of remote sensor spatial resolution and data aggregation on selected fragmentation indices

Landscape Ecology In Landscape Ecology, Vol. 19, No. 2. (2004), pp. 197-209,


Analyzing the effect of scale on landscape pattern indices has been a key research topic in landscape ecology. The lack of comparability of fragmentation indices across spatial resolutions seriously limits their usefulness while multi-scale remotely sensed data are becoming increasingly available. In this paper, we examine the effect of spatial resolution on six common fragmentation indices that are being used within the Third Spanish National Forest Inventory. We analyse categorical data derived from simultaneously gathered Landsat-TM and IRS-WiFS satellite images, as ...


Intraspecific variations in dispersal ability of saproxylic beetles in fragmented forest patches

Oecologia In Oecologia (2014), pp. 1-10,


The extrapolation of metapopulation concepts to saproxylic insects suggests that the occupancy of forest patches and the colonization of ephemeral deadwood substrates are driven by micro-evolutionary processes that are related to adaptive plasticity and intraspecific sex-dependent polymorphism of dispersal traits. We hypothesized that forest fragmentation could favor more mobile individuals within populations, but little empirical data have been published on the potentially sex-biased response of insect populations to habitat availability. We selected 88 fragmented woodlots in two European agricultural landscapes to ...


Changes and interactions between forest landscape connectivity and burnt area in Spain

Ecological Indicators, Vol. 33 (October 2013), pp. 129-138,


The spatial structure, functionality and dynamics of forest landscapes in peninsular Spain and the Balearic Islands were compared over the last five decades. Two particular features were studied in the sample sites: forest connectivity for wildlife and areas burnt by wildfires. 191 Squares, each 4 km × 4 km, were selected from the SISPARES (the monitoring framework designed to evaluate the trends in the structure of Spanish rural landscapes) environmental strata. Aerial photographs from 1956, 1984, 1998 and 2008 were interpreted ...


Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions. Innovating for Sustainable Growth: A Bioeconomy for Europe

No. COM(2012) 60 final. (2012)


[Excerpt] A bioeconomy strategy for Europe In order to cope with an increasing global population, rapid depletion of many resources, increasing environmental pressures and climate change, Europe needs to radically change its approach to production, consumption, processing, storage, recycling and disposal of biological resources. The Europe 2020 Strategy calls for a bioeconomy as a key element for smart and green growth in Europe. Advancements in bioeconomy research and innovation uptake will allow Europe to improve the management of its renewable biological ...


Wildfires and landscape patterns in the Eastern Iberian peninsula

Landscape Ecology, Vol. 17, No. 8. (2002), pp. 745-759,


The relations between disturbance regime and landscape patterns have been developed from a theoretical perspective, but few studies have tested these relations when forces promoting opposing heterogeneity patterns are simultaneously operating on a landscape. This work provides quantitative evidence of these relations in areas dominated by human activity, showing that landscape heterogeneity decreases disturbance spread. In turn, disturbance introduces a source of landscape heterogeneity, but it is not enough to counterbalance the homogeneity trend due to agricultural abandonment. Land cover changes ...


Cascading effects of feedbacks, disease, and climate change on alpine treeline dynamics

Environmental Modelling & Software, Vol. 62 (December 2014), pp. 85-96,


[Highlights] [::] Facilitation, particularly from whitebark pine, drives tree island development. [::] Positive and negative feedbacks influence whitebark pine treeline dynamics. [::] Climate amelioration reduces facilitation benefits, causing dispersed tree pattern. [::] Blister rust disease-killed pine impacts all species, despite climate improvement. [::] Treeline responded negatively with disease introduction, even when climate improved. [Abstract] Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) is important for tree island development in some alpine treeline ecosystems in western North America; therefore the effects of an exotic disease on whitebark pine may cascade to ...


Effects of different matrix representations and connectivity measures on habitat network assessments

Landscape Ecology (2014), pp. 1-20,


Assessing landscape connectivity is important to understand the ecology of landscapes and to evaluate alternative conservation strategies. The question is though, how to quantify connectivity appropriately, especially when the information available about the suitability of the matrix surrounding habitat is limited. Our goal here was to investigate the effects of matrix representation on assessments of the connectivity among habitat patches and of the relative importance of individual patches for the connectivity within a habitat network. We evaluated a set of 50 × 50 km2 ...


A large-scale field assessment of carbon stocks in human-modified tropical forests

Glob Change Biol (1 May 2014), pp. n/a-n/a,


Tropical rainforests store enormous amounts of carbon, the protection of which represents a vital component of efforts to mitigate global climate change. Currently, tropical forest conservation, science, policies, and climate mitigation actions focus predominantly on reducing carbon emissions from deforestation alone. However, every year vast areas of the humid tropics are disturbed by selective logging, understory fires, and habitat fragmentation. There is an urgent need to understand the effect of such disturbances on carbon stocks, and how stocks in disturbed forests ...


Supplementary materials for: a proposal for an integrated modelling framework to characterise habitat pattern



In Estreguil et al. (Environ Modell Softw 52, 176-191, 2014), an integrated modelling framework is proposed to characterise habitat pattern. The modelling approach is there exemplified by deriving a set of twelve indices aggregated into four categories: general landscape composition, habitat morphology, edge interface and connectivity. The easy and reproducible computability is ensured with the integrated use of publicly available software (GUIDOS free-download software, Conefor free software) and of newly programmed tools. A statistical analysis is then conducted using classical linear ...


Uprooting researchers can drive them out of science

Nature, Vol. 510, No. 7505. (18 June 2014), pp. 313-313,


Making early-career scientists change institutions frequently is disruptive and — with modern technology — unnecessary, says Russell Garwood. [Excerpt] For some scientists, of course, the opportunity to move around is wonderful. It is perfect for people with wanderlust, who lack personal ties or who thrive in varied surroundings and on ephemeral contracts. However, for many others this migration-centred system is hugely disruptive, and can add to the forces that squeeze talented scientists out of academia and into other careers. The ‘young’ people ...


Ecological and evolutionary effects of fragmentation on infectious disease dynamics

Science, Vol. 344, No. 6189. (13 June 2014), pp. 1289-1293,


[Abstract] Ecological theory predicts that disease incidence increases with increasing density of host networks, yet evolutionary theory suggests that host resistance increases accordingly. To test the combined effects of ecological and evolutionary forces on host-pathogen systems, we analyzed the spatiotemporal dynamics of a plant (Plantago lanceolata)–fungal pathogen (Podosphaera plantaginis)relationship for 12 years in over 4000 host populations. Disease prevalence at the metapopulation level was low, with high annual pathogen extinction rates balanced by frequent (re-)colonizations. Highly connected host populations experienced less ...


Effect of forest fragmentation on bird species richness in Papua New Guinea

Journal of Field Ornithology, Vol. 85, No. 2. (June 2014), pp. 152-167,


Tropical forests worldwide are being fragmented at a rapid rate, causing a tremendous loss of biodiversity. Determining the impacts of forest disturbance and fragmentation on tropical biotas is therefore a central goal of conservation biology. We focused on bird communities in the interior (>100 m from forest edge) of forest fragments (300, 600, and 1200 ha) in the lowlands of Papua New Guinea and compared them with those in continuous forest. We surveyed bird communities using point counts, mist-netting, and random ...


Connectivity of Natura 2000 forest sites in Europe

F1000Posters, Vol. 2014, No. 5. (Jun 2014), 485,


[Background/Purpose]: In the context of the European Biodiversity policy, the Green Infrastructure Strategy is one supporting tool to mitigate fragmentation, inter-alia to increase the spatial and functional connectivity between protected and unprotected areas. The Joint Research Centre has developed an integrated model to provide a macro-scale set of indices to evaluate the connectivity of Natura 2000 network, which forms the backbone of a Green Infrastructure for Europe. The model allows a wide assessment and comparison to be performed across country in terms ...


  1. Bennett, J., 2010. OpenStreetMap. Packt Publishing. ISBN: 978-1-84719-750-4
  2. Bennett, G., Bento Pais, R., Berry, P Didicescu, P. S., Fichter, M., Hlavᡠ, V., Hoellen, K., Jones-Walters, L., Miko, L., Onida, M., Plesník, J., Smith, D., Wakenhut, F., 2010. Green Infrastructure Implementation: Proceedings of the European Commission Conference 19 November 2010. (Ed: Karhu, J.). European Commission, 28 pp.
  3. de Rigo, D., 2012. Applying semantic constraints to array programming: the

Forest landscape pattern in a nutshell: local and continental applications of a four-families index set

In 16th International Symposium on Problems of Landscape Ecological Research - Landscape Ecology: From Theory to Practice (2012), pp. 12-13


[Excerpt] Measuring and monitoring landscape habitat fragmentation are an important first step to further study the relationship between pattern and ecological processes. This paper presents a standardised set of indices to characterise pattern and its application at varying spatial scales. A total of twelve indices is organised into four main families –general landscape composition, habitat morphology, edge interface mosaic context and connectivity –. Their implementation is based on three conceptual models which are partly revisited and combined (MSPA from GUIDOS software, Probability ...

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