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Selection: with tag forest-resources [more than 800 articles] 


Species-specific, pan-European diameter increment models based on data of 2.3 million trees

Forest Ecosystems, Vol. 5, No. 1. (3 April 2018),


[Background] Over the last decades, many forest simulators have been developed for the forests of individual European countries. The underlying growth models are usually based on national datasets of varying size, obtained from National Forest Inventories or from long-term research plots. Many of these models include country- and location-specific predictors, such as site quality indices that may aggregate climate, soil properties and topography effects. Consequently, it is not sensible to compare such models among countries, and it is often impossible to apply ...


Assessing the influence of roads on fire ignition: does land cover matter?

Fire, Vol. 1, No. 2. (09 July 2018), 24,


In human-affected fire environments, assessing the influence of human activities on the spatial distribution of wildfire ignitions is of paramount importance for fire management planning. Previous studies have shown that roads have significant effects on fire ignition. However, since different land cover classes are subject to different levels of ignition risk, roads in different land cover classes may differently affect fire ignition. The aim of this paper is thus to assess the influence of roads on fire ignition in selected land ...


Vegetation Fire and Smoke Pollution Warning and Advisory System (VFSP-WAS): concept note and expert recommendations

Vol. 235 (2018)


This concept note contains the expert recommendations resulting from discussions at the international workshop on Forecasting Emissions from Vegetation Fires and their Impacts on Human Health and Security in South-East Asia, which was hosted by the Indonesian Agency for Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics (BMKG), Jakarta, from 29 August to 1 September 2016. The workshop was organized by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the Interdisciplinary Biomass Burning Initiative (IBBI) in collaboration with the United Nations Office for Disaster Reduction/International Wildfire Preparedness ...


Negligent and intentional fires in Portugal: spatial distribution characterization

Science of The Total Environment, Vol. 624 (May 2018), pp. 424-437,


[Highlights] [::] Average fire size is much higher for intentional than for negligent fires. [::] Incidence of negligent and intentional fires has different distribution patterns. [::] Higher drivers' influence for intentional fires, burnt area and in the south region. [::] Human's drivers and altitude are the most important for fire ignitions. [::] Negligent (intentional) fires burn more forest and agricultural (human) areas. [Abstract] In the European context, Portugal is the country with the highest number of wildfires and the second with more burnt area. The vast majority of ...


Remote sensing techniques to assess active fire characteristics and post-fire effects

International Journal of Wildland Fire, Vol. 15, No. 3. (2006), 319,


Space and airborne sensors have been used to map area burned, assess characteristics of active fires, and characterize post-fire ecological effects. Confusion about fire intensity, fire severity, burn severity, and related terms can result in the potential misuse of the inferred information by land managers and remote sensing practitioners who require unambiguous remote sensing products for fire management. The objective of the present paper is to provide a comprehensive review of current and potential remote sensing methods used to assess fire ...


Switching on the Big Burn of 2017

Fire, Vol. 1, No. 1. (05 June 2018), 17,


Fuel, aridity, and ignition switches were all on in 2017, making it one of the largest and costliest wildfire years in the United States (U.S.) since national reporting began. Anthropogenic climate change helped flip on some of these switches rapidly in 2017, and kept them on for longer than usual. Anthropogenic changes to the fire environment will increase the likelihood of such record wildfire years in the coming decades. The 2017 wildfires in the U.S. constitute part of a shifting baseline ...


Triggers of tree mortality under drought

Nature, Vol. 558, No. 7711. (27 June 2018), pp. 531-539,


Severe droughts have caused widespread tree mortality across many forest biomes with profound effects on the function of ecosystems and carbon balance. Climate change is expected to intensify regional-scale droughts, focusing attention on the physiological basis of drought-induced tree mortality. Recent work has shown that catastrophic failure of the plant hydraulic system is a principal mechanism involved in extensive crown death and tree mortality during drought, but the multi-dimensional response of trees to desiccation is complex. Here we focus on the ...


Tree plantations displacing native forests: the nature and drivers of apparent forest recovery on former croplands in Southwestern China from 2000 to 2015

Biological Conservation, Vol. 222 (June 2018), pp. 113-124,


China is credited with undertaking some of the world's most ambitious policies to protect and restore forests, which could serve as a role model for other countries. However, the actual environmental consequences of these policies are poorly known. Here, we combine remote-sensing analysis with household interviews to assess the nature and drivers of land-cover change in southwestern China between 2000–2015, after China's major forest protection and reforestation policies came into effect. We found that while the region's gross tree cover grew ...


Fire effects on soil aggregation: a review

Earth-Science Reviews, Vol. 109, No. 1-2. (November 2011), pp. 44-60,


[Abstract] Fire can affect soil properties depending on a number of factors including fire severity and soil type. Aggregate stability (AS) refers to soil structure resilience in response to external mechanical forces. Many authors consider soil aggregation to be a parameter reflecting soil health, as it depends on chemical, physical and biological factors. The response of AS to forest fires is complex, since it depends on how fire has affected other related properties such as organic matter content, soil microbiology, water repellency ...


Modeling fire ignition patterns in Mediterranean urban interfaces

Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment (17 May 2018),


The rapid growth of built-up areas and infrastructure in the Mediterranean environment has resulted in the expansion of urban interfaces where fire can ignite and spread. Within this context, there is a need to understand spatial patterns of ignition distribution and the relative importance of influencing drivers. In response to this need we developed an analysis of fire ignition patterns using human and biophysical explanatory variables by firstly developing two different linear models to assess patterns of fire ignition points in ...


Scientists aim to smoke out wildfire impacts

Science, Vol. 360, No. 6392. (01 June 2018), pp. 948-949,


Scientists this summer are taking to the air in an ambitious effort to better understand the chemistry, behavior, and health impacts of wildfire smoke. The flights in an instrument-packed C-130 airplane belonging to the National Science Foundation will be followed in 2019 by flights on a NASA DC-8 research jet by scientists with NASA and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The two planes will fly through plumes of wildfire smoke, with a focus on the western United States, where wildfires ...


Non-supervised method for early forest fire detection and rapid mapping

In Fifth International Conference on Remote Sensing and Geoinformation of the Environment (RSCy2017), Vol. 10444 (6 September 2017), 104440R,


Natural hazards are a challenge for the society. Scientific community efforts have been severely increased assessing tasks about prevention and damage mitigation. The most important points to minimize natural hazard damages are monitoring and prevention. This work focuses particularly on forest fires. This phenomenon depends on small-scale factors and fire behavior is strongly related to the local weather. Forest fire spread forecast is a complex task because of the scale of the phenomena, the input data uncertainty and time constraints in ...


Environmental heterogeneity explains the genetic structure of continental and Mediterranean populations of Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl

PLOS ONE, Vol. 7, No. 8. (8 August 2012), e42764,


Tree species with wide distributions often exhibit different levels of genetic structuring correlated to their environment. However, understanding how environmental heterogeneity influences genetic variation is difficult because the effects of gene flow, drift and selection are confounded. We investigated the genetic variation and its ecological correlates in a wind-pollinated Mediterranean tree species, Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl, within a recognised glacial refugium in Croatia. We sampled 11 populations from environmentally divergent habitats within the Continental and Mediterranean biogeographical regions. We combined genetic data ...


Predicting conifer establishment post wildfire in mixed conifer forests of the North American Mediterranean-climate zone

Ecosphere, Vol. 7, No. 12. (December 2016), e01609,


Due to fire suppression policies, timber harvest, and other management practices over the last century, many low‐ to mid‐elevation forests in semiarid parts of the western United States have accumulated high fuel loads and dense, multi‐layered canopies that are dominated by shade‐tolerant and fire‐sensitive conifers. To a great extent, the future status of western US forests will depend on tree species’ responses to patterns and trends in fire activity and fire behavior and postfire management decisions. This is especially the case ...


Positive biodiversity-productivity relationships in forests: climate matters

Biology Letters, Vol. 14, No. 4. (04 April 2018), 20170747,


While it is widely acknowledged that forest biodiversity contributes to climate change mitigation through improved carbon sequestration, conversely how climate affects tree species diversity–forest productivity relationships is still poorly understood. We combined the results of long-term experiments where forest mixtures and corresponding monocultures were compared on the same site to estimate the yield of mixed-species stands at a global scale, and its response to climatic factors. We found positive mixture effects on productivity using a meta-analysis of 126 case studies established ...


Distribution maps of forest tree species

In ICP Forests Projectlist (2015), 64


[Excerpt: Project description] The European Commission, Joint Research Centre, hosts the European Forest Data Centre (EFDAC at ) of the Forest Information System for Europe (FISE). The EFDAC‐FISE platform is envisioned to transparently integrate information referring to forest resources in Europe, including taxa‐specific information. The exercise involves the integration of: [::1] a harmonized collection of reference maps describing the European‐wide distribution of forest tree species along with their habitat suitability (both current and under varying climate change scenarios); [::2] a detailed analysis of the implications that the uncertainties – ...


  1. de Rigo, D., Barredo, J. I., Busetto, L., Caudullo, G., San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., 2013. Continental-scale living forest biomass and carbon stock: a robust fuzzy ensemble of IPCC Tier 1 maps for Europe. IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology 413, 271-284. , INRMM-MiD:12541209 .
  2. de Rigo, D., Caudullo, G., Busetto, L., San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., Mar. 2014. Supporting EFSA assessment of the EU environmental suitability for exotic forestry pests: final report. EFSA Supporting Publications 11 (3),

Forest condition in Europe: 2017 technical report of ICP Forests - Report under the UNECE Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP)



[Summary] The International Co-operative Programme on Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests (ICP Forests) is one of the most diverse programmes within the Working Group on Effects (WGE) under the UNECE Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP). To provide a regular overview of the programme’s activities, the ICP Forests Programme Co-ordinating Centre (PCC) yearly publishes an ICP Forests Technical Report which summarises research highlights and provides an opportunity for all participating countries to report on their national ICP Forests activities. The PCC also invites ...


Temperature accelerates the rate fields become forests

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (16 April 2018), 201716665,


[Significance] The transition of abandoned fields into forests (secondary succession) has long informed ecologists’ understanding of community assembly and species interactions. Intriguingly, rates of secondary succession show a striking latitudinal pattern, with dominance by woody species (>50% cover) taking less than a decade in the southern United States, and up to 60 years in New England. We used a large-scale experimental network to test how multiple drivers (climate, soils, and the identity of dominant species) influence field-to-forest transitions. We found consistent evidence ...


Portugal wildfire management in a new era assessing fire risks, resources and reforms

(February 2018)


[Executive summary] Portugal has one of the highest forest fire risk rankings in Europe. Fire researchers all point to the same combination of contributing factors: shifting demographics with population moving from rural to urban areas, changes in land use with more agricultural and forested areas left unattended and not being maintained, and fragmentation of land ownership patterns that discourage investment in forest management and fire planning. The trend of annual burned area for the last four decades confirms a new level in fire activity in Portugal, despite ...


  1. Almeida, J., Relvas, P., Silva, L., Catry, F., Rego, F., Santos, T. 2007. Portuguese lookout towers network optimization using automatic positioning algorithms. In: Proceedings of the 4th International Wildland Fire Conference, 13-17 May, Seville, Spain. .
  2. Beighley, M., Hyde, A. C., 2009. Systemic risk and Portugal's forest fire defense strategy - An assessment of wildfire management and response capability.
  3. Beighley, M., Quesinberry, M., 2004. USA-Portugal wildland fire technical

Assessment and validation of wildfire susceptibility and hazard in Portugal

Natural Hazards and Earth System Science, Vol. 10, No. 3. (16 March 2010), pp. 485-497,


A comprehensive methodology to assess forest fire susceptibility, that uses variables of strong spatial correlation, is presented and applied for the Portuguese mainland. Our study is based on a thirty-year chronological series of burnt areas. The first twenty years (1975–1994) are used for statistical modelling, and the last ten (1995–2004) are used for the independent validation of results. The wildfire affected areas are crossed with a set of independent layers that are assumed to be relevant wildfire conditioning factors: elevation, slope, ...


Global MODIS fraction of green vegetation cover for monitoring abrupt and gradual vegetation changes

Remote Sensing, Vol. 10, No. 4. (23 April 2018), 653,


The presence and distribution of green vegetation cover in the biosphere are of paramount importance in investigating cause-effect phenomena at the land/atmosphere interface, estimating primary production rates as part of global carbon and water cycle assessments and evaluating soil protection and land use change over time. The fraction of green vegetation cover (FCover) as estimated from satellite observations has already been demonstrated to be an extraordinarily useful product for understanding vegetation cover changes, for supporting ecosystem service assessments over areas with ...


Long-term changes of the wildland–urban interface in the Polish Carpathians

ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information, Vol. 7, No. 4. (01 April 2018), 137,


The Wildland–Urban Interface (WUI) is the area where houses and wildland vegetation meet or intermingle, which causes many environmental problems. The current WUI is widespread in many regions, but it is unclear how the WUI evolved, especially in regions where both houses and forest cover have increased. Here we compared WUI change in the Polish Carpathians for 1860 and 2013 in two study areas with different land use history. Our western study area experienced gradual forest increase and housing growth over ...


Climate-vegetation-fire interactions and feedbacks: trivial detail or major barrier to projecting the future of the Earth system?

Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, Vol. 7, No. 6. (1 November 2016), pp. 910-931,


Fire is a complex process involving interactions and feedbacks between biological, socioeconomic, and physical drivers across multiple spatial and temporal scales. This complexity limits our ability to incorporate fire into Earth system models and project future fire activity under climate change. Conceptual, empirical, and process models have identified the mechanisms and processes driving fire regimes, and provide a useful basis to consider future fire activity. However, these models generally deal with only one component of fire regimes, fire frequency, and do ...


Predicting climate change effects on wildfires requires linking processes across scales

Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, Vol. 2, No. 1. (January 2011), pp. 99-112,


Accurate process‐based prediction of climate change effects on wildfires requires coupling processes across orders of magnitude of time and space scales, because climate dynamic processes operate at relatively large scales (e.g., hemispherical and centennial), but fire behavior processes operate at relatively small scales (e.g., molecules and microseconds). In this review, we outline some of the current understanding of the processes by which climate/meteorology controls wildfire behavior by focusing on four critical stages of wildfire development: (1) fuel drying, (2) ignition, (3) ...


A data-driven approach to assess large fire size generation in Greece

Natural Hazards, Vol. 88, No. 3. (2017), pp. 1591-1607,


Identifying factors and drivers which control large fire size generation is critical for planning fire management activities. This study attempts to determine the role of fire suppression tactics and behavior, weather, topography and landscape features on two different datasets of large fire size (500–1000 ha) and very large fire size (>1000 ha) compared to two datasets of small fire size (<50 ha) which occurred in Greece, during the period 1984–2009. In this context, we used a logistic regression (LR) analysis and ...


How wildfire risk is related to urban planning and Fire Weather Index in SE France (1990–2013)

Science of The Total Environment, Vol. 621 (April 2018), pp. 120-129,


[Highlights] [::] Land use planning in SE France led to increased housing density in 1990-2012 and maintained WUI wildfire risk constant. [::] The number of buildings increased by 30% but WUI area increased by less than 5% as housing density increased. [::] Fire frequency and burned area increase substantially as Fire Weather Index surpasses a threshold value of 90. [Abstract] Wildfires burn > 450,000 ha of forest every year in Euro-Mediterranean countries. Many fires originate in the Wildland Urban Interface (WUI) where housing density and weather ...


Mapping regional patterns of large forest fires in Wildland–Urban Interface areas in Europe

Journal of Environmental Management, Vol. 172 (May 2016), pp. 112-126,


[Highlights] [::] A European Wildland–Urban Interface (WUI) map was presented. [::] The European WUI areas have been correlated with occurrence of large burned surfaces. [::] Peri-urban areas and Mediterranean touristic areas show strong co-occurrence of WUI and fires. [::] Burned surface probabilities within 5000 m of the WUI areas are estimated to map fire risk. [Abstract] Over recent decades, Land Use and Cover Change (LUCC) trends in many regions of Europe have reconfigured the landscape structures around many urban areas. In these areas, the proximity to landscape ...


Land use strategies to mitigate climate change in carbon dense temperate forests

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 115, No. 14. (03 April 2018), pp. 3663-3668,


[Significance] Regional quantification of feasibility and effectiveness of forest strategies to mitigate climate change should integrate observations and mechanistic ecosystem process models with future climate, CO2, disturbances from fire, and management. Here, we demonstrate this approach in a high biomass region, and found that reforestation, afforestation, lengthened harvest cycles on private lands, and restricting harvest on public lands increased net ecosystem carbon balance by 56% by 2100, with the latter two actions contributing the most. Forest sector emissions tracked with our life ...


A sensible climate solution for the boreal forest

Nature Climate Change, Vol. 8, No. 1. (2 January 2018), pp. 11-12,


Climate change could increase fire risk across most of the managed boreal forest. Decreasing this risk by increasing the proportion of broad-leaved tree species is an overlooked mitigation–adaption strategy with multiple benefits. ...


Fire forbids fifty-fifty forest

PLOS ONE, Vol. 13, No. 1. (19 January 2018), e0191027,


Recent studies have interpreted patterns of remotely sensed tree cover as evidence that forest with intermediate tree cover might be unstable in the tropics, as it will tip into either a closed forest or a more open savanna state. Here we show that across all continents the frequency of wildfires rises sharply as tree cover falls below ~40%. Using a simple empirical model, we hypothesize that the steepness of this pattern causes intermediate tree cover (30‒60%) to be unstable for a ...


New global forest/non-forest maps from ALOS PALSAR data (2007–2010)

Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 155 (December 2014), pp. 13-31,


[Highlights] [::] Global mosaics of ALOS-SAR data were generated annually from 2007 to 2010. [::] Region variability in L-band HH and HV gamma-naught (γ0) for forests was observed. [::] Region-specific thresholds were applied to produce a global forest/non-forest map. [::] The overall agreement was 95%. [::] Annual decreases of HH and HV γ0 suggest a decrease in forest and smoothing Earth. [Abstract] Four global mosaics of Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) Phased Arrayed L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) HH and HV polarization data were generated at 25 m ...


Rethinking wildfires and forest watersheds

Science, Vol. 359, No. 6379. (01 March 2018), pp. 1001.2-1002,


[Excerpt] [...] The secondary threats of wildfires to water supply are particularly concerning, as almost two-thirds of municipalities in North America receive their drinking water from forested areas [...]. Key threats include increased potential for erosion, landslides, debris flows, floods, and introduction of contaminants to streams, with potentially catastrophic implications for community infrastructure, drinking water treatment, public health, and aquatic ecosystem health [...]. [\n] Given the rising threats and costs associated with the current wildfire trend, we must change the way we manage ...


Secondo rapporto sullo stato del capitale naturale in Italia



[:Executive summary (in Italian)] Il 2017 ha segnato un importante punto di svolta dell’articolato e lungo percorso di sostenibilità del nostro Paese. Nel quadro di riferimento dettato dall’Agenda 2030 dell’ONU sullo Sviluppo Sostenibile e dalla Strategia nazionale di Sviluppo Sostenibile (SNSvS), l’elaborazione del Primo Rapporto sullo Stato del Capitale Naturale in Italia ha consentito di mettere in luce, per la prima volta, al complesso sistema istituzionale il fondamentale ruolo ricoperto dal Capitale Naturale italiano rispetto al sistema socio-economico collettivo del Paese. [\n] “Dov’è ...


  1. Alberini, A., Rosato, P., Longo, A., Zanatta, V., 2004. Information and Willingness to Pay in a Contingent Valuation Study: the Value of S. Erasmo in the Lagoon of Venice. Nota di lavoro FEEM N° 19/2004.
  2. Alberini, A., Zanatta, V., 2005. Combining Actual and Contingent Behaviour to Estimate the Value of Sports Fishing in the Lagoon of Venice. Nota di lavoro FEEM N° 44/2005.
  3. Alberini, A., Zanatta, V., Rosato, P., 2007. Combining

Biomass production, supply, uses and flows in the European Union - First results from an integrated assessment

Vol. 28993 EN (2018),


[Executive summary] This report illustrates part of the results from the first two years of JRC biomass study, carried out in the context of the mandate on the provision to EC services of data and analysis on biomass flow, supply and demand on a long-term basis. [\n] The JRC biomass study has a wide scope and is a long-term endeavour, not having a pre-defined duration. Here we refer to the results after the first two years, with a focus on the assessments of ...


Pine Wilt Disease: a threat to European forestry

European Journal of Plant Pathology In European Journal of Plant Pathology, Vol. 133, No. 1. (24 December 2012), pp. 89-99,


Bursaphelenchus xylophilus , the pinewood nematode (PWN) and causal agent of Pine Wilt Disease (PWD), was detected for the first time, in 1999, in Portugal, and in Europe. Despite the efforts of the Portuguese National Forestry and Quarantine Authorities, the disease has spread to new forest areas in the centre of mainland Portugal, in 2008, and to the island of Madeira, in 2009. More recently, two foci of PWD were reported from Spain. The free circulation of non-treated wood and wood ...


Spatially-explicit models of global tree density

Scientific Data, Vol. 3 (16 August 2016), 160069,


Remote sensing and geographic analysis of woody vegetation provide means of evaluating the distribution of natural resources, patterns of biodiversity and ecosystem structure, and socio-economic drivers of resource utilization. While these methods bring geographic datasets with global coverage into our day-to-day analytic spheres, many of the studies that rely on these strategies do not capitalize on the extensive collection of existing field data. We present the methods and maps associated with the first spatially-explicit models of global tree density, which relied ...


Adapt to more wildfire in western North American forests as climate changes

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 114, No. 18. (02 May 2017), pp. 4582-4590,


Wildfires across western North America have increased in number and size over the past three decades, and this trend will continue in response to further warming. As a consequence, the wildland–urban interface is projected to experience substantially higher risk of climate-driven fires in the coming decades. Although many plants, animals, and ecosystem services benefit from fire, it is unknown how ecosystems will respond to increased burning and warming. Policy and management have focused primarily on specified resilience approaches aimed at resistance ...


The interaction of fire, fuels, and climate across Rocky Mountain forests

BioScience, Vol. 54, No. 7. (2004), pp. 661-676,[0661:tioffa];2


Understanding the relative influence of fuels and climate on wildfires across the Rocky Mountains is necessary to predict how fires may respond to a changing climate and to define effective fuel management approaches to controlling wildfire in this increasingly populated region. The idea that decades of fire suppression have promoted unnatural fuel accumulation and subsequent unprecedentedly large, severe wildfires across western forests has been developed primarily from studies of dry ponderosa pine forests. However, this model is being applied uncritically across ...


Fire-induced deforestation in drought-prone Mediterranean forests: drivers and unknowns from leaves to communities

Ecological Monographs (22 January 2018),


Over the past 15 years, 3 million hectares of forests have been converted into shrublands or grasslands in the Mediterranean countries of the European Union. Fire and drought are the main drivers underlying this deforestation. Here we present a conceptual framework for the process of fire-induced deforestation based on the interactive effects of fire and drought across three hierarchical scales: resistance in individuals, resilience in populations, and transitions to a new state. At the individual plant level, we review the traits ...


Biodiversity and ecosystem services in forest ecosystems: a research agenda for applied forest ecology

Journal of Applied Ecology, Vol. 54, No. 1. (1 February 2017), pp. 12-27,


Given the substantial contributions of forest biodiversity and ecosystem services to society, forest sciences have a large potential to contribute to the integrity and sustainability of our future. This is especially true when the roles of biodiversity for sustaining ecosystem services are considered. [\n] The rapid expansion of sustainable forest management (SFM) has resulted in the adoption of various forest management frameworks intended to safeguard biodiversity. Concurrently, the importance of forest ecosystem services has been increasingly recognized. Although some initiatives aimed ...



In Present and future probability of meteorological and hydrological hazards in Europe (2016), pp. 112-118


[Excerpt: Introduction] Uncontrolled forest fires impact both natural and built-up environments as well as humans. The occurrence of a forest fire requires the same basic elements as any fire: heat, oxygen and fuel. Preceding and prevailing weather conditions are crucial for setting conditions susceptible to fire in a forest. Drought, high temperatures and pronounced evaporation dry off organic material in forests, i.e. the fuel. Strong wind during/after ignition substantially intensifies spreading of the fire and raises the likelihood of the surface ...


Forest fire danger extremes in Europe under climate change: variability and uncertainty

Keywords: adaptation   array-of-factors   biodiversity   biodiversity-impacts   burnt-area   climate-change   climate-extremes   communicating-uncertainty   data-transformation-modelling   data-uncertainty   downscaling   droughts   dynamic-system   ecosystem-resilience   emergent-property   euro-cordex   europe   extreme-events   extreme-weather   fire-damage   fire-danger-rating   fire-management   fire-weather-index   forest-fires   forest-management   forest-pests   forest-resources   free-scientific-software   geospatial   geospatial-semantic-array-programming   human-behaviour   humidity   ipcc-scenarios   mastrave-modelling-library   mitigation   modelling-uncertainty   no-analog-pattern   peseta-series   precipitation   rcp85   resilience   resilience-vs-resistance   review   robust-modelling   science-policy-interface   science-society-interface   scientific-communication   semantic-array-programming   spatial-pattern   species-richness   species-specific-effects   temperature   vegetation-changes   wildfires   wind  


Forests cover over a third of the total land area of Europe. In recent years, large forest fires have repeatedly affected Europe, in particular the Mediterranean countries. Fire danger is influenced by weather in the short term, and by climate when considering longer time intervals. In this work, the emphasis is on the direct influence on fire danger of weather and climate. [\n] For climate analysis at the continental scale, a daily high-emission scenario (RCP 8.5) was considered up to the end ...


  1. de Rigo, D., Bosco, C., San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., Houston Durrant, T., Barredo, J. I., Strona, G., Caudullo, G., Di Leo, M., Boca, R., 2016. Forest resources in Europe: an integrated perspective on ecosystem services, disturbances and threats. In: San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., de Rigo, D., Caudullo, G., Houston Durrant, T., Mauri, A. (Eds.), European Atlas of Forest Tree Species. Publ. Off. EU, Luxembourg, pp. e015b50+. .
  2. Alberdi Asensio, I., Baycheva-Merger, T., Bouvet, A., Bozzano,

Unravelling the response of diurnal raptors to land use change in a highly dynamic landscape in northwestern Spain: an approach based on satellite earth observation data

European Journal of Wildlife Research, Vol. 63, No. 2. (2017), pp. 1-15,


Land use and land cover change (LULCC) is one of the main components of current anthropogenic global change. Unravelling the ecological response of biodiversity to the combined effect of land use change and other stressors is essential for effective conservation. For this purpose, we used co-inertia analysis to combine LULCC analysis of earth observation satellite data-derived maps and raptor data obtained from road censuses conducted in 2001 and 2014 at sampling unit level (10 km2 spatial resolution), in northwestern Spain (province ...


Intentional fire-spreading by “firehawk” raptors in Northern Australia

Journal of Ethnobiology, Vol. 37, No. 4. (1 December 2017), pp. 700-718,


We document Indigenous Ecological Knowledge and non-Indigenous observations of intentional fire-spreading by the fire-foraging raptors Black Kite (Milvus migrans), Whistling Kite (Haliastur sphenurus), and Brown Falcon (Falco berigora) in tropical Australian savannas. Observers report both solo and cooperative attempts, often successful, to spread wildfires intentionally via single-occasion or repeated transport of burning sticks in talons or beaks. This behavior, often represented in sacred ceremonies, is widely known to local people in the Northern Territory, where we carried out ethno-ornithological research from ...


Seventh national communication and third biennial report from the European Union under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) - Required under the UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol

(December 2017)


[Executive summary] [::Introduction] The European Union (EU) and its Member States, both jointly and individually, have engaged in domestic and international action on climate change for a number of years and this has resulted in significant emission reductions. The staff working documents accompanying this report constitute the EU’s seventh national communication as required under Article 12 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and Article 7 of the Kyoto Protocol, and its third biennial report as required under Decision 2/CP.17 of the ...


European Forest Types: toward an automated classification

Annals of Forest Science, Vol. 75, No. 1. (2018), pp. 1-14,


[Key message] The outcome of the present study leads to the application of a spatially explicit rule-based expert system (RBES) algorithm aimed at automatically classifying forest areas according to the European Forest Types (EFT) system of nomenclature at pan-European scale level. With the RBES, the EFT system of nomenclature can be now easily implemented for objective, replicable, and automatic classification of field plots for forest inventories or spatial units (pixels or polygons) for thematic mapping. [Context] Forest Types classification systems are aimed at stratifying ...


Valuing mediterranean forests: towards total economic value

In Valuing mediterranean forests: towards total economic value (2005),


This book provides a comprehensive analysis of the economic value of Mediterranean forests, including not just commonly measured benefits such as timber but also, more importantly, the public goods and externalities they provide. It consists of 25 chapters structured into 3 parts: part 1 provides an overview of the problem and of the approach followed, and summarizes the results; part 2 includes detailed national level case studies of 18 countries and territories bordering the Mediterranean Sea (Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Egypt, Palestine, ...


Empirical models of annual post-fire erosion on mulched and unmulched hillslopes

CATENA, Vol. 163 (April 2018), pp. 276-287,


[Highlights] [::] Measured hillslope erosion with and without mulch following the 2012 High Park Fire. [::] Mulched slopes had fourfold lower erosion rates during the first year after fire. [::] Bare soil was the strongest control on erosion rates. [::] Empirical models predict erosion using bare soil, precipitation, and flow length. [::] Empirical model performance ranged from poor to good for different fires. [Abstract] Erosion is one of the primary land management concerns following wildfire. This study examines controls on post-fire hillslope-scale erosion for the 2012 High Park ...


Evidence for declining forest resilience to wildfires under climate change

Ecology Letters (12 December 2017),


Forest resilience to climate change is a global concern given the potential effects of increased disturbance activity, warming temperatures and increased moisture stress on plants. We used a multi-regional dataset of 1485 sites across 52 wildfires from the US Rocky Mountains to ask if and how changing climate over the last several decades impacted post-fire tree regeneration, a key indicator of forest resilience. Results highlight significant decreases in tree regeneration in the 21st century. Annual moisture deficits were significantly greater from ...


Tamm Review - Shifting global fire regimes: lessons from reburns and research needs

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 396 (July 2017), pp. 217-233,


[Highlights] [::] We reviewed published studies on reburns in fire-adapted ecosystems of the world. [::] Fire regimes often have shifted from frequent to infrequent fire return intervals. [::] Legacies of past burns constrain the spread and severity of future fires. [::] Periodic fire generally favors fire-adapted vegetation and limits closed forests. [::] Better understanding of reburns informs climate change adaptation methods. [Abstract] Across the globe, rising temperatures and altered precipitation patterns have caused persistent regional droughts, lengthened fire seasons, and increased the number of weather-driven extreme fire events. ...

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