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Selection: with tag forest-fires [174 articles] 

 

Assessing European wild fire vulnerability

  
Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 14 (April 2012), 9452

Abstract

Wild fire vulnerability is a measure of potential socio-economic damage caused by a fire in a specific area. As such it is an important component of long-term fire risk management, helping policy-makers take informed decisions about adequate expenditures for fire prevention and suppression, and to target those regions at highest risk. This paper presents a first approach to assess wild fire vulnerability at the European level. A conservative approach was chosen that assesses the cost of restoring the previous land cover after a potential fire. Based on the CORINE ...

 

Modeling the impacts of climate change on forest fire danger in Europe: sectorial results of the PESETA II Project

  

Abstract

This constitutes a sectorial analysis of the PESETA II project of the European Commission Joint Research Center in the area of wildfires. [\n] Wildfires are a serious threat to European forests, and climate is the most important driving factor affecting wildfire potential over time (Flannigan et al., 2000). Wildfires are an environmental, economic and social problem particularly in the southern European countries, where wildfires regularly burn thousands of hectares of forests and other lands. Changes in wildfire regimes may have strong impacts on natural resources and ecosystems stability, ...

 

Risk of large-scale fires in boreal forests of Finland under changing climate

  
Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, Vol. 16, No. 1. (21 January 2016), pp. 239-253, https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-16-239-2016

Abstract

The target of this work was to assess the impact of projected climate change on forest-fire activity in Finland with special emphasis on large-scale fires. In addition, we were particularly interested to examine the inter-model variability of the projected change of fire danger. For this purpose, we utilized fire statistics covering the period 1996–2014 and consisting of almost 20 000 forest fires, as well as daily meteorological data from five global climate models under representative concentration pathway RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios. The ...

 

Multi-variable bias correction: application of forest fire risk in present and future climate in Sweden

  
Natural Hazards and Earth System Science, Vol. 15, No. 9. (11 September 2015), pp. 2037-2057, https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-15-2037-2015

Abstract

As the risk of a forest fire is largely influenced by weather, evaluating its tendency under a changing climate becomes important for management and decision making. Currently, biases in climate models make it difficult to realistically estimate the future climate and consequent impact on fire risk. A distribution-based scaling (DBS) approach was developed as a post-processing tool that intends to correct systematic biases in climate modelling outputs. In this study, we used two projections, one driven by historical reanalysis (ERA40) and ...

 

A review of the combination among global change factors in forests, shrublands and pastures of the Mediterranean Region: beyond drought effects

  
Global and Planetary Change, Vol. 148 (January 2017), pp. 42-54, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloplacha.2016.11.012

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] Different global change factors combine causing unprecedented ecological effects. [::] Much more complex interactions arise when combinations occur together. [::] Drought should be considered when designing and applying management policies. [::] Conserving Mediterranean terrestrial ecosystems is a collective effort. [Abstract] Climate change, alteration of atmospheric composition, land abandonment in some areas and land use intensification in others, wildfires and biological invasions threaten forests, shrublands and pastures all over the world. However, the impacts of the combinations between global change factors are not well understood despite ...

 

Terrestrial ecosystems, soil and forests

  
In Climate change, impacts and vulnerability in Europe 2016 - An indicator-based report, Vol. 1/2017 (January 2017), pp. 153-182, https://doi.org/10.2800/534806

Abstract

[Excerpt: Key messages] [::] Observed climate change has had many impacts on terrestrial ecosystems, such as changes in soil conditions, advances in phenological stages, altitudinal and latitudinal migration of plant and animal species (generally northwards and upwards), and changes in species interactions and species composition in communities, including local extinctions. [::] The relative importance of climate change as a major driver of biodiversity and ecosystem change is projected to increase further in the future. In addition to climate change, human efforts to mitigate and adapt to ...

References

  1. Alkemade, R., Bakkenes, M., Eickhout, B., 2011. Towards a general relationship between climate change and biodiversity: An example for plant species in Europe. Regional Environmental Change 11, 143–150. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10113-010-0161-1 .
  2. Allen, C. D., Macalady, A. K., Chenchouni, H., Bachelet, D., McDowell, N., Vennetier, M., Kitzberger, T., Rigling, A., Breshears, D. D., Hogg, E. H. (Ted), Gonzalez, P., Fensham, R., Zhang, Z., Castro, J., Demidova, N., Lim, J.-H., Allard, G., Running, S. W., Semerci, A.,
 

Executive summary

  
In Climate change, impacts and vulnerability in Europe 2016 - An indicator-based report, Vol. 1/2017 (January 2017), pp. 12-30, https://doi.org/10.2800/534806

Abstract

[Excerpt: Key messages] [::] All of the key findings from the 2012 European Environment Agency (EEA) report on climate change, impacts and vulnerability in Europe are still valid. [::] Climate change is continuing globally and in Europe. Land and sea temperatures are increasing; precipitation patterns are changing, generally making wet regions in Europe wetter, particularly in winter, and dry regions drier, particularly in summer; sea ice extent, glacier volume and snow cover are decreasing; sea levels are rising; and climate-related extremes such as heat waves, heavy precipitation ...

References

  1. Ciscar, J.-C., Feyen, L., Soria, A., Lavalle, C., Raes, F., Perry, M., Nemry, F., Demirel, H., Rozsai, M., Dosio, A., Donatelli, M., Srivastava, A. K., Fumagalli, D., Niemeyer, S., Shrestha, S., Ciaian, P., Himics, M., Van Doorslaer, B., Barrios, S., Ibáñez, N., Forzieri, G., Rojas, R., Bianchi, A., Dowling, P., Camia, A., Libertà, G., San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., de Rigo, D., Caudullo, G., Barredo, J. I., Paci, D., Pycroft, J., Saveyn, B., Van Regemorter, D., Revesz, T., Vandyck, T.,
 

Climate change, impacts and vulnerability in Europe 2016 - An indicator-based report

  
Vol. 1/2017 (January 2017), https://doi.org/10.2800/534806

Abstract

[Excerpt: Executive summary] Key messages [::] All of the key findings from the 2012 European Environment Agency (EEA) report on climate change, impacts and vulnerability in Europe are still valid. [::] Climate change is continuing globally and in Europe. Land and sea temperatures are increasing; precipitation patterns are changing, generally making wet regions in Europe wetter, particularly in winter, and dry regions drier, particularly in summer; sea ice extent, glacier volume and snow cover are decreasing; sea levels are rising; and climate-related extremes such as heat waves, heavy ...

 

Integrating social science research into wildland fire management

  
Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, Vol. 23, No. 4. (29 July 2014), pp. 381-394, https://doi.org/10.1108/dpm-10-2013-0193

Abstract

Purpose – Social science research is used to support the formulation of natural resource management decisions with accurate and timely information. Due to risk and potential impacts, this is important in wildland fire management. The purpose of this paper is to identify the respondent perceptions of a natural disturbance agent's impact on fire management in Colorado and Wyoming. Design/methodology/approach – The research methodology included a self-administered questionnaire completed by a random sample of respondents in three study locations adjacent to national forests. A quantitative ...

 

Modelling long-term fire occurrence factors in Spain by accounting for local variations with geographically weighted regression

  
Natural Hazards and Earth System Science, Vol. 13, No. 2. (11 February 2013), pp. 311-327, https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-13-311-2013

Abstract

Humans are responsible for most forest fires in Europe, but anthropogenic factors behind these events are still poorly understood. We tried to identify the driving factors of human-caused fire occurrence in Spain by applying two different statistical approaches. Firstly, assuming stationary processes for the whole country, we created models based on multiple linear regression and binary logistic regression to find factors associated with fire density and fire presence, respectively. Secondly, we used geographically weighted regression (GWR) to better understand and explore ...

 

Libros

  
Revista Montes, Vol. 125 (2016), pp. 76-77

Abstract

[Excerpt] [:Libro blanco del sector de aviones contra incendios forestales] [::Autores] Carles Algué y Aitor Martín [\n] [...] España cuenta con uno de los mejores sistemas de extinción de incendios forestales del mundo, en el que los medios aéreos constituyen un pilar clave. Los aviones anti-incendios operados por empresas privadas cada verano en España representan más de un tercio de la capacidad total de lanzamiento de agua disponible, aunque sólo la décima parte del presupuesto total anual destinado a medios aéreos. [...] [:Flora literaria del ...

 

Air pollution over European Russia and Ukraine under the hot summer conditions of 2010

  
Izvestiya, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics, Vol. 47, No. 6. (2011), pp. 699-707, https://doi.org/10.1134/S0001433811060168

Abstract

Variations in the concentrations of both primary (PM10, CO, and NOx) and secondary (ozone) pollutants in the atmosphere over the Moscow and Kirov regions, Kiev, and Crimea under the conditions of the anomalously hot summer of 2011 are given and analyzed. The concentrations of ozone, PM10, CO, and NOx in the atmosphere over the Moscow region exceeded their maximum permissible levels almost continuously from late July to late August 2010. The highest level of atmospheric pollution was observed on August 4–9, ...

 

Sequential disturbance effects of hailstorm and fire on vegetation in a Mediterranean-type ecosystem

  
Ecosystems, Vol. 18, No. 7. (2015), pp. 1121-1134, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10021-015-9886-5

Abstract

Frequency and intensity of disturbance is projected to increase for many ecosystems globally, with uncertain consequences, particularly when disturbances occur in rapid succession. We quantified community response (52 shrub species and the tree Eucalyptus todtiana) to a severe hailstorm followed 2 months later by prescribed fire for a Mediterranean-type shrubland in southwestern Australia. Partial overlap of hailstorm path and fire perimeter provided a unique opportunity to compare storm and fire effects along a storm severity gradient (high–moderate–none) with and without fire. ...

 

How drought-induced forest die-off alters microclimate and increases fuel loadings and fire potentials

  
International Journal of Wildland Fire, Vol. 25, No. 8. (2016), 819, https://doi.org/10.1071/wf15028

Abstract

Forest die-offs associated with drought and heat have recently occurred across the globe, raising concern that associated changes in fuels and microclimate could link initial die-off disturbance to subsequent fire disturbance. Despite widespread concern, little empirical data exist. Following forest die-off in the Northern Jarrah Forest, south-western Australia, we quantified fuel dynamics and associated microclimate for die-off and control plots. Sixteen months post die-off, die-off plots had significantly increased 1-h fuels (11.8 vs 9.8 tonnes ha–1) but not larger fuel classes ...

 

Hydrological impact of forest fires and climate change in a Mediterranean basin

  
Natural Hazards, Vol. 66, No. 2. (2013), pp. 609-628, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-012-0503-z

Abstract

Forest fire can modify and accelerate the hydrological response of Mediterranean basins submitted to intense rainfall: during the years following a fire, the effects on the hydrological response may be similar to those produced by the growth of impervious areas. Moreover, climate change and global warming in Mediterranean areas can imply consequences on both flash flood and fire hazards, by amplifying these phenomena. Based on historical events and post-fire experience, a methodology to interpret the impacts of forest fire in terms ...

 

Short-term effects of particulate matter on mortality during forest fires in Southern Europe: results of the MED-PARTICLES Project

  
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Vol. 72, No. 5. (01 May 2015), pp. 323-329, https://doi.org/10.1136/oemed-2014-102459

Abstract

[Background] An association between occurrence of wildfires and mortality in the exposed population has been observed in several studies with controversial results for cause-specific mortality. In the Mediterranean area, forest fires usually occur during spring–summer, they overlap with Saharan outbreaks, are associated with increased temperature and their health effects are probably due to an increase in particulate matter. [Aim and methods] We analysed the effects of wildfires and particulate matter (PM10) on mortality in 10 southern European cities in Spain, France, Italy ...

 

Adapting to climate change

  
In Climate Change and United States Forests, Vol. 57 (2014), pp. 183-222, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-7515-2_8

Abstract

Federal agencies have led the development of adaptation principles and tools in forest ecosystems over the past decade. Successful adaptation efforts generally require organizations to: (1) develop science-management partnerships, (2) provide education on climate change science, (3) provide a toolkit of methods and processes for vulnerability assessment and adaptation, (4) use multiple models to generate projections of climate change effects, (5) incorporate risk and uncertainty, (6) integrate with multiple management objectives, (7) prioritize no-regrets decision making, (8) support flexibility and adaptive ...

 

Evaluation of the Canadian fire weather index system in an eastern Mediterranean environment

  
Meteorological Applications, Vol. 18, No. 1. (March 2011), pp. 83-93, https://doi.org/10.1002/met.214

Abstract

The Fire Weather Index module of the Canadian Forest Fire Danger Rating System (CFFDRS) was evaluated during two consecutive fire seasons in the Mediterranean environment of Crete, Greece. The Duff Moisture Code (DMC), the Drought Code (DC), the Buildup Index (BUI) and the Fire Weather Index (FWI) were highly correlated to fire occurrence but only moderately to area burned. Logistic regression was applied in order to classify the FWI values into fire danger classes appropriate for the Mediterranean environments, as follows: ...

 

Current methods to assess fire danger potential

  
In Wildland Fire Danger Estimation and Mapping, Vol. 4 (1 September 2003), pp. 21-61, https://doi.org/10.1142/9789812791177_0002

Abstract

Abstract A review of the main operational systems for fire risk/danger rating is presented in this chapter. The systems included in the revision are a European proposal based on the Fire Potential Index and a structural risk index, the US National Fire Danger Rating System, the Canadian Forest Fire Danger Rating System, the Australian and the New Zealand systems. The basis and different components of these danger rating methods are presented and commented. ...

 

The 2002 glossary of forest fire management terms

  
(2002)

Abstract

[Excerpt: Preface] This glossary gives definitions of terms most commonly used in Canada in the field of forest fire management. It also includes terms that are commonly found in forest fire management literature, although not all of these terms are widely used in field operations at this time. The main purpose of the glossary is to provide a means of achieving a common understanding of the vocabulary used in forest fire management and to promote the use of standard terminology among forest fire agencies across the ...

 

Does increased forest protection correspond to higher fire severity in frequent-fire forests of the western United States?

  
Ecosphere, Vol. 7, No. 10. (October 2016), e01492, https://doi.org/10.1002/ecs2.1492

Abstract

There is a widespread view among land managers and others that the protected status of many forestlands in the western United States corresponds with higher fire severity levels due to historical restrictions on logging that contribute to greater amounts of biomass and fuel loading in less intensively managed areas, particularly after decades of fire suppression. This view has led to recent proposals—both administrative and legislative—to reduce or eliminate forest protections and increase some forms of logging based on the belief that ...

 

Evaluating post-fire forest resilience using GIS and multi-criteria analysis: an example from Cape Sounion National Park, Greece

  
Environmental Management In Environmental Management, Vol. 47, No. 3. (4 February 2011), pp. 384-397, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00267-011-9614-7

Abstract

Forest fires are one of the major causes of ecological disturbance in the mediterranean climate ecosystems of the world. Despite the fact that a lot of resources have been invested in fire prevention and suppression, the number of fires occurring in the Mediterranean Basin in the recent decades has continued to markedly increase. The understanding of the relationship between landscape and fire lies, among others, in the identification of the system’s post-fire resilience. In our study, ecological and landscape data are ...

 

Interpreting the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index (FWI) System

  
In Fourth Central Regional Fire Weather Committee Scientific and Technical Seminar, Proceedings (1987), pp. 3-14

Abstract

[Excerpt] [::] A presentation made at the Fourth Central Region Fire Weather Committee Scientific and Technical Seminar, April 2, 1987, Winnipeg, Manitoba. [\n] Fire danger is defined by the Canadian Committee on Forest Fire Management (Merrill and Alexander 1987) as: [::] A general term used to express an assessment of both fixed and variable factors of the fire environment which determine the ease of ignition, rate of spread, difficulty of control and fire impact. [\n] The Canadian Forest Fire Danger Rating System (CFFDRS) is the national system for ...

 

Climate change and forest fires

  
Science of The Total Environment, Vol. 262, No. 3. (15 November 2000), pp. 221-229, https://doi.org/10.1016/s0048-9697(00)00524-6

Abstract

This paper addresses the impacts of climate change on forest fires and describes how this, in turn, will impact on the forests of the United States. In addition to reviewing existing studies on climate change and forest fires we have used two transient general circulation models (GCMs), namely the Hadley Centre and the Canadian GCMs, to estimate fire season severity in the middle of the next century. Ratios of 2×CO2 seasonal severity rating (SSR) over present day SSR were calculated for ...

 

Disturbance and the carbon balance of US forests: a quantitative review of impacts from harvests, fires, insects, and droughts

  
Global and Planetary Change, Vol. 143 (August 2016), pp. 66-80, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloplacha.2016.06.002

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] Available data suggest harvest is the leading disturbance impact on C in US forests then fire, windthrow, insects, and droughts. [::] Disturbances in US forests lead to the loss of at least 200 Tg C in live biomass each year on average. [::] Regrowth roughly balances disturbance emissions, with growth enhancements contributing significantly to the net change in forest carbon. [::] Natural disturbance events are likely to rise in the future, leading to net release of forest carbon. [Abstract] Disturbances are a major determinant of ...

 

Darcy's law predicts widespread forest mortality under climate warming

  
Nature Climate Change, Vol. 5, No. 7. (18 May 2015), pp. 669-672, https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate2641

Abstract

Nature Climate Change | Letter Print Share/bookmark Darcy's law predicts widespread forest mortality under climate warming Nathan G. McDowell & Craig D. Allen Affiliations Contributions Corresponding author Nature Climate Change 5, 669–672 (2015) https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate2641 Received 23 July 2014 Accepted 07 April ...

 

Factors determining low Mediterranean ecosystems resilience to fire: the case of Pinus halepensis forests

  
In Ecology, Conservation and Management of Mediterranean Climate Ecosystems - Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Mediterranean Climate Ecosystems (2004), 20

Abstract

Factors acting as drivers of low resilience to fire in Pinus halepensis ecosystems are being examined. The commonest factor seems to be fire interval. From the several time windows examined, that of, the shortest one ever reported in this type of communities (3 years only) seemed to be the most crucial. From the plant species previously existing on the site woody and herbaceous obligate seeders are mainly affected by this factor. Other factors, affecting mainly pine regeneration, are the abundance of Quercus coccifera individuals in the ...

 

On the relationships between forest fires and weather conditions in Greece from long-term national observations (1894-2010)

  
International Journal of Wildland Fire, Vol. 22, No. 4. (2013), 493, https://doi.org/10.1071/wf12003

Abstract

Historical fire records and meteorological observations, spanning more than 1 century (1894–2010), were gathered and assembled in a database, to provide long-term fire–weather associations. We investigated the relationships between forest fire activity and meteorological parameters and sought to find temporal patterns and trends in these historical records and to identify any linkages between meteorological parameters and fire occurrence in the eastern Mediterranean region. Trend analysis of the time series revealed a statistically significant increase in the number of fires and air ...

 

Atmospheric conditions associated with the exceptional fire season of 2003 in Portugal

  
International Journal of Climatology, Vol. 26, No. 13. (15 November 2006), pp. 1741-1757, https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.1333

Abstract

The summer of 2003 was characterised by exceptional warm weather in Europe, particularly during the first two weeks of August, when a devastating sequence of large fires was observed, reaching an amount of circa 450 000 ha, the largest figure ever recorded in Portugal in modern times. They were concentrated in two relatively confined regions of Portugal and a considerable proportion of burnt area was due to fires started on the 2nd and 3rd of August. [\n] It is shown that the ...

 

A review of the European summer heat wave of 2003

  
Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 40, No. 4. (9 March 2010), pp. 267-306, https://doi.org/10.1080/10643380802238137

Abstract

This paper reviews the European summer heat wave of 2003, with special emphasis on the first half of August 2003, jointly with its significant societal and environmental impact across Western and Central Europe. We show the pattern of record-breaking temperature anomalies, discuss it in the context of the past, and address the role of the main contributing factors responsible for the occurrence and persistence of this event: blocking episodes, soil moisture deficit, and sea surface temperatures. We show that the anticyclonic ...

 

Ground-truthing the Drought Code: field verification of overwinter recharge of forest floor moisture

  
Vol. 268 (1996)

Abstract

[Excerpt:Executive summary] Users of the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index System are required to precede computation of the Drought Code (DC) component each spring by first calculating a mathematical model of overwinter recharge of moisture in the forest floor. Practical limitations of the mathematical model, required for operational simplicity, have resulted in requests from users for a field sampling procedure that can be used to verify the model, where, and when desired. [\n] This report describes a standard procedure for destructively sampling ...

 

A study of the relation of meteorological variables to monthly provincial area burned by wildfire in Canada (1953-80)

  
Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, Vol. 27, No. 4. (1 April 1988), pp. 441-452, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0450(1988)027<0441:asotro>2.0.co;2

Abstract

The relation between meteorological variables and the monthly area burned by wildfire from May to August 1953–80 in nine Canadian “provinces” was investigated. A purely statistical approach to estimating the monthly provincial area burned, using meteorological variables as predictors, succeeded in explaining 30% of the variance west of Lake Nipigon and about 11% east of Lake Nipigon. [\n] Long sequences of days with less than 1.5 mm of rain or days with relative humidities less than 60% proved to have the highest ...

 

Characterizing extreme fire and weather events in the Boreal Shield ecozone of Ontario

  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, Vol. 133, No. 1-4. (November 2005), pp. 5-16, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2005.07.015

Abstract

Fire frequency is the most commonly used measure to characterize fire regimes for comparisons across geographical areas or time periods. Within the boreal forest region of the Boreal Shield ecozone of Ontario, fire frequency changes over time and across longitudinal gradients have been associated with drought frequency and large-scale climate processes. While providing evidence that fire regimes differ across areas of the Boreal Shield, fire frequency alone provides little insight into the potential for extreme fire events and the extreme fire ...

 

Ecosystem service supply and vulnerability to global change in Europe

  
Science, Vol. 310, No. 5752. (25 November 2005), pp. 1333-1337, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1115233

Abstract

Global change will alter the supply of ecosystem services that are vital for human well-being. To investigate ecosystem service supply during the 21st century, we used a range of ecosystem models and scenarios of climate and land-use change to conduct a Europe-wide assessment. Large changes in climate and land use typically resulted in large changes in ecosystem service supply. Some of these trends may be positive (for example, increases in forest area and productivity) or offer opportunities (for example, “surplus land” ...

 

Forest fires in Europe, Middle East and North Africa 2015

  

Abstract

This is the 16th issue of the EFFIS annual report on forest fires for the year 2015. This report is consolidated as highly appreciated documentation of the previous year's forest fires in Europe, Middle East and North Africa. In its different sections, the report includes information on the evolution of fire danger in the European and Mediterranean regions, the damage caused by fires and detailed description of the fire conditions during the 2015 fire campaign in the majority of countries in the EFFIS network The chapter ...

 

Climate, weather, and area burned

  
In Forest fires - Behavior and ecological effects (2001), pp. 351-373

Abstract

[Excerpt: Introduction] Forest fires are strongly linked to weather and climate (Flannigan and Harrington, 1988; Johnson, 1992; Swetnam, 1993). Fire has been an integral ecological process since the arrival of vegetation on the landscape. For the purposes of this chapter, we will define weather as short-term processes that result in variations in the atmospheric conditions ranging from minutes to a fire season. Processes that influence the atmosphere over time periods longer than a fire season will be defined as climate. There are several factors that control the ...

 

Modelling impacts of climate change on forest fire danger

  
No. JRC78846. (2013)

Abstract

Forest fires are an environmental, economic and social problem particularly in the southern European countries, where wildfires regularly burn thousands of hectares of forests and other lands. Changes in wildfire regimes may have strong impacts on natural resources and ecosystems stability, with consequent direct and indirect economic losses. On the other hand, active forest management and wildfire management practices have some potential to counteract the impacts of a changing climate. Meteorological fire danger indices evaluate and summarize the fire danger considering ...

References

  1. Alexander, M.E., 2008. Proposed revision of fire danger class criteria for forest and rural areas in New Zealand. Christchurch: National Rural Fire Authority, Wellington, in association with the Scion Rural Fire Research Group.
  2. Balshi, M.S., McGuire, A.D., Duffy, P., Flannigan, M., Walsh, J., Melillo, J., 2009. Assessing the response of area burned to changing climate in western boreal North America using a Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS) approach. Global Change Biology, 15, 578-600.
 

Development and structure of the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index System

  
Vol. 35 (1987)

Abstract

The Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index (FWI) System was first issued in 1970 after several years' work by a number of fire researchers in the Canadian Forestry Service. The best features of the former fire danger index were incorporated in the FWI, and a link was preserved between old and new. The FWI is based on the moisture content of three classes of forest fuel plus the effect of wind on fire behavior. The system consists of six components: three primary ...

 

Harmonized classification scheme of fire causes in the EU adopted for the European Fire Database of EFFIS

  

Abstract

The information on the causes of forest fires is of paramount importance to support the environmental and civil protection policies and design appropriate prevention measure. At the European level a simple common scheme with 4 fire causes classes (deliberate, accident/negligence, natural and unknown) has been used to record information on fire causes since 1992. European countries use national schemes which in most cases are much more detailed than the simple 4 common classes, but they are not harmonized and detailed cross ...

 

Forest fire danger projections in the Mediterranean using ENSEMBLES regional climate change scenarios

  
Climatic Change, Vol. 122, No. 1-2. (2014), pp. 185-199, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-013-1005-z

Abstract

We present future fire danger scenarios for the countries bordering the Mediterranean areas of Europe and north Africa building on a multi-model ensemble of state-of-the-art regional climate projections from the EU-funded project ENSEMBLES. Fire danger is estimated using the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index (FWI) System and a related set of indices. To overcome some of the limitations of ENSEMBLES data for their application on the FWI System—recently highlighted in a previous study by Herrera et al. (Clim Chang 118:827–840, 2013)—we ...

 

Impact of anthropogenic climate change on wildfire across western US forests

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (10 October 2016), 201607171, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1607171113

Abstract

[Significance] Increased forest fire activity across the western United States in recent decades has contributed to widespread forest mortality, carbon emissions, periods of degraded air quality, and substantial fire suppression expenditures. Although numerous factors aided the recent rise in fire activity, observed warming and drying have significantly increased fire-season fuel aridity, fostering a more favorable fire environment across forested systems. We demonstrate that human-caused climate change caused over half of the documented increases in fuel aridity since the 1970s and doubled the ...

 

Human-caused climate change is now a key driver of forest fire activity in the western United States

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (10 October 2016), 201612926, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1612926113

Abstract

[Excerpt] Effects of climate warming on natural and human systems are becoming increasingly visible across the globe. For example, the shattering of past yearly records for global high temperatures seems to be a near-annual event, with the five hottest years since 1880 all occurring since 2005. Not coincidentally, the single hottest year on record, 2015, also broke records for area burned by wildfire in the United States [...], eclipsing the previous high mark set just one decade prior. Scientists have known ...

 

Live fuel moisture content and ignition probability in the Iberian peninsular territory of Spain

  
GeoFocus, Vol. 13, No. 2. (2013), pp. 25-40

Abstract

This paper presents an operational algorithm to produce Live Fuel Moisture Content (LFMC) at national scale from MODIS data. The algorithm is based on the inversion of Radiative Transfer Models (RTM) that estimate moisture content based on different simulation scenarios. In addition, logistic regression models were calibrated to convert the derived LFMC values into Ignition Probability (IP) maps. The areas under the curve obtained by the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) plot method provided by the models were close to 0.6. Several ...

 

Decreasing fires in Mediterranean Europe

  
PLoS ONE, Vol. 11, No. 3. (16 March 2016), e0150663, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0150663

Abstract

Forest fires are a serious environmental hazard in southern Europe. Quantitative assessment of recent trends in fire statistics is important for assessing the possible shifts induced by climate and other environmental/socioeconomic changes in this area. Here we analyse recent fire trends in Portugal, Spain, southern France, Italy and Greece, building on a homogenized fire database integrating official fire statistics provided by several national/EU agencies. During the period 1985-2011, the total annual burned area (BA) displayed a general decreasing trend, with the ...

 

Tree cover and seasonal precipitation drive understorey flammability in alpine mountain forests

  
Journal of Biogeography, Vol. 43, No. 9. (September 2016), pp. 1869-1880, https://doi.org/10.1111/jbi.12745

Abstract

[Aim] Little is known about the understorey flammability of European mountain forests. The aim of this study was to determine the relative effects of climate, vegetation structure and composition on the fuel-driven variation in fire spread and intensity. [Location] The western Alps. [Methods] Fire spread and intensity were simulated under constant moisture and weather conditions for a wide range of understorey fuel parameters measured in the litter, grass and shrub layers. Simulation outputs were used to compare understorey flammability between different forest ecosystem types (FET). The ...

 

Natural hazards monitoring: forest fires, droughts and floods - The example of European pilot projects

  
Surveys in Geophysics, Vol. 21, No. 2-3. (2000), pp. 291-305, https://doi.org/10.1023/a%3a1006750412500

Abstract

This paper reviews the subject of natural hazards and the use of existing remote sensing systems in the different phases of disaster management for some specific natural hazards: forest fires, droughts and floods. It centers on the applicability of remote sensing for increasing preparedness, providing early warnings, monitoring the hazards in real time, and assessing the damage so that relief can be provided. Comparison of the information provided by existing systems and that needed for operational use of remote sensing in ...

 

Impacts of natural disasters in agriculture, rangeland and forestry: an overview

  
In Natural Disasters and Extreme Events in Agriculture (2005), pp. 1-22, https://doi.org/10.1007/3-540-28307-2_1

Abstract

Natural disasters play a major role in agricultural development and the economic cost associated with all natural disasters has increased 14 fold since the 1950s. Natural disasters are classified into hydro-meteorological and geophysical disasters. Definitions of various types of hydrometeorological disasters such as floods, droughts, cyclones, forest fires, heatwaves were presented. Evidence available from different parts of the world showed that there is a rising trend in the occurrence of natural disasters from 1993 to 2002. Impacts of droughts, cyclones, floods, ...

 

Modeling airborne laser scanning data for the spatial generation of critical forest parameters in fire behavior modeling

  
Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 86, No. 2. (30 July 2003), pp. 177-186, https://doi.org/10.1016/s0034-4257(03)00098-1

Abstract

Methods for using airborne laser scanning (also called airborne LIDAR) to retrieve forest parameters that are critical for fire behavior modeling are presented. A model for the automatic extraction of forest information is demonstrated to provide spatial coverage of the study area, making it possible to produce 3-D inputs to improve fire behavior models. [\n] The Toposys I airborne laser system recorded the last return of each footprint (0.30–0.38 m) over a 2000 m by 190 m flight line. Raw data ...

 

Development of a framework for fire risk assessment using remote sensing and geographic information system technologies

  
Ecological Modelling, Vol. 221, No. 1. (10 January 2010), pp. 46-58, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2008.11.017

Abstract

Forest fires play a critical role in landscape transformation, vegetation succession, soil degradation and air quality. Improvements in fire risk estimation are vital to reduce the negative impacts of fire, either by lessen burn severity or intensity through fuel management, or by aiding the natural vegetation recovery using post-fire treatments. This paper presents the methods to generate the input variables and the risk integration developed within the Firemap project (funded under the Spanish Ministry of Science and Technology) to map wildland ...

 

Advances in remote sensing and GIS applications in support of forest fire management

  
International Journal of Wildland Fire, Vol. 23, No. 5. (2014), 603, https://doi.org/10.1071/wf14117

Abstract

[Excerpt: Introduction] In recent years, the importance of wildfires as a natural or a human-induced phenomenon has gained recognition not only at local but also at regional and global levels. Improved remote sensing and computational capabilities enable the rapid processing of large image datasets in near-real time. As a result, remote sensing and geographic information systems are becoming common tools for fire monitoring at local, regional and global levels [...]. [\n] Wildland fires, a hot topic of research since the early days of ...

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