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Selection: with tag forest-resources [more than 800 articles] 

 

Daily synoptic conditions associated with large fire occurrence in Mediterranean France: evidence for a wind-driven fire regime

  
International Journal of Climatology, Vol. 37, No. 1. (January 2017), pp. 524-533, https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.4680

Abstract

Changes in wildfire activity in the Mediterranean area over recent decades increase the need for a better understanding of the fire–weather relationships and for the development of reliable models to improve fire danger prediction. This study analyses daily synoptic and local weather conditions associated with the occurrence of summer large fires (LFs) in Mediterranean France during recent decades (1973–2013). The links between large fire occurrence and synoptic conditions are analysed with composites of sea level pressure and winds at 925 hPa ...

 

Prepare for larger, longer wildfires

  

Abstract

Climate change makes land management more urgent than ever, says Kathie Dello. [Excerpt] [...] Scientists must walk a careful line when attributing specific events to climate change. Wildfires are part of a healthy ecosystem and a fact of life in the western United States. Many aspects of a landscape affect them, including past fire suppression, land use and human carelessness. [\n] But climate change increases the threat: fires that do start are larger and last longer. Warmer summer temperatures mean more evaporation. Overall, ...

 

Natural climate solutions

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (16 October 2017), 201710465, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1710465114

Abstract

[Significance] Most nations recently agreed to hold global average temperature rise to well below 2 °C. We examine how much climate mitigation nature can contribute to this goal with a comprehensive analysis of “natural climate solutions” (NCS): 20 conservation, restoration, and/or improved land management actions that increase carbon storage and/or avoid greenhouse gas emissions across global forests, wetlands, grasslands, and agricultural lands. We show that NCS can provide over one-third of the cost-effective climate mitigation needed between now and 2030 to stabilize ...

 

Polar wildfires and conifer serotiny during the Cretaceous global hothouse

  
Geology (11 October 2017), https://doi.org/10.1130/g39453.1

Abstract

Several highly effective fire-adaptive traits first evolved among modern plants during the mid-Cretaceous, in response to the widespread wildfires promoted by anomalously high atmospheric oxygen (O2) and extreme temperatures. Serotiny, or long-term canopy seed storage, is a fire-adaptive strategy common among plants living in fire-prone areas today, but evidence of this strategy has been lacking from the fossil record. Deposits of abundant fossil charcoal from sedimentary successions of the Chatham Islands, New Zealand, record wildfires in the south polar regions (75°–80°S) ...

 

Assessing risk and adaptation options to fires and windstorms in European forestry

  
Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change In Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, Vol. 15, No. 7. (10 July 2010), pp. 681-701, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11027-010-9243-0

Abstract

Risks can generally be described as the combination of hazard, exposure and vulnerability. Using this framework, we evaluated the historical and future development of risk of fire and wind damage in European forestry at the national level. Fire risk is expected to increase, mainly as a consequence of an increase in fire hazard, defined as the Fire Weather Index in summer. Exposure, defined as forest area, is expected to increase slightly as a consequence of active afforestation and abandonment of marginal ...

 

Forest fires in Europe, Middle East and North Africa 2016

  

Abstract

[Excerpt: Foreword] Forests, agricultural land and natural areas continue to burn, both within and outside Europe. Lives of European citizens are lost and endangered. By early September 2017, wildfires have already burnt nearly 700 000 ha of land in the EU; hence this season will most likely be remembered as one of the most devastating wildfire seasons in Europe since records began. Moreover, sadly this year’s fires have taken a huge toll of lives in Southern Europe. Extreme weather conditions such ...

 

Forest structures across Europe

  
Geoscience Data Journal, Vol. 4, No. 1. (June 2017), pp. 17-28, https://doi.org/10.1002/gdj3.45

Abstract

Pan-European gridded datasets derived from a single methodology to inform researchers, policy makers and conservationists on the state of forest structures would improve our ability to study forests independent of political boundaries and along various gradients. Although National Forest Inventory (NFI) data provide information on the characteristics of forests, including carbon content, volume, height, and age, such spatial data is not available across Europe. Before this study, remotely sensed data covering all of Europe had not been utilized to produce multiple ...

 

The exceptionally hot summer of 2007 in Athens, Greece — A typical summer in the future climate?

  
Global and Planetary Change, Vol. 67, No. 3-4. (June 2009), pp. 227-236, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloplacha.2009.03.013

Abstract

Summer 2007 was abnormally warm for many areas of southeastern Europe, the Balkan peninsula and parts of Asia Minor with departures from the seasonal means exceeding 4 °C in some areas but also distinct periods of extremely hot weather. Greece experienced very likely the warmest summer of its instrumental history with record breaking temperatures being observed at a number of stations. The historical air temperature record of the National Observatory of Athens (NOA), extending back to the 19th century, was used in ...

 

Forest fires

  
In EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2016 - Technical guidance to prepare national emission inventories, Vol. 21/2016 (2016), 11.B, https://doi.org/10.2800/247535

Abstract

[Excerpt: Overview] This chapter describes emissions from (naturally or man-induced) burning of non-managed and managed forests and other vegetation, excluding agricultural burning of stubble, etc. This includes domestic fires (fuel wood-, crop residue-, dung and charcoal burning) as well as open vegetation fires (forest, shrub- , grass- and cropland burning). According to Barbosa (2006, personal communication), 95 % of the forest fires in the Mediterranean region are related to human impact (negligence, arson, etc.). For the boreal area, Molicone et al. (2006) estimate 87 % of forest ...

 

How have past fire disturbances contributed to the current carbon balance of boreal ecosystems?

  
Biogeosciences, Vol. 13, No. 3. (04 February 2016), pp. 675-690, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-13-675-2016

Abstract

Boreal fires have immediate effects on regional carbon budgets by emitting CO2 into the atmosphere at the time of burning, but they also have legacy effects by initiating a long-term carbon sink during post-fire vegetation recovery. Quantifying these different effects on the current-day pan-boreal (44–84° N) carbon balance and quantifying relative contributions of legacy sinks by past fires is important for understanding and predicting the carbon dynamics in this region. Here we used the global dynamic vegetation model ORCHIDEE–SPITFIRE (Organising Carbon and ...

 

Describing wildland surface fuel loading for fire management: a review of approaches, methods and systems

  
International Journal of Wildland Fire, Vol. 22, No. 1. (2013), 51, https://doi.org/10.1071/wf11139

Abstract

Wildland fuelbeds are exceptionally complex, consisting of diverse particles of many sizes, types and shapes with abundances and properties that are highly variable in time and space. This complexity makes it difficult to accurately describe, classify, sample and map fuels for wildland fire research and management. As a result, many fire behaviour and effects software prediction systems use a generalised description of fuels to simplify data collection and entry into various computer programs. There are several major fuel description systems currently ...

 

Climatological risk: wildfires

  
In Science for disaster risk management 2017: knowing better and losing less, Vol. 28034 (2017), pp. 294-305

Abstract

[Excerpt: Conclusions and key messages] There is a vast amount of information on wildfires at local, regional and global scales. However, problems remain at different scales in terms of harmonising or standardising practices for the assessment and management of wildfire risk. [\n] Resilience theory is providing a suitable framework by which to explain abrupt changes in socioecological systems. The importance of community participation and building social capital through collective learning and governance mechanisms has been highlighted as a required basis for building disaster resilience (Aldunce et al., 2015; Aldunce et al., 2016; Montiel and Kraus, 2010; O’Brien et al., ...

References

  1. SCION, 2009. Fire behavioiur app. https://www.scionresearch.com/research/forest-science/rural-fire-research/tools/fire-behaviour-smartphone-apps .
  2. NFPA, 2016 Firewise Communities Program. http://www.firewise.org/ .
  3. GOV.UK, n.d. LH1: Management of lowland heathlandhttps://www.gov.uk/countryside-stewardship-grants/management-of-lowland-heathland-lh1 .
  4. KWFW, 2014. Wildfire Threat Analysis (WTA):NERC-funded scoping project with Forestry Commission. http://www.kfwf.org.uk/_assets/documents/Wildfire_Threat_Analysis_post-project_report.pdf .
  5. HM Tresaury, 2013. Orange book: management of risk - principles and concepts. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/orange-book .
  6. Cabinet Office, 2015. National Risk
 

Meteorological risk: extra-tropical cyclones, tropical cyclones and convective storms

  
In Science for disaster risk management 2017: knowing better and losing less, Vol. 28034 (2017), pp. 246-256

Abstract

[Excerpt: Conclusions and key messages] [::Partnership] Collaboration between forecast providers and end users in real time is essential during DRM, since the interpretation of the available information, the uncertainty associated with it and how this changes as new information becomes available should be made in consultation with qualified meteorologists and National Meteorological Services in particular. Information sharing, particularly observational, impact and warning data across national boundaries in real time, is of key importance. Improvements in forecasts will in part be driven by the interaction between fundamental atmosphere and ocean science with operational forecasting, so continued collaboration between forecasting centres and universities and ...

References

  1. AIR Worldwide, 2015. Preparing for Europe's Winter Storm Season with a Look Back at Niklas and Kyrill. http://www.air-worldwide.com/Publications/AIR-Currents/2015/Preparing-for-Europe-s-Winter-Storm-Season-with-a-Look-Back-at-Niklas-and-Kyrill/ .
  2. Anderson, G., Klugmann, D., 2014. A European lightning density analysis using 5 years of ATDnet data. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences 14(4), 815-829.
  3. Antonescu, B., Schultz, D.M., Lomas, F., Kühne, T., 2016. Tornadoes in Europe: Synthesis of the observational datasets. Monthly Weather Review.
  4. Bauer, P., Thorpe,
 

Hydrologic regulation of plant rooting depth

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 114, No. 40. (03 October 2017), pp. 10572-10577, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1712381114

Abstract

[Significance] Knowledge of plant rooting depth is critical to understanding plant-mediated global change. Earth system models are highly sensitive to this particular parameter with large consequences for modeled plant productivity, water–energy–carbon exchange between the land and the atmosphere, and silicate weathering regulating multimillion-year-timescale carbon cycle. However, we know little about how deep roots go and why. Accidental discoveries of >70-m-deep roots in wells and >20-m-deep roots in caves offer glimpses of the enormous plasticity of root response to its environment, but the ...

 

General introduction and methodological overview

  
In Ph.D. Thesis: Integrating infra-specific variation of Mediterranean conifers in species distribution models - Applications for vulnerability assessment and conservation (2017), pp. 19-54

Abstract

[Excerpt: Forests ecosystems, climate change and conservation] [...] Despite their importance, we have lost approximately 1.3 % of the total forest area during the last decade, and although deforestation rates are decreasing, they are still high (data for the period 2000-2010 [...]). Nevertheless, fortunately, in some regions, such as Europe, we find an inverse trend with an increasing forest cover [...]. In Europe, 33 % of the total land area (215 million ha) are covered by forests from which more than ...

References

  1. Aitken, S.N., Yeaman, S., Holliday, J. a., Wang, T., Curtis-McLane, S., 2008. Adaptation, migration or extirpation: climate change outcomes for tree populations. Evolutionary Applications, 1, 95–111.
  2. Allen, C.D., Macalady, A.K., Chenchouni, H., Bachelet, D., McDowell, N., Vennetier, M., Kitzberger, T., Rigling, A., Breshears, D.D., Hogg, E.H. (Ted), Gonzalez, P., Fensham, R., Zhang, Z., Castro, J., Demidova, N., Lim, J.H., Allard, G., Running, S.W., Semerci, A., Cobb, N., 2010. A global overview of drought and
 

Factors explaining the spatial distribution of hillslope debris flows: a case study in the Flysch Sector of the Central Spanish Pyrenees

  
Mountain Research and Development, Vol. 22, No. 1. (1 February 2002), pp. 32-39, https://doi.org/10.1659/0276-4741(2002)022[0032:fetsdo]2.0.co;2

Abstract

The spatial distribution of 961 debris flows in the Upper Aragón and Gállego valleys (Central Spanish Pyrenees) was analyzed. Most were located in the Flysch Sector (with a colluvium mantle derived from strongly tectonically modified materials), between 1000 and 1400 m above sea level, on 25?35° gradients with sunny exposure. These gradients were either hillslopes covered by frequently burned scrubland, abandoned fields, or reforested land, confirming the influence of land use and disturbed landscapes on the occurrence of debris flows. ...

 

Post-fire erosion response in a watershed mantled by volcaniclastic deposits, Sarno Mountains, Southern Italy

  
CATENA, Vol. 152 (May 2017), pp. 227-241, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2017.01.009

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] We describe a post-fire erosion response of a steep watershed in Italy. [::] The fire burned 11 ha of forest with high and moderate severity. [::] The erosion response was triggered by a convective rainstorm. [::] A hyperconcentrated flow resulted from sediment bulking of surface runoff. [::] Amount of soil loss was estimated. [Abstract] In this study we document a post-fire erosion response to a short-lived, intense rainstorm occurred on 6 September 2012 in the Sant'Angelo creek watershed, Sarno Mountains, Southern Italy. The rainstorm occurred one ...

 

History matters: previous land use changes determine post-fire vegetation recovery in forested Mediterranean landscapes

  
Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 279 (September 2012), pp. 121-127, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2012.05.020

Abstract

[Abstract] Land use changes and shifts in disturbance regimes (e.g. wildfires) are recognized worldwide as two of the major drivers of the current global change in terrestrial ecosystems. We expect that, in areas with large-scale land use changes, legacies from previous land uses persist and affect current ecosystem responses to climate-associated disturbances like fire. This study analyses whether post-fire vegetation dynamics may differ according to specific historical land use histories in a Mediterranean forest landscape of about 60,000 ha that was burnt ...

 

Shifts in community-level traits and functional diversity in a mixed conifer forest: a legacy of land-use change

  
Journal of Applied Ecology, Vol. 53, No. 6. (December 2016), pp. 1755-1765, https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2664.12737

Abstract

[Summary] [::1] Historical reference conditions have long been used to guide the restoration of degraded ecosystems. However, a rapidly changing climate and altered disturbance regimes are calling into question the usefulness of this approach. As a consequence, restoration goals are increasingly focused on creating communities that are resilient to novel environmental stressors and emphasis is being placed on defining functional targets through the use of plant traits. While changes in forest structure and composition have received much attention, long-term changes in stand-level ...

 

Post-fire salvage logging alters species composition and reduces cover, richness, and diversity in Mediterranean plant communities

  
Journal of Environmental Management, Vol. 133 (January 2014), pp. 323-331, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2013.12.014

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] We tested the effects of post-fire salvage logging on plant communities. [::] Logging reduced plant species richness, diversity, and cover. [::] Species composition in salvaged sites resembled early-successional habitats. [::] Unsalvaged sites yielded greater tree regeneration. [Abstract] An intense debate exists on the effects of post-fire salvage logging on plant community regeneration, but scant data are available derived from experimental studies. We analyzed the effects of salvage logging on plant community regeneration in terms of species richness, diversity, cover, and composition by experimentally managing a ...

 

Newly discovered landscape traps produce regime shifts in wet forests

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 108, No. 38. (20 September 2011), pp. 15887-15891, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1110245108

Abstract

We describe the “landscape trap” concept, whereby entire landscapes are shifted into, and then maintained (trapped) in, a highly compromised structural and functional state as the result of multiple temporal and spatial feedbacks between human and natural disturbance regimes. The landscape trap concept builds on ideas like stable alternative states and other relevant concepts, but it substantively expands the conceptual thinking in a number of unique ways. In this paper, we (i) review the literature to develop the concept of landscape ...

 

Effects of logging on fire regimes in moist forests

  
Conservation Letters, Vol. 2, No. 6. (December 2009), pp. 271-277, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-263x.2009.00080.x

Abstract

Does logging affect the fire proneness of forests? This question often arises after major wildfires, but data suggest that answers differ substantially among different types of forest. Logging can alter key attributes of forests by changing microclimates, stand structure and species composition, fuel characteristics, the prevalence of ignition points, and patterns of landscape cover. These changes may make some kinds of forests more prone to increased probability of ignition and increased fire severity. Such forests include tropical rainforests where fire was ...

 

Patterns of fire severity and forest conditions in the western Klamath Mountains, California

  
Conservation Biology, Vol. 18, No. 4. (August 2004), pp. 927-936, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2004.00493.x

Abstract

The Klamath-Siskiyou region of northwestern California and southwestern Oregon supports globally outstanding temperate biodiversity. Fire has been important in the evolutionary history that shaped this diversity, but recent human influences have altered the fire environment. We tested for modern human impacts on the fire regime by analyzing temporal patterns in fire extent and spatial patterns of fire severity in relation to vegetation structure, past fire occurrence, roads, and timber management in a 98,814-ha area burned in 1987. Fire severity was mapped ...

 

The concept of potential natural vegetation: an epitaph?

  
Journal of Vegetation Science, Vol. 21, No. 6. (December 2010), pp. 1172-1178, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1654-1103.2010.01218.x

Abstract

We discuss the usefulness of the concept of Potential Natural Vegetation (PNV), which describes the expected state of mature vegetation in the absence of human intervention. We argue that it is impossible to model PNV because of (i) the methodological problems associated to its definition and (ii) the issues related to the ecosystems dynamics.We conclude that the approach to characterizing PNV is unrealistic and provides scenarios with limited predictive power. In places with a long-term human history, interpretations of PNV need ...

 

Human factors of fire occurrence in the Mediterranean

  
In Earth Observation of Wildland Fires in Mediterranean Ecosystems (2009), pp. 149-170, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-01754-4_11
edited by Emilio Chuvieco

Abstract

The Mediterranean region accounts the larger proportion of human caused fires in the world (95%) followed by South Asia (90%), South America (85%) and Northeast Asia (80%) (FAO 2007). Socio-economic changes which are occurring in Europe along with global warming result in an augment of fire risk. Systematic and reliable information on fire causes is necessary in order to improve wildland fire management. However, collection of information on forest fire causes and motivations is still quite restricted in most countries around ...

 

Investigation of root reinforcement decay after a forest fire in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) protection forest

  
Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 400 (September 2017), pp. 339-352, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2017.06.005

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] Engineering resilience of Scots pine 4 years after forest fire has been quantified. [::] Spatial distribution of root reinforcement (RR) has been modeled. [::] RR decay by a factor of 3.6, 4 years after a stand replacing forest fire. [::] Natural regeneration has almost no root reinforcement 4 years after fire. [::] Decay of root mechanical properties determine most of RR loss. [Abstract] Natural disturbances may cause a temporary reduction or elimination of the protective effect of forests. The management of protection forests aims to influence ...

 

Wildfire impacts on the processes that generate debris flows in burned watersheds

  
Natural Hazards In Natural Hazards, Vol. 61, No. 1. (17 March 2012), pp. 217-227, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-011-9769-9

Abstract

Every year, and in many countries worldwide, wildfires cause significant damage and economic losses due to both the direct effects of the fires and the subsequent accelerated runoff, erosion, and debris flow. Wildfires can have profound effects on the hydrologic response of watersheds by changing the infiltration characteristics and erodibility of the soil, which leads to decreased rainfall infiltration, significantly increased overland flow and runoff in channels, and movement of soil. Debris-flow activity is among the most destructive consequences of these ...

 

How do root and soil characteristics affect the erosion-reducing potential of plant species?

  
Ecological Engineering (August 2017), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2017.08.001

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] Fibrous roots are very effective in reducing flow erosion rates in sandy soils. [::] Soil texture and bulk density affects the erosion-reducing potential of plant roots. [::] Increasing soil bulk density hampers the erosion-reducing potential of fine roots. [::] Increasing sand content hampers the erosion-reducing potential of tap roots. [Abstract] Plant roots can be very effective in stabilizing the soil against concentrated flow erosion. So far, most research on the erosion-reducing potential of plant roots was conducted on loamy soils. However susceptible to incisive erosion ...

 

Exploring spatial patterns and drivers of forest fires in Portugal (1980–2014)

  
Science of The Total Environment, Vol. 573 (December 2016), pp. 1190-1202, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.03.121

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] Wildfires are irregularly distributed in Portugal, both in ignitions and burnt area. [::] In 80% of the municipality's ignition density reveal a positive trend since the 80s. [::] Geographically Weighted Regression was used to identify relevant municipal drivers of fires. [::] Topography and population density were significant factors in municipal ignitions. [::] Topography and uncultivated land were significant factors in municipal burnt area. [Abstract] Information on the spatial incidence of fire ignition density and burnt area, trends and drivers of wildfires is vitally important in providing ...

 

Analysis of recent spatial–temporal evolution of human driving factors of wildfires in Spain

  
Natural Hazards, Vol. 84, No. 3. (2016), pp. 2049-2070, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-016-2533-4

Abstract

Fire regimes are strongly dependent on human activities. Understanding the relative influence of human factors on wildfire is an important ongoing task especially in human-dominated landscapes such as the Mediterranean, where anthropogenic ignitions greatly surpass natural ignitions and human activities are modifying historical fire regimes. Most human drivers of wildfires have a temporal dimension, far beyond the appearance of change, and it is for this reason that we require an historical/temporal analytical perspective coupled to the spatial dimension. In this paper, ...

 

Impacts of future land use/land cover on wildfire occurrence in the Madrid region (Spain)

  
Regional Environmental Change In Regional Environmental Change, Vol. 16, No. 4. (2016), pp. 1047-1061, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10113-015-0819-9

Abstract

This paper assesses the relative importance of socioeconomic factors linked to fire occurrence through the simulation of future land use/land cover (LULC) change scenarios in the Madrid region (Spain). This region is a clear example of the socioeconomic changes that have been occurring over recent decades in the European Mediterranean as well as their impact on LULC and fire occurrence. Using the LULC changes observed between 1990 and 2006 as a reference, future scenarios were run up to 2025 with the ...

 

A comparison of landscape fuel treatment strategies to mitigate wildland fire risk in the urban interface and preserve old forest structure

  
Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 259, No. 8. (31 March 2010), pp. 1556-1570, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2010.01.032

Abstract

We simulated fuel reduction treatments on a 16,000 ha study area in Oregon, US, to examine tradeoffs between placing fuel treatments near residential structures within an urban interface, versus treating stands in the adjacent wildlands to meet forest health and ecological restoration goals. The treatment strategies were evaluated by simulating 10,000 wildfires with random ignition locations and calculating burn probabilities by 0.5 m flame length categories for each 30 m × 30 m pixel in the study area. The burn conditions for the wildfires were chosen to ...

 

Retrieval of forest fuel moisture content using a coupled radiative transfer model

  
Environmental Modelling & Software, Vol. 95 (September 2017), pp. 290-302, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsoft.2017.06.006

Abstract

Forest fuel moisture content (FMC) dynamics are paramount to assessing the forest wildfire risk and its behavior. This variable can be retrieved from remotely sensed data using a radiative transfer model (RTM). However, previous studies generally treated the background of forest canopy as soil surface while ignored the fact that the soil may be covered by grass canopy. In this study, we focused on retrieving FMC of such forestry structure by coupling two RTMs: PROSAIL and PRO-GeoSail. The spectra of lower ...

 

Ecological stability of mixed-species forests

  
In Mixed-Species Forests (2017), pp. 337-382, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-54553-9_7

Abstract

In many parts of the world, forests are likely to face novel disturbance regimes as a result of global change processes, and there is concern that the capacity of forest ecosystems to withstand, recover from, or adapt to these novel disturbance regimes may decline. Creation and maintenance of species-diverse forests is seen as an important option to adapt forests to uncertain future disturbances. However, it is not known whether benefits of mixed-species forests consist mainly of risk spreading among tree species ...

 

Influence of landscape structure on patterns of forest fires in boreal forest landscapes in Sweden

  
Canadian Journal of Forest Research, Vol. 34, No. 2. (1 February 2004), pp. 332-338, https://doi.org/10.1139/x03-175

Abstract

To analyze the effect of landscape structure (viz. amount of wetlands) on the past forest fire regime in boreal Sweden, we reconstructed detailed fire histories by cross-dating fire scars in living and dead Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in two different landscape types: mire-free landscapes with a low proportion (1%?2%) of mires and mire-rich landscapes with a high proportion (21%?33%) of mires. Two localities were selected and at each one, adjacent mire-free and mire-rich areas of 256?601 ha were sampled. Over ...

 

Southern Annular Mode drives multicentury wildfire activity in southern South America

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 114, No. 36. (05 September 2017), pp. 9552-9557, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1705168114

Abstract

[Significance] Fire is a key ecological process affecting ecosystem dynamics and services, driven primarily by variations in fuel amount and condition, ignition patterns, and climate. In the Southern Hemisphere, current warming conditions are linked to the upward trend in the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) due to ozone depletion. Here we use tree ring fire scar data obtained from diverse biomes ranging from subtropical dry woodlands to sub-Antarctic rainforests to assess the effect of the SAM on regional fire activity over the past ...

 

How disturbance, competition and dispersal interact to prevent tree range boundaries from keeping pace with climate change

  
Global Change Biology (28 July 2017), https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.13847

Abstract

Climate change is expected to cause geographic shifts in tree species’ ranges, but such shifts may not keep pace with climate changes because seed dispersal distances are often limited and competition-induced changes in community composition can be relatively slow. Disturbances may speed changes in community composition, but the interactions among climate change, disturbance and competitive interactions to produce range shifts are poorly understood. We used a physiologically-based mechanistic landscape model to study these interactions in the northeastern United States. We designed ...

 

Scientific opinion on the pest categorisation of Cryphonectria parasitica (Murrill) Barr

  
EFSA Journal, Vol. 12, No. 10. (1 October 2014), pp. n/a-n/a, https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2014.3859

Abstract

The European Commission requested the EFSA Panel on Plant Health to perform a pest categorisation of Cryphonectria parasitica (Murrill) Barr, the fungal pathogen responsible for chestnut blight, a highly destructive disease that kills trees through bark cankers. The pathogen is listed in Annex IIAII of Directive 2000/29/EC. Its identity is clearly defined as C.parasitica (Murrill) Barr and methods exist for its discriminative detection. Several hosts are known, but the main hosts are species of Castanea and Quercus, particularly C.sativa and Q.petraea. ...

References


  1. Adamcikova, K., Kobza, M., Juhasova, G., 2010. Characteristics of the Cryphonectria parasitica isolated from Quercus in Slovakia. Forest Pathology 40, 443–449.
  2. Adamcikova, K., Juhasova, G., Kobza, M., Ondruskova, E., 2013. Diversity of microfungi on branches of Castanea sativa in Slovakia. Polish Botanical Journal 58, 741–746.
  3. Aguín Casal, O., Montenegro Gregorio, D., Pérez Otero, R., Mansilla Vázquez, J.P., 2005. VI Congreso Forestal Español, Zaragoza 2005. Available online: http://www.efadip.org/es/publicaciones/Comunicaciones/2005/Cryphonectria%20parasitica(zaragoza).htm .
 

Nitrogen-fixing trees inhibit growth of regenerating Costa Rican rainforests

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 114, No. 33. (15 August 2017), pp. 8817-8822, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1707094114

Abstract

[Significance] Regrowing tropical forests are critical for global biodiversity conservation and carbon capture. Nitrogen availability often controls how fast these forests can regrow. Because nitrogen-fixing plants are the primary source of new nitrogen into these forests, one might expect that more nitrogen fixers lead to faster forest regrowth. However, here we show that nitrogen fixers actually slow forest regrowth. Their competitive influence on neighboring trees outweighs any growth enhancement from their nitrogen inputs at this site. Our results call for a more ...

 

Forest fires are changing: let’s change the fire management strategy

  
Forest@ - Rivista di Selvicoltura ed Ecologia Forestale, Vol. 14, No. 4. (31 August 2017), pp. 202-205, https://doi.org/10.3832/efor2537-014

Abstract

Forest fires in Italy are changing. More frequent heatwaves and drought increase the flammability of the vegetation; the abandonment of rural land produces 30.000 ha of newly afforested areas each year; and the wildland-urban interface is expanding with the sprawl of urbanized areas. However, forest fires are rarely understood and managed in their complexity. The public opinion is often misinformed on the causes and consequences of fires in the forest. Moreover, fire management relies almost exclusively on extinction and emergency response, ...

 

Mechanisms of plant survival and mortality during drought: why do some plants survive while others succumb to drought?

  
New Phytologist, Vol. 178, No. 4. (1 June 2008), pp. 719-739, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2008.02436.x

Abstract

Severe droughts have been associated with regional-scale forest mortality worldwide. Climate change is expected to exacerbate regional mortality events; however, prediction remains difficult because the physiological mechanisms underlying drought survival and mortality are poorly understood. We developed a hydraulically based theory considering carbon balance and insect resistance that allowed development and examination of hypotheses regarding survival and mortality. Multiple mechanisms may cause mortality during drought. A common mechanism for plants with isohydric regulation of water status results from avoidance of drought-induced ...

 

Oak decline as illustrated through plant–climate interactions near the northern edge of species range

  
The Botanical Review, Vol. 82, No. 1. (2016), pp. 1-23, https://doi.org/10.1007/s12229-016-9160-3

Abstract

This paper investigates historical growth and climate records among the oak sites representing the northern edge of species range in northernmost Europe (Finland). This is to characterize plant–climate interactions for a multitude of sites where oak decline has recently been observed and understand this most recent decline in the context of the past decline studies elsewhere. Further, our paper demonstrates the procedures the tree-ring data can be used in isolating those factors significantly contributing to decline. Our findings point towards complex ...

 

Influence of tree species on continental differences in boreal fires and climate feedbacks

  
Nature Geoscience, Vol. 8, No. 3. (2 February 2015), pp. 228-234, https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo2352

Abstract

Wildfires are common in boreal forests around the globe and strongly influence ecosystem processes. However, North American forests support more high-intensity crown fires than Eurasia, where lower-intensity surface fires are common. These two types of fire can result in different net effects on climate as a consequence of their contrasting impacts on terrestrial albedo and carbon stocks. Here we use remote-sensing imagery, climate reanalysis data and forest inventories to evaluate differences in boreal fire dynamics between North America and Eurasia and ...

 

Post-fire spread of alien plant species in a mixed broad-leaved forest of the Insubric region

  
Flora - Morphology, Distribution, Functional Ecology of Plants, Vol. 207, No. 1. (January 2012), pp. 19-29, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.flora.2011.07.016

Abstract

How do tree species regenerate and which ecological conditions are required after forest fire in the Insubric region of the Alps? Are indigenous stand-forming tree species resistant over the invasion of alien plant species after such a disturbance? We addressed these questions in a case study in the Swiss canton of Ticino. In April 2006, a surface fire with severe intensity burnt a forest area of 55 ha on a south-facing slope (400–800 m.a.s.l.). The dominant trees in the investigated area ...

 

A comparative study of aboveground biomass of three Mediterranean species in a post-fire succession

  
Acta Oecologica, Vol. 25, No. 1-2. (March 2004), pp. 1-6, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actao.2003.10.002

Abstract

The aboveground biomass of three woody species (Cistus albidus, Quercus coccifera and Pinus halepensis) in two early successional stages (3- and 10-year old) of a post-fire Mediterranean ecosystem was investigated. Among these three species, which belong to the successional series of holm oak (Quercus ilex), C. albidus and Q. coccifera are two dominant shrub species in the garrigue ecosystem and P. halepensis is a pioneer tree species widely represented in the Mediterranean area. The results obtained showed that in monospecific stands, ...

 

Bark thickness and fire regime

  
Functional Ecology, Vol. 29, No. 3. (1 March 2015), pp. 315-327, https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2435.12372

Abstract

[::] Bark is a vital and very visible part of woody plants, yet only recently has bark characteristics started to be considered as key traits structuring communities and biomes. Bark thickness is very variable among woody plants, and I hypothesize that fire is a key factor selecting for a thick bark, and thus, at the global scale, a significant proportion of the variability in bark thickness is explained by the variability in fire regimes. Previous research has focused on the importance ...

 

Resprouting as a key functional trait: how buds, protection and resources drive persistence after fire

  
New Phytologist, Vol. 197, No. 1. (January 2013), pp. 19-35, https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.12001

Abstract

[Summary] Resprouting as a response to disturbance is now widely recognized as a key functional trait among woody plants and as the basis for the persistence niche. However, the underlying mechanisms that define resprouting responses to disturbance are poorly conceptualized. Resprouting ability is constrained by the interaction of the disturbance regime that depletes the buds and resources needed to fund resprouting, and the environment that drives growth and resource allocation. We develop a buds-protection-resources (BPR) framework for understanding resprouting in fire-prone ...

 

The lanky and the corky: fire-escape strategies in savanna woody species

  
Journal of Ecology, Vol. 101, No. 5. (1 September 2013), pp. 1265-1272, https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2745.12118

Abstract

[::] Fire and herbivory are the main disturbances shaping the structure of savannas. In these ecosystems, the key strategies by which woody plants escape fire are either early height growth (the lanky strategy) or early bark growth (the corky strategy). We hypothesize that the dominance of each strategy in different savannas depends on the prevailing disturbance regimes. Given the importance of herbivory in afrotropical savanna, we expect woody plants in these savannas to be taller and have thinner barks (the lanky ...

 

Recurrent wildfires constrain long-term reproduction ability in Pinus halepensis Mill.

  
International Journal of Wildland Fire, Vol. 17, No. 5. (2008), 579, https://doi.org/10.1071/wf07078

Abstract

Increasing fire recurrence is a major problem threatening Mediterranean-type ecosystems. Moreover, this pattern is predicted to increase owing to global change. Although a reduction in the density and growth of post-fire regeneration is usually observed in recurrently burnt areas, the potential effects on reproductive ability have seldom been explored. The aim of the present study is to investigate whether structural changes induced by fire recurrence may constrain reproduction ability of Pinus halepensis forests. We conducted the current study in Catalonia (NE ...

 

US protected lands mismatch biodiversity priorities

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 112, No. 16. (21 April 2015), pp. 5081-5086, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1418034112

Abstract

[Significance] The United States has one of the oldest and most sophisticated systems of protected areas in the world. Given the large amount of information on the country’s biodiversity, and the potential resources available, one might expect it to do well in protecting biodiversity. We find that it does not. The United States protected areas do not adequately cover the country’s unique species. To improve the coverage, we map priorities for multiple taxa and recommend specific areas for immediate conservation attention. These ...

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