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Selection: with tag forest-resources [more than 800 articles] 

 

Forest fires are changing: let’s change the fire management strategy

  
Forest@ - Rivista di Selvicoltura ed Ecologia Forestale, Vol. 14, No. 4. (31 August 2017), pp. 202-205, https://doi.org/10.3832/efor2537-014

Abstract

Forest fires in Italy are changing. More frequent heatwaves and drought increase the flammability of the vegetation; the abandonment of rural land produces 30.000 ha of newly afforested areas each year; and the wildland-urban interface is expanding with the sprawl of urbanized areas. However, forest fires are rarely understood and managed in their complexity. The public opinion is often misinformed on the causes and consequences of fires in the forest. Moreover, fire management relies almost exclusively on extinction and emergency response, ...

 

Mechanisms of plant survival and mortality during drought: why do some plants survive while others succumb to drought?

  
New Phytologist, Vol. 178, No. 4. (1 June 2008), pp. 719-739, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2008.02436.x

Abstract

Severe droughts have been associated with regional-scale forest mortality worldwide. Climate change is expected to exacerbate regional mortality events; however, prediction remains difficult because the physiological mechanisms underlying drought survival and mortality are poorly understood. We developed a hydraulically based theory considering carbon balance and insect resistance that allowed development and examination of hypotheses regarding survival and mortality. Multiple mechanisms may cause mortality during drought. A common mechanism for plants with isohydric regulation of water status results from avoidance of drought-induced ...

 

Oak decline as illustrated through plant–climate interactions near the northern edge of species range

  
The Botanical Review, Vol. 82, No. 1. (2016), pp. 1-23, https://doi.org/10.1007/s12229-016-9160-3

Abstract

This paper investigates historical growth and climate records among the oak sites representing the northern edge of species range in northernmost Europe (Finland). This is to characterize plant–climate interactions for a multitude of sites where oak decline has recently been observed and understand this most recent decline in the context of the past decline studies elsewhere. Further, our paper demonstrates the procedures the tree-ring data can be used in isolating those factors significantly contributing to decline. Our findings point towards complex ...

 

Influence of tree species on continental differences in boreal fires and climate feedbacks

  
Nature Geoscience, Vol. 8, No. 3. (2 February 2015), pp. 228-234, https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo2352

Abstract

Wildfires are common in boreal forests around the globe and strongly influence ecosystem processes. However, North American forests support more high-intensity crown fires than Eurasia, where lower-intensity surface fires are common. These two types of fire can result in different net effects on climate as a consequence of their contrasting impacts on terrestrial albedo and carbon stocks. Here we use remote-sensing imagery, climate reanalysis data and forest inventories to evaluate differences in boreal fire dynamics between North America and Eurasia and ...

 

Post-fire spread of alien plant species in a mixed broad-leaved forest of the Insubric region

  
Flora - Morphology, Distribution, Functional Ecology of Plants, Vol. 207, No. 1. (January 2012), pp. 19-29, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.flora.2011.07.016

Abstract

How do tree species regenerate and which ecological conditions are required after forest fire in the Insubric region of the Alps? Are indigenous stand-forming tree species resistant over the invasion of alien plant species after such a disturbance? We addressed these questions in a case study in the Swiss canton of Ticino. In April 2006, a surface fire with severe intensity burnt a forest area of 55 ha on a south-facing slope (400–800 m.a.s.l.). The dominant trees in the investigated area ...

 

A comparative study of aboveground biomass of three Mediterranean species in a post-fire succession

  
Acta Oecologica, Vol. 25, No. 1-2. (March 2004), pp. 1-6, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actao.2003.10.002

Abstract

The aboveground biomass of three woody species (Cistus albidus, Quercus coccifera and Pinus halepensis) in two early successional stages (3- and 10-year old) of a post-fire Mediterranean ecosystem was investigated. Among these three species, which belong to the successional series of holm oak (Quercus ilex), C. albidus and Q. coccifera are two dominant shrub species in the garrigue ecosystem and P. halepensis is a pioneer tree species widely represented in the Mediterranean area. The results obtained showed that in monospecific stands, ...

 

Bark thickness and fire regime

  
Functional Ecology, Vol. 29, No. 3. (1 March 2015), pp. 315-327, https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2435.12372

Abstract

[::] Bark is a vital and very visible part of woody plants, yet only recently has bark characteristics started to be considered as key traits structuring communities and biomes. Bark thickness is very variable among woody plants, and I hypothesize that fire is a key factor selecting for a thick bark, and thus, at the global scale, a significant proportion of the variability in bark thickness is explained by the variability in fire regimes. Previous research has focused on the importance ...

 

Resprouting as a key functional trait: how buds, protection and resources drive persistence after fire

  
New Phytologist, Vol. 197, No. 1. (January 2013), pp. 19-35, https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.12001

Abstract

[Summary] Resprouting as a response to disturbance is now widely recognized as a key functional trait among woody plants and as the basis for the persistence niche. However, the underlying mechanisms that define resprouting responses to disturbance are poorly conceptualized. Resprouting ability is constrained by the interaction of the disturbance regime that depletes the buds and resources needed to fund resprouting, and the environment that drives growth and resource allocation. We develop a buds-protection-resources (BPR) framework for understanding resprouting in fire-prone ...

 

The lanky and the corky: fire-escape strategies in savanna woody species

  
Journal of Ecology, Vol. 101, No. 5. (1 September 2013), pp. 1265-1272, https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2745.12118

Abstract

[::] Fire and herbivory are the main disturbances shaping the structure of savannas. In these ecosystems, the key strategies by which woody plants escape fire are either early height growth (the lanky strategy) or early bark growth (the corky strategy). We hypothesize that the dominance of each strategy in different savannas depends on the prevailing disturbance regimes. Given the importance of herbivory in afrotropical savanna, we expect woody plants in these savannas to be taller and have thinner barks (the lanky ...

 

Recurrent wildfires constrain long-term reproduction ability in Pinus halepensis Mill.

  
International Journal of Wildland Fire, Vol. 17, No. 5. (2008), 579, https://doi.org/10.1071/wf07078

Abstract

Increasing fire recurrence is a major problem threatening Mediterranean-type ecosystems. Moreover, this pattern is predicted to increase owing to global change. Although a reduction in the density and growth of post-fire regeneration is usually observed in recurrently burnt areas, the potential effects on reproductive ability have seldom been explored. The aim of the present study is to investigate whether structural changes induced by fire recurrence may constrain reproduction ability of Pinus halepensis forests. We conducted the current study in Catalonia (NE ...

 

US protected lands mismatch biodiversity priorities

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 112, No. 16. (21 April 2015), pp. 5081-5086, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1418034112

Abstract

[Significance] The United States has one of the oldest and most sophisticated systems of protected areas in the world. Given the large amount of information on the country’s biodiversity, and the potential resources available, one might expect it to do well in protecting biodiversity. We find that it does not. The United States protected areas do not adequately cover the country’s unique species. To improve the coverage, we map priorities for multiple taxa and recommend specific areas for immediate conservation attention. These ...

 

Different approaches to model future burnt area in the Iberian Peninsula

  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, Vol. 202 (March 2015), pp. 11-25, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2014.11.018

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] We distinguish four regions with different fire regimes in the Iberian Peninsula. [::] Statistical models (meteorology driven) are developed to reproduce burnt area series. [::] We check performances of RCMs simulating present climate burnt area distributions. [::] Different methods to correcting model biases are tested and applied to RCM outputs. [::] Our models project about 2–3 more times mean burnt area in Iberia around 2075. [Abstract] In this work we developed projections for future fire regimes in the Iberian Peninsula using outputs from Regional Climate Model ...

 

Projecting future drought in Mediterranean forests: bias correction of climate models matters!

  
Theoretical and Applied Climatology, Vol. 117, No. 1-2. (2014), pp. 113-122, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00704-013-0992-z

Abstract

Global and regional climate models (GCM and RCM) are generally biased and cannot be used as forcing variables in ecological impact models without some form of prior bias correction. In this study, we investigated the influence of the bias correction method on drought projections in Mediterranean forests in southern France for the end of the twenty-first century (2071–2100). We used a water balance model with two different atmospheric climate forcings built from the same RCM simulations but using two different correction ...

 

Precipitation dominates fire occurrence in Greece (1900–2010): its dual role in fuel build-up and dryness

  
Natural Hazards and Earth System Science, Vol. 14, No. 1. (03 January 2014), pp. 21-32, https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-14-21-2014

Abstract

Historical fire records and meteorological observations spanning over one century (1894–2010) were assembled in a database to collect long-term fire and weather data in Greece. Positive/negative events of fire occurrence on an annual basis were considered as the years where the annual values of the examined parameters were above (positive values) or below (negative values) the 95% confidence limits around the trend line of the corresponding parameter. To analyse the association of positive/negative events of fire occurrence with meteorological extremes, we ...

 

On the key role of droughts in the dynamics of summer fires in Mediterranean Europe

  
Scientific Reports, Vol. 7, No. 1. (6 March 2017), 81, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-00116-9

Abstract

Summer fires frequently rage across Mediterranean Europe, often intensified by high temperatures and droughts. According to the state-of-the-art regional fire risk projections, in forthcoming decades climate effects are expected to become stronger and possibly overcome fire prevention efforts. However, significant uncertainties exist and the direct effect of climate change in regulating fuel moisture (e.g. warmer conditions increasing fuel dryness) could be counterbalanced by the indirect effects on fuel structure (e.g. warmer conditions limiting fuel amount), affecting the transition between climate-driven and ...

 

Fire situation in Greece

  
International Forest Fire News, Vol. 23 (2000), pp. 76-83

Abstract

[Excerpt: Conclusions and Outlook] As can be seen, Greece has a serious fire problem. The money and effort devoted to coping with the problem is significant. Actually, especially in terms of aerial forces, the country should probably be rated first in the world on a per-hectare-protected basis. However, the poor results of the last few years clearly indicate that there is need for improvement, especially in regard to knowledge and organization of the whole effort. Also, there is a clear need for ...

 

Piano regionale di previsione, prevenzione e lotta attiva contro gli incendi boschivi 2011-2013 - Revisione 2013

  
(2013)

Abstract

[Excerpt] [:(Original language): Introduzione e quadro normativo] Il Piano Regionale Antincendi (P.R.AI.) è redatto in conformità a quanto sancito dalla legge quadro nazionale in materia di incendi boschivi (legge n. 353/2000) e alle relative linee guida emanate dal Ministro Delegato per il Coordinamento della Protezione Civile (D.M. 20 dicembre 2001). In attesa di una normativa regionale di recepimento, la materia è disciplinata, anche in Sardegna, dalla citata legge quadro n. 353/2000. [\n] Il Piano è volto a programmare e coordinare l’attività antincendio degli Enti Pubblici e di ...

 

Risk to plant health of Flavescence dorée for the EU territory

  
EFSA Journal, Vol. 14, No. 12. (December 2016), 4603, https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2016.4603

Abstract

Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH) performed a quantitative analysis of the risk posed by the Flavescence dorée phytoplasma (FDp) in the EU territory. Three scenarios were analysed, one with current measures in place (scenario A0), one designed to improve grapevine propagation material phytosanitary status (scenario A1) and one with reinforced eradication and containment (scenario A2). The potential for entry is limited, FDp being almost non-existent outside the EU. FDp and its major ...

References

  1. ACRP, 2013. VitisClim Modelling epidemiological and economic consequences of Grapevine Flavescence dorée phytoplasma to Austrian viticulture under a climate change scenario. Final Report, https://www.klimafonds.gv.at/assets/Uploads/Projektberichte/ACRP-2009/20150716VitisclimACRP2EBB060361.pdf .
  2. AGRI4CAST, online. Interpolated Meteorological Data. Available online: http://mars.jrc.ec.europa.eu/mars/About-us/AGRI4CAST/Data-distribution/AGRI4CAST-Interpolated-Meteorological-Data .
  3. Bagnoli, B., Gargani, E., 2011. Survey on Scaphoideus titanus egg distribution on grapevine. IOBC/WPRS Bulletin, 67, 233–237.
  4. Belli, G., Fortusini, A., Osler, R., 1978. Present knowledge on diseases of the
 

Cause dolose e colpose degli incendi in Sicilia: proposte per la rimozione degli interessi e dei bisogni alla base del fenomeno

  
In Atti del convegno: incendi boschivi e rurali in Sardegna - Dall’analisi delle cause alle proposte d’intervento (2005), pp. 177-185

Abstract

[:Excerpt: Index of sections (translated from Italian)] [::] Sicily - geographical overview and orographic structure [::] forest areas [::] protected areas [::] forest fires [::] the causes of fires [::] proposals for removing stakes and needs behind the phenomenon [\n] [\n] [:(Original language) Indice delle sezioni] [::] Sicilia - inquadramento geografico e caratteristiche orografiche [::] superfici boscate [::] aree protette [::] incendi boschivi [::] le cause degli incendi [::] proposte per la rimozione degli interessi e bisogni alla base del fenomeno ...

 

Spatiotemporal variations in wildfire regime and exposure for Sardinia, Italy

  
In Atti del Secondo Congresso Internazionale di Selvicoltura = Proceedings of the Second International Congress of Silviculture (2015), pp. 975-981, https://doi.org/10.4129/2cis-ol-var

Abstract

[Summary] Over the past decades several studies highlighted the increasing risk in the occurrence of large and severe wildfires as well as significant variation in fire regime pattern. In the Mediterranean basin, Sardinia (Italy) has seen a marked reduction in the annual area burned since the 1980s, with a sharp variation in mid-‘90s. Despite this downward trend wildfires still cause considerable financial losses, damages to natural ecosystems, accidents and fatalities. Therefore, efficient wildfire exposure and risk estimation as well as ...

 

The European Fire Database: technical specifications and data submission

  
Vol. 26546 (2014), https://doi.org/10.2788/2175

Abstract

The European Fire Database is an important component of the European Forest Fire Information System (EFFIS), the EC focal point of information on forest fires established by the Joint Research Centre (JRC) and the Directorate General for Environment to provide up to date and harmonized information on forest fires in Europe. As of 2014 EFFIS is part of the Forest Information System for Europe (FISE), following the new EU Forest Strategy adopted in 2013. The Fire Database is the largest repository ...

 

Forest disturbances under climate change

  
Nature Climate Change, Vol. 7, No. 6. (31 May 2017), pp. 395-402, https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate3303

Abstract

Forest disturbances are sensitive to climate. However, our understanding of disturbance dynamics in response to climatic changes remains incomplete, particularly regarding large-scale patterns, interaction effects and dampening feedbacks. Here we provide a global synthesis of climate change effects on important abiotic (fire, drought, wind, snow and ice) and biotic (insects and pathogens) disturbance agents. Warmer and drier conditions particularly facilitate fire, drought and insect disturbances, while warmer and wetter conditions increase disturbances from wind and pathogens. Widespread interactions between agents are ...

 

Why input matters: selection of climate data sets for modelling the potential distribution of a treeline species in the Himalayan region

  
Ecological Modelling, Vol. 359 (2017), pp. 92-102

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] Generalized Linear Models were used to model the potential distribution of Betula utilis in the Himalayan region. [::] Evaluation of predictive ability between climate data sets derived from different statistical methods. [::] Comparison of ‘interpolated’ (i.e. WORLDCLIM) and ‘quasi-mechanistical statistical downscaling’ (i.e. CHELSA) climate data. [::] Models based CHELSA climate data had higher predictive power, WORLDCLIM consistently overpredicted the potential habitat. [::] Unmindful usage of climatic variables for environmental niche models may potentially cause misleading projections. [Abstract] Betula utilis is a major constituent of alpine treeline ...

 

Modelling the potential distribution of Betula utilis in the Himalaya

  
Global Ecology and Conservation, Vol. 11 (July 2017), pp. 69-83, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gecco.2017.04.003

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] We modelled for the first time potential distribution of Betula utilis in the Himalayan mountains on a broad scale. [::] Two temperature and three precipitation variables are useful for predicting the current potential distribution of B. utilis. [::] We applied Generalized Linear Models and evaluated model performance using a multi-faceted approach. [::] Comparison between the current predictions and the distribution range decribed in the vegetation map of Schweinfurth (1957). [::] New starting point for modelling treeline dynamics and treeline shifts in the Himalaya under ...

 

Tree diversity reduces pest damage in mature forests across Europe

  
Biology Letters, Vol. 12, No. 4. (27 April 2016), 20151037, https://doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2015.1037

Abstract

Forest pest damage is expected to increase with global change. Tree diversity could mitigate this impact, but unambiguous demonstration of the diversity–resistance relationship is lacking in semi-natural mature forests. We used a network of 208 forest plots sampled along two orthogonal gradients of increasing tree species richness and latitudes to assess total tree defoliation in Europe. We found a positive relationship between tree species richness and resistance to insect herbivores: overall damage to broadleaved species significantly decreased with the number of ...

 

Assessing European wild fire vulnerability

  
Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 14 (April 2012), 9452

Abstract

Wild fire vulnerability is a measure of potential socio-economic damage caused by a fire in a specific area. As such it is an important component of long-term fire risk management, helping policy-makers take informed decisions about adequate expenditures for fire prevention and suppression, and to target those regions at highest risk. This paper presents a first approach to assess wild fire vulnerability at the European level. A conservative approach was chosen that assesses the cost of restoring the previous land cover after a potential fire. Based on the CORINE ...

 

Satellites reveal contrasting responses of regional climate to the widespread greening of Earth

  
Science (25 May 2017), eaal1727, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aal1727

Abstract

[The vegetation-climate loop] Just as terrestrial plant biomass is growing in response to increasing atmospheric CO2, climate change, and other anthropogenic influences, so is climate affected by those variations in vegetation. Forzieri et al. used satellite observations to analyze how changes in leaf area index (LAI), a measure of vegetation density, have influenced the terrestrial energy balance and local climates over the past several decades. An increase in LAI has helped to warm boreal zones through a reduction of surface albedo and ...

 

Modelling the effect of soil burn severity on soil erosion at hillslope scale in the first year following wildfire in NW Spain

  
Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, Vol. 41, No. 7. (15 June 2016), pp. 928-935, https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.3876

Abstract

Fire severity is recognized as a key factor in explaining post-fire soil erosion. However, the relationship between soil burn severity and soil loss has not been fully established until now. Sediment availability may also affect the extent of post-fire soil erosion. The objective of this study was to determine whether soil burn severity, estimated by an operational classification system based on visual indicators, can significantly explain soil loss in the first year after wildfire in shrubland and other areas affected by ...

 

Wildfire effects on soil erodibility of woodlands in NW Spain

  
Land Degradation & Development, Vol. 21, No. 2. (March 2010), pp. 75-82, https://doi.org/10.1002/ldr.896

Abstract

Knowledge of soil erodibility following wildfire is of crucial importance for prioritisation of post-fire restoration practices for soil erosion mitigation. The present work therefore aims to determine the effect of wildfire on soil erodibility for common woodlands in Galicia, NW Spain. This is done by comparing selected topsoil properties of 28 pairs of recently wildfire-burned and neighbouring unburned sites on different geologic substrates. The soil properties were selected for their supposed importance in erodibility, and include aggregate size distribution and water ...

 

Risk of post-fire metal mobilization into surface water resources: a review

  
Science of The Total Environment, Vol. 599-600 (December 2017), pp. 1740-1755, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.05.096

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] Forest catchment supply high quality water to a number of communities around the world. [::] Forest fire release sequestered metals from soil organic matter and vegetation. [::] Post-fire erosion rapidly transports these metals to downstream soil and water bodies. [::] Their deposition in the water bodies affects the water quality and aquatic biota. [::] This metal contamination may reach to human being as a consumer. [Abstract] One of the significant economic benefits to communities around the world of having pristine forest catchments is the supply of ...

 

At the nexus of fire, water and society

  
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, Vol. 371, No. 1696. (23 May 2016), 20150172, https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2015.0172

Abstract

The societal risks of water scarcity and water-quality impairment have received considerable attention, evidenced by recent analyses of these topics by the 2030 Water Resources Group, the United Nations and the World Economic Forum. What are the effects of fire on the predicted water scarcity and declines in water quality? Drinking water supplies for humans, the emphasis of this exploration, are derived from several land cover types, including forests, grasslands and peatlands, which are vulnerable to fire. In the last two ...

 

A global index for mapping the exposure of water resources to wildfire

  
Forests, Vol. 7, No. 1. (13 January 2016), 22, https://doi.org/10.3390/f7010022

Abstract

Wildfires are keystone components of natural disturbance regimes that maintain ecosystem structure and functions, such as the hydrological cycle, in many parts of the world. Consequently, critical surface freshwater resources can be exposed to post-fire effects disrupting their quantity, quality and regularity. Although well studied at the local scale, the potential extent of these effects has not been examined at the global scale. We take the first step toward a global assessment of the wildfire water risk (WWR) by presenting a ...

 

Effects of habitat disturbance on tropical forest biodiversity

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 114, No. 23. (06 June 2017), pp. 6056-6061, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1611855114

Abstract

[Significance] Biologists believe that a major mass extinction is happening in the tropics. Destruction of forests is a key reason. However, there are no solid predictions of the percentage of species that will go extinct as more and more forests are disturbed. This paper provides estimates based on extrapolating the respective numbers of species in disturbed and undisturbed habitats. It uses a large global database of species inventories at particular sites. Trees and 10 groups of animals are analyzed. All the disturbed ...

 

Divergence of species responses to climate change

  
Science Advances, Vol. 3, No. 5. (17 May 2017), e1603055, https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.1603055

Abstract

Climate change can have profound impacts on biodiversity and the sustainability of many ecosystems. Various studies have investigated the impacts of climate change, but large-scale, trait-specific impacts are less understood. We analyze abundance data over time for 86 tree species/groups across the eastern United States spanning the last three decades. We show that more tree species have experienced a westward shift (73%) than a poleward shift (62%) in their abundance, a trend that is stronger for saplings than adult trees. The ...

 

Archetypical patterns and trajectories of land systems in Europe

  
Regional Environmental Change (2015), pp. 1-18, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10113-015-0907-x

Abstract

Assessments of land-system change have dominantly focused on conversions among broad land-use categories, whereas intensity changes within these categories have received less attention. Considering that both modes of land change typically result in diverse patterns and trajectories of land-system change, there is a need to develop approaches to reduce this complexity. Using Europe as a case study, we applied a clustering approach based on self-organising maps and 12 land-use indicators to map (1) land-system archetypes for the year 2006, defined as ...

 

A dataset of forest biomass structure for Eurasia

  
Scientific Data, Vol. 4 (16 May 2017), 170070, https://doi.org/10.1038/sdata.2017.70

Abstract

The most comprehensive dataset of in situ destructive sampling measurements of forest biomass in Eurasia have been compiled from a combination of experiments undertaken by the authors and from scientific publications. Biomass is reported as four components: live trees (stem, bark, branches, foliage, roots); understory (above- and below ground); green forest floor (above- and below ground); and coarse woody debris (snags, logs, dead branches of living trees and dead roots), consisting of 10,351 unique records of sample plots and 9,613 sample ...

 

Chorological maps for the main European woody species

  
Data in Brief, Vol. 12 (June 2017), pp. 662-666, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2017.05.007

Abstract

A novel chorological data compilation for the main European tree and shrub species is presented. This dataset was produced by combining numerous and heterogeneous data collected from 20th century atlas monographs providing complete species distribution maps, and from more recent national to regional atlases, occurrence geodatabases and scientific literature. The dataset is composed of numerous species distribution maps available in geographical information system (GIS) format, created by compiling, evaluating and synthesizing data of all collected sources. The geometry of the individual ...

 

An ecoregion-based approach to protecting half the terrestrial realm

  
BioScience (14 April 2017), https://doi.org/10.1093/biosci/bix014

Abstract

We assess progress toward the protection of 50% of the terrestrial biosphere to address the species-extinction crisis and conserve a global ecological heritage for future generations. Using a map of Earth's 846 terrestrial ecoregions, we show that 98 ecoregions (12%) exceed Half Protected; 313 ecoregions (37%) fall short of Half Protected but have sufficient unaltered habitat remaining to reach the target; and 207 ecoregions (24%) are in peril, where an average of only 4% of natural habitat remains. We propose a ...

 

Multitrait successional forest dynamics enable diverse competitive coexistence

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 114, No. 13. (28 March 2017), pp. E2719-E2728, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1610206114

Abstract

[Significance] Walking through any forest, one is struck by the variety of plant forms coexisting. Given that all plants compete for the same basic resources, why is there not a single winner? Our study shows that when key ingredients common to all forests are accounted for—including disturbance events, competition for light, and two widely observed trait-based tradeoffs—models of niche differentiation predict forests of considerably greater diversity than was previously thought possible. In particular, our model accurately predicts the proliferation of species occupying ...

 

Geographic distribution of 24 major tree species in the Mediterranean and their genetic resources

  
(2016)

Abstract

[Excerpt: Introduction] The Mediterranean Basin is one of the world’s richest places in terms of animal and plant diversity. It is a highly diverse region and its mountains, rivers, forests and thousands of islands form a mosaic of natural and cultural landscapes of incomparable value. With around 25,000 species of native plants, of which more than half are endemic, and because many habitats and species are threatened, the Mediterranean is recognized as one of the Global Biodiversity Hotspots [18]. For millennia, ...

 

Network analysis reveals why Xylella fastidiosa will persist in Europe

  
Scientific Reports, Vol. 7, No. 1. (6 March 2017), https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-00077-z

Abstract

The insect vector borne bacterium Xylella fastidiosa was first detected in olive trees in Southern Italy in 2013, and identified as the main culprit behind the ‘olive quick decline syndrome’. Since then, the disease has spread rapidly through Italy’s main olive oil producing region. The epidemiology of the outbreak is largely unstudied, with the list of X. fastidiosa hosts and vectors in Europe likely incomplete, and the role humans play in dispersal unknown. These knowledge gaps have led to management strategies ...

 

Robust modelling of the impacts of climate change on the habitat suitability of forest tree species

  
Keywords: abies-alba   array-of-factors   artificial-neural-networks   bioclimatic-predictors   change-factor   climate-change   data-uncertainty   diversity   environmental-modelling   europe   extrapolation-uncertainty   featured-publication   forest-resources   free-scientific-knowledge   free-scientific-software   free-software   fuzzy   gdal   genetic-diversity   geospatial   geospatial-semantic-array-programming   gnu-bash   gnu-linux   gnu-octave   habitat-suitability   integration-techniques   mastrave-modelling-library   maximum-habitat-suitability   modelling-uncertainty   multiplicity   peseta-series   python   regional-climate-models   relative-distance-similarity   robust-modelling   semantic-array-programming   semantic-constraints   semantics   spatial-disaggregation   sres-a1b   supervised-training   unsupervised-training  

Abstract

[::] In Europe, forests play a strategic multifunctional role, serving economic, social and environmental purposes. However, their complex interaction with climate change is not yet well understood. [::] The JRC PESETA project series proposes a consistent multi-sectoral assessment of the impacts of climate change in Europe. [::] Within the PESETA II project, a robust methodology is introduced for modelling the habitat suitability of forest tree species (2071-2100 time horizon). [::] Abies alba (the silver fir) is selected as case study: a main European tree ...

References

  1. European Commission, 2013. Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions - A new EU forest strategy: for forests and the forest based sector. No. COM(2013) 659 final. Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=celex:52013DC0659 , INRMM-MiD:12642065 .
  2. European Commission, 2013. Commission staff working document accompanying the document: Communication from the commission to
 

Modeling the impacts of climate change on forest fire danger in Europe: sectorial results of the PESETA II Project

  

Abstract

This constitutes a sectorial analysis of the PESETA II project of the European Commission Joint Research Center in the area of wildfires. [\n] Wildfires are a serious threat to European forests, and climate is the most important driving factor affecting wildfire potential over time (Flannigan et al., 2000). Wildfires are an environmental, economic and social problem particularly in the southern European countries, where wildfires regularly burn thousands of hectares of forests and other lands. Changes in wildfire regimes may have strong impacts on natural resources and ecosystems stability, ...

 

Genetic divergence in forest trees: understanding the consequences of climate change

  
Functional Ecology, Vol. 28, No. 1. (February 2014), pp. 22-36, https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2435.12169

Abstract

[::] Predicted climate change is heading in many respects into untested environmental conditions for trees and to the reshuffling of species distributions. We explore the consequences that these changes are likely to have on population differentiation of adaptive traits. Superimposed on the spatial redistribution of the species, will there be a redistribution of their genetic variation? [::] We base our predictions on a conceptual framework, whose elements are the extant differentiation, and the predicted divergent evolution of populations along purposely chosen altitudinal/latitudinal ...

 

Risk of large-scale fires in boreal forests of Finland under changing climate

  
Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, Vol. 16, No. 1. (21 January 2016), pp. 239-253, https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-16-239-2016

Abstract

The target of this work was to assess the impact of projected climate change on forest-fire activity in Finland with special emphasis on large-scale fires. In addition, we were particularly interested to examine the inter-model variability of the projected change of fire danger. For this purpose, we utilized fire statistics covering the period 1996–2014 and consisting of almost 20 000 forest fires, as well as daily meteorological data from five global climate models under representative concentration pathway RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios. The ...

 

Multi-variable bias correction: application of forest fire risk in present and future climate in Sweden

  
Natural Hazards and Earth System Science, Vol. 15, No. 9. (11 September 2015), pp. 2037-2057, https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-15-2037-2015

Abstract

As the risk of a forest fire is largely influenced by weather, evaluating its tendency under a changing climate becomes important for management and decision making. Currently, biases in climate models make it difficult to realistically estimate the future climate and consequent impact on fire risk. A distribution-based scaling (DBS) approach was developed as a post-processing tool that intends to correct systematic biases in climate modelling outputs. In this study, we used two projections, one driven by historical reanalysis (ERA40) and ...

 

Silver fir defoliation likelihood is related to negative growth trends and high warming sensitivity at their southernmost distribution limit

  
ISRN Forestry, Vol. 2012 (2012), pp. 1-8, https://doi.org/10.5402/2012/437690

Abstract

Changes in radial growth have been used to estimate tree decline probability since they may indicate tree responses to long- and short-term stressors. We used visual assessments of crown defoliation, an indicator of decline, and retrospective tree-ring analyses to determine whether climate-growth sensitivity and tree growth rates may be used as predictors of tree die-off probability in Abies alba (silver fir) at the Spanish Pyrenees. We used climatic data to calculate standardized temperature and precipitation data and drought indexes. Basal area ...

 

Are the Pyrenees a barrier for the transport of birch (Betula) pollen from Central Europe to the Iberian Peninsula?

  
Science of The Total Environment, Vol. 575 (January 2017), pp. 1183-1196, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.09.192

Abstract

This work provides a first assessment of the possible barrier effect of the Pyrenees on the atmospheric transport of airborne pollen from Europe to the North of the Iberian Peninsula. Aerobiological data recorded in three Spanish stations located at the eastern, central and western base of the Pyrenees in the period 2004–2014 have been used to identify the possible long range transport episodes of Betula pollen. The atmospheric transport routes and the origin regions have been established by means of trajectory ...

 

Mapping wood production in European forests

  
Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 357 (December 2015), pp. 228-238, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2015.08.007

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] We constructed high-resolution wood production maps for Europe. [::] Productivity, tree species and ruggedness affect wood production patterns. [::] Using these factors improves disaggregation of wood production statistics. [Abstract] Wood production is an important forest use, impacting a range of other ecosystem services. However, information on the spatial patterns in wood production is limited and often available only for larger administrative units. In this study, we developed high-resolution wood production maps for European forests. We collected wood production statistics for 29 European countries from ...

 

Effects of invasive alien plants on fire regimes

  
BioScience, Vol. 54, No. 7. (2004), pp. 677-688, https://doi.org/10.1641/0006-3568(2004)054[0677:eoiapo]2.0.co;2

Abstract

Plant invasions are widely recognized as significant threats to biodiversity conservation worldwide. One way invasions can affect native ecosystems is by changing fuel properties, which can in turn affect fire behavior and, ultimately, alter fire regime characteristics such as frequency, intensity, extent, type, and seasonality of fire. If the regime changes subsequently promote the dominance of the invaders, then an invasive plant–fire regime cycle can be established. As more ecosystem components and interactions are altered, restoration of preinvasion conditions becomes more ...

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