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Selection: with tag forest-fires [at least 200 articles] 

 

Assessing the influence of roads on fire ignition: does land cover matter?

  
Fire, Vol. 1, No. 2. (09 July 2018), 24, https://doi.org/10.3390/fire1020024

Abstract

In human-affected fire environments, assessing the influence of human activities on the spatial distribution of wildfire ignitions is of paramount importance for fire management planning. Previous studies have shown that roads have significant effects on fire ignition. However, since different land cover classes are subject to different levels of ignition risk, roads in different land cover classes may differently affect fire ignition. The aim of this paper is thus to assess the influence of roads on fire ignition in selected land ...

 

Vegetation Fire and Smoke Pollution Warning and Advisory System (VFSP-WAS): concept note and expert recommendations

  
Vol. 235 (2018)

Abstract

This concept note contains the expert recommendations resulting from discussions at the international workshop on Forecasting Emissions from Vegetation Fires and their Impacts on Human Health and Security in South-East Asia, which was hosted by the Indonesian Agency for Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics (BMKG), Jakarta, from 29 August to 1 September 2016. The workshop was organized by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the Interdisciplinary Biomass Burning Initiative (IBBI) in collaboration with the United Nations Office for Disaster Reduction/International Wildfire Preparedness ...

 

Negligent and intentional fires in Portugal: spatial distribution characterization

  
Science of The Total Environment, Vol. 624 (May 2018), pp. 424-437, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.12.013

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] Average fire size is much higher for intentional than for negligent fires. [::] Incidence of negligent and intentional fires has different distribution patterns. [::] Higher drivers' influence for intentional fires, burnt area and in the south region. [::] Human's drivers and altitude are the most important for fire ignitions. [::] Negligent (intentional) fires burn more forest and agricultural (human) areas. [Abstract] In the European context, Portugal is the country with the highest number of wildfires and the second with more burnt area. The vast majority of ...

 

Non-supervised method for early forest fire detection and rapid mapping

  
In Fifth International Conference on Remote Sensing and Geoinformation of the Environment (RSCy2017), Vol. 10444 (6 September 2017), 104440R, https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2280714

Abstract

Natural hazards are a challenge for the society. Scientific community efforts have been severely increased assessing tasks about prevention and damage mitigation. The most important points to minimize natural hazard damages are monitoring and prevention. This work focuses particularly on forest fires. This phenomenon depends on small-scale factors and fire behavior is strongly related to the local weather. Forest fire spread forecast is a complex task because of the scale of the phenomena, the input data uncertainty and time constraints in ...

 

Predicting conifer establishment post wildfire in mixed conifer forests of the North American Mediterranean-climate zone

  
Ecosphere, Vol. 7, No. 12. (December 2016), e01609, https://doi.org/10.1002/ecs2.1609

Abstract

Due to fire suppression policies, timber harvest, and other management practices over the last century, many low‐ to mid‐elevation forests in semiarid parts of the western United States have accumulated high fuel loads and dense, multi‐layered canopies that are dominated by shade‐tolerant and fire‐sensitive conifers. To a great extent, the future status of western US forests will depend on tree species’ responses to patterns and trends in fire activity and fire behavior and postfire management decisions. This is especially the case ...

 

Climate-vegetation-fire interactions and feedbacks: trivial detail or major barrier to projecting the future of the Earth system?

  
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, Vol. 7, No. 6. (1 November 2016), pp. 910-931, https://doi.org/10.1002/wcc.428

Abstract

Fire is a complex process involving interactions and feedbacks between biological, socioeconomic, and physical drivers across multiple spatial and temporal scales. This complexity limits our ability to incorporate fire into Earth system models and project future fire activity under climate change. Conceptual, empirical, and process models have identified the mechanisms and processes driving fire regimes, and provide a useful basis to consider future fire activity. However, these models generally deal with only one component of fire regimes, fire frequency, and do ...

 

Predicting climate change effects on wildfires requires linking processes across scales

  
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, Vol. 2, No. 1. (January 2011), pp. 99-112, https://doi.org/10.1002/wcc.92

Abstract

Accurate process‐based prediction of climate change effects on wildfires requires coupling processes across orders of magnitude of time and space scales, because climate dynamic processes operate at relatively large scales (e.g., hemispherical and centennial), but fire behavior processes operate at relatively small scales (e.g., molecules and microseconds). In this review, we outline some of the current understanding of the processes by which climate/meteorology controls wildfire behavior by focusing on four critical stages of wildfire development: (1) fuel drying, (2) ignition, (3) ...

 

Mapping regional patterns of large forest fires in Wildland–Urban Interface areas in Europe

  
Journal of Environmental Management, Vol. 172 (May 2016), pp. 112-126, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2016.02.013

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] A European Wildland–Urban Interface (WUI) map was presented. [::] The European WUI areas have been correlated with occurrence of large burned surfaces. [::] Peri-urban areas and Mediterranean touristic areas show strong co-occurrence of WUI and fires. [::] Burned surface probabilities within 5000 m of the WUI areas are estimated to map fire risk. [Abstract] Over recent decades, Land Use and Cover Change (LUCC) trends in many regions of Europe have reconfigured the landscape structures around many urban areas. In these areas, the proximity to landscape ...

 

Land use strategies to mitigate climate change in carbon dense temperate forests

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 115, No. 14. (03 April 2018), pp. 3663-3668, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1720064115

Abstract

[Significance] Regional quantification of feasibility and effectiveness of forest strategies to mitigate climate change should integrate observations and mechanistic ecosystem process models with future climate, CO2, disturbances from fire, and management. Here, we demonstrate this approach in a high biomass region, and found that reforestation, afforestation, lengthened harvest cycles on private lands, and restricting harvest on public lands increased net ecosystem carbon balance by 56% by 2100, with the latter two actions contributing the most. Forest sector emissions tracked with our life ...

 

A sensible climate solution for the boreal forest

  
Nature Climate Change, Vol. 8, No. 1. (2 January 2018), pp. 11-12, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41558-017-0043-3

Abstract

Climate change could increase fire risk across most of the managed boreal forest. Decreasing this risk by increasing the proportion of broad-leaved tree species is an overlooked mitigation–adaption strategy with multiple benefits. ...

 

Caliver: an R package for CALIbration and VERification of forest fire gridded model outputs

  
PLOS ONE, Vol. 13, No. 1. (2 January 2018), e0189419, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0189419

Abstract

The name caliver stands for CALIbration and VERification of forest fire gridded model outputs. This is a package developed for the R programming language and available under an APACHE-2 license from a public repository. In this paper we describe the functionalities of the package and give examples using publicly available datasets. Fire danger model outputs are taken from the modeling components of the European Forest Fire Information System (EFFIS) and observed burned areas from the Global Fire Emission Database (GFED). Complete ...

 

Rethinking wildfires and forest watersheds

  
Science, Vol. 359, No. 6379. (01 March 2018), pp. 1001.2-1002, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aar8120

Abstract

[Excerpt] [...] The secondary threats of wildfires to water supply are particularly concerning, as almost two-thirds of municipalities in North America receive their drinking water from forested areas [...]. Key threats include increased potential for erosion, landslides, debris flows, floods, and introduction of contaminants to streams, with potentially catastrophic implications for community infrastructure, drinking water treatment, public health, and aquatic ecosystem health [...]. [\n] Given the rising threats and costs associated with the current wildfire trend, we must change the way we manage ...

 

Secondo rapporto sullo stato del capitale naturale in Italia

  
(2018)

Abstract

[:Executive summary (in Italian)] Il 2017 ha segnato un importante punto di svolta dell’articolato e lungo percorso di sostenibilità del nostro Paese. Nel quadro di riferimento dettato dall’Agenda 2030 dell’ONU sullo Sviluppo Sostenibile e dalla Strategia nazionale di Sviluppo Sostenibile (SNSvS), l’elaborazione del Primo Rapporto sullo Stato del Capitale Naturale in Italia ha consentito di mettere in luce, per la prima volta, al complesso sistema istituzionale il fondamentale ruolo ricoperto dal Capitale Naturale italiano rispetto al sistema socio-economico collettivo del Paese. [\n] “Dov’è ...

References

  1. Alberini, A., Rosato, P., Longo, A., Zanatta, V., 2004. Information and Willingness to Pay in a Contingent Valuation Study: the Value of S. Erasmo in the Lagoon of Venice. Nota di lavoro FEEM N° 19/2004.
  2. Alberini, A., Zanatta, V., 2005. Combining Actual and Contingent Behaviour to Estimate the Value of Sports Fishing in the Lagoon of Venice. Nota di lavoro FEEM N° 44/2005.
  3. Alberini, A., Zanatta, V., Rosato, P., 2007. Combining
 

Adapt to more wildfire in western North American forests as climate changes

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 114, No. 18. (02 May 2017), pp. 4582-4590, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1617464114

Abstract

Wildfires across western North America have increased in number and size over the past three decades, and this trend will continue in response to further warming. As a consequence, the wildland–urban interface is projected to experience substantially higher risk of climate-driven fires in the coming decades. Although many plants, animals, and ecosystem services benefit from fire, it is unknown how ecosystems will respond to increased burning and warming. Policy and management have focused primarily on specified resilience approaches aimed at resistance ...

 

Fire-induced deforestation in drought-prone Mediterranean forests: drivers and unknowns from leaves to communities

  
Ecological Monographs (22 January 2018), https://doi.org/10.1002/ecm.1285

Abstract

Over the past 15 years, 3 million hectares of forests have been converted into shrublands or grasslands in the Mediterranean countries of the European Union. Fire and drought are the main drivers underlying this deforestation. Here we present a conceptual framework for the process of fire-induced deforestation based on the interactive effects of fire and drought across three hierarchical scales: resistance in individuals, resilience in populations, and transitions to a new state. At the individual plant level, we review the traits ...

 

Wildfires

  
In Present and future probability of meteorological and hydrological hazards in Europe (2016), pp. 112-118

Abstract

[Excerpt: Introduction] Uncontrolled forest fires impact both natural and built-up environments as well as humans. The occurrence of a forest fire requires the same basic elements as any fire: heat, oxygen and fuel. Preceding and prevailing weather conditions are crucial for setting conditions susceptible to fire in a forest. Drought, high temperatures and pronounced evaporation dry off organic material in forests, i.e. the fuel. Strong wind during/after ignition substantially intensifies spreading of the fire and raises the likelihood of the surface ...

 

Forest fire danger extremes in Europe under climate change: variability and uncertainty

  
Keywords: adaptation   array-of-factors   biodiversity   biodiversity-impacts   burnt-area   climate-change   climate-extremes   communicating-uncertainty   data-transformation-modelling   data-uncertainty   downscaling   droughts   dynamic-system   ecosystem-resilience   emergent-property   euro-cordex   europe   extreme-events   extreme-weather   fire-damage   fire-danger-rating   fire-management   fire-weather-index   forest-fires   forest-management   forest-pests   forest-resources   free-scientific-software   geospatial   geospatial-semantic-array-programming   human-behaviour   humidity   ipcc-scenarios   mastrave-modelling-library   mitigation   modelling-uncertainty   no-analog-pattern   peseta-series   precipitation   rcp85   resilience   resilience-vs-resistance   review   robust-modelling   science-policy-interface   science-society-interface   scientific-communication   semantic-array-programming   spatial-pattern   species-richness   species-specific-effects   temperature   vegetation-changes   wildfires   wind  

Abstract

Forests cover over a third of the total land area of Europe. In recent years, large forest fires have repeatedly affected Europe, in particular the Mediterranean countries. Fire danger is influenced by weather in the short term, and by climate when considering longer time intervals. In this work, the emphasis is on the direct influence on fire danger of weather and climate. [\n] For climate analysis at the continental scale, a daily high-emission scenario (RCP 8.5) was considered up to the end ...

References

  1. de Rigo, D., Bosco, C., San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., Houston Durrant, T., Barredo, J. I., Strona, G., Caudullo, G., Di Leo, M., Boca, R., 2016. Forest resources in Europe: an integrated perspective on ecosystem services, disturbances and threats. In: San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., de Rigo, D., Caudullo, G., Houston Durrant, T., Mauri, A. (Eds.), European Atlas of Forest Tree Species. Publ. Off. EU, Luxembourg, pp. e015b50+. https://w3id.org/mtv/FISE-Comm/v01/e015b50 .
  2. Alberdi Asensio, I., Baycheva-Merger, T., Bouvet, A., Bozzano,
 

Unravelling the response of diurnal raptors to land use change in a highly dynamic landscape in northwestern Spain: an approach based on satellite earth observation data

  
European Journal of Wildlife Research, Vol. 63, No. 2. (2017), pp. 1-15, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10344-017-1097-2

Abstract

Land use and land cover change (LULCC) is one of the main components of current anthropogenic global change. Unravelling the ecological response of biodiversity to the combined effect of land use change and other stressors is essential for effective conservation. For this purpose, we used co-inertia analysis to combine LULCC analysis of earth observation satellite data-derived maps and raptor data obtained from road censuses conducted in 2001 and 2014 at sampling unit level (10 km2 spatial resolution), in northwestern Spain (province ...

 

Empirical models of annual post-fire erosion on mulched and unmulched hillslopes

  
CATENA, Vol. 163 (April 2018), pp. 276-287, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2017.12.029

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] Measured hillslope erosion with and without mulch following the 2012 High Park Fire. [::] Mulched slopes had fourfold lower erosion rates during the first year after fire. [::] Bare soil was the strongest control on erosion rates. [::] Empirical models predict erosion using bare soil, precipitation, and flow length. [::] Empirical model performance ranged from poor to good for different fires. [Abstract] Erosion is one of the primary land management concerns following wildfire. This study examines controls on post-fire hillslope-scale erosion for the 2012 High Park ...

 

Tamm Review - Shifting global fire regimes: lessons from reburns and research needs

  
Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 396 (July 2017), pp. 217-233, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2017.03.035

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] We reviewed published studies on reburns in fire-adapted ecosystems of the world. [::] Fire regimes often have shifted from frequent to infrequent fire return intervals. [::] Legacies of past burns constrain the spread and severity of future fires. [::] Periodic fire generally favors fire-adapted vegetation and limits closed forests. [::] Better understanding of reburns informs climate change adaptation methods. [Abstract] Across the globe, rising temperatures and altered precipitation patterns have caused persistent regional droughts, lengthened fire seasons, and increased the number of weather-driven extreme fire events. ...

 

Repeated wildfires alter forest recovery of mixed-conifer ecosystems

  
Ecological Applications, Vol. 26, No. 6. (September 2016), pp. 1842-1853, https://doi.org/10.1890/15-1521.1

Abstract

Most models project warmer and drier climates that will contribute to larger and more frequent wildfires. However, it remains unknown how repeated wildfires alter post-fire successional patterns and forest structure. Here, we test the hypothesis that the number of wildfires, as well as the order and severity of wildfire events interact to alter forest structure and vegetation recovery and implications for vegetation management. In 2014, we examined forest structure, composition, and tree regeneration in stands that burned 1–18 yr before a ...

 

US natural resources and climate change: concepts and approaches for management adaptation

  
Environmental Management, Vol. 44, No. 6. (2009), pp. 1001-1021, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00267-009-9345-1

Abstract

Public lands and waters in the United States traditionally have been managed using frameworks and objectives that were established under an implicit assumption of stable climatic conditions. However, projected climatic changes render this assumption invalid. Here, we summarize general principles for management adaptations that have emerged from a major literature review. These general principles cover many topics including: (1) how to assess climate impacts to ecosystem processes that are key to management goals; (2) using management practices to support ecosystem resilience; ...

 

Spreading like wildfire

  
Nature Climate Change, Vol. 7, No. 11. (November 2017), pp. 755-755, https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate3432

Abstract

The 2017 wildfire season has seen unusually high fire levels in many parts of the world, with extensive and severe fires occurring in Chile, the Mediterranean, Russia, the US, Canada and even Greenland. Is this a sign of things to come? [Excerpt] During January and February, Chile experienced what their president Michelle Bachelet called “The greatest forest disaster in our history”. The nation was not adequately equipped to tackle these fires, leading the government to enact a state of emergency and accept ...

 

Early postfire vegetation recovery of Pinus brutia forests: effects offire severity, prefire stand age, and aspect

  
Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry, Vol. 40 (2016), pp. 723-736, https://doi.org/10.3906/tar-1601-21

Abstract

Forests dominated by serotinous tree species are usually generalized to follow an autosuccessional model of postfire recovery. However, recent studies have suggested that prefire conditions, topography, and idiosyncrasies of the fire disturbance can have notable effects on how such forests respond to fire. We investigated the effects of fire severity, prefire stand age, and aspect (slope orientation) on the early postfire recovery of Pinus brutia forest. The study site was the area of 2008 Serik-Tasağıl Fire, one of the largest forest ...

 

Daily synoptic conditions associated with large fire occurrence in Mediterranean France: evidence for a wind-driven fire regime

  
International Journal of Climatology, Vol. 37, No. 1. (January 2017), pp. 524-533, https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.4680

Abstract

Changes in wildfire activity in the Mediterranean area over recent decades increase the need for a better understanding of the fire–weather relationships and for the development of reliable models to improve fire danger prediction. This study analyses daily synoptic and local weather conditions associated with the occurrence of summer large fires (LFs) in Mediterranean France during recent decades (1973–2013). The links between large fire occurrence and synoptic conditions are analysed with composites of sea level pressure and winds at 925 hPa ...

 

Assessing risk and adaptation options to fires and windstorms in European forestry

  
Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change In Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, Vol. 15, No. 7. (10 July 2010), pp. 681-701, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11027-010-9243-0

Abstract

Risks can generally be described as the combination of hazard, exposure and vulnerability. Using this framework, we evaluated the historical and future development of risk of fire and wind damage in European forestry at the national level. Fire risk is expected to increase, mainly as a consequence of an increase in fire hazard, defined as the Fire Weather Index in summer. Exposure, defined as forest area, is expected to increase slightly as a consequence of active afforestation and abandonment of marginal ...

 

Forest fires in Europe, Middle East and North Africa 2016

  

Abstract

[Excerpt: Foreword] Forests, agricultural land and natural areas continue to burn, both within and outside Europe. Lives of European citizens are lost and endangered. By early September 2017, wildfires have already burnt nearly 700 000 ha of land in the EU; hence this season will most likely be remembered as one of the most devastating wildfire seasons in Europe since records began. Moreover, sadly this year’s fires have taken a huge toll of lives in Southern Europe. Extreme weather conditions such ...

 

The exceptionally hot summer of 2007 in Athens, Greece — A typical summer in the future climate?

  
Global and Planetary Change, Vol. 67, No. 3-4. (June 2009), pp. 227-236, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloplacha.2009.03.013

Abstract

Summer 2007 was abnormally warm for many areas of southeastern Europe, the Balkan peninsula and parts of Asia Minor with departures from the seasonal means exceeding 4 °C in some areas but also distinct periods of extremely hot weather. Greece experienced very likely the warmest summer of its instrumental history with record breaking temperatures being observed at a number of stations. The historical air temperature record of the National Observatory of Athens (NOA), extending back to the 19th century, was used in ...

 

Forest fires

  
In EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2016 - Technical guidance to prepare national emission inventories, Vol. 21/2016 (2016), 11.B, https://doi.org/10.2800/247535

Abstract

[Excerpt: Overview] This chapter describes emissions from (naturally or man-induced) burning of non-managed and managed forests and other vegetation, excluding agricultural burning of stubble, etc. This includes domestic fires (fuel wood-, crop residue-, dung and charcoal burning) as well as open vegetation fires (forest, shrub- , grass- and cropland burning). According to Barbosa (2006, personal communication), 95 % of the forest fires in the Mediterranean region are related to human impact (negligence, arson, etc.). For the boreal area, Molicone et al. (2006) estimate 87 % of forest ...

 

How have past fire disturbances contributed to the current carbon balance of boreal ecosystems?

  
Biogeosciences, Vol. 13, No. 3. (04 February 2016), pp. 675-690, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-13-675-2016

Abstract

Boreal fires have immediate effects on regional carbon budgets by emitting CO2 into the atmosphere at the time of burning, but they also have legacy effects by initiating a long-term carbon sink during post-fire vegetation recovery. Quantifying these different effects on the current-day pan-boreal (44–84° N) carbon balance and quantifying relative contributions of legacy sinks by past fires is important for understanding and predicting the carbon dynamics in this region. Here we used the global dynamic vegetation model ORCHIDEE–SPITFIRE (Organising Carbon and ...

 

Describing wildland surface fuel loading for fire management: a review of approaches, methods and systems

  
International Journal of Wildland Fire, Vol. 22, No. 1. (2013), 51, https://doi.org/10.1071/wf11139

Abstract

Wildland fuelbeds are exceptionally complex, consisting of diverse particles of many sizes, types and shapes with abundances and properties that are highly variable in time and space. This complexity makes it difficult to accurately describe, classify, sample and map fuels for wildland fire research and management. As a result, many fire behaviour and effects software prediction systems use a generalised description of fuels to simplify data collection and entry into various computer programs. There are several major fuel description systems currently ...

 

Climatological risk: wildfires

  
In Science for disaster risk management 2017: knowing better and losing less, Vol. 28034 (2017), pp. 294-305

Abstract

[Excerpt: Conclusions and key messages] There is a vast amount of information on wildfires at local, regional and global scales. However, problems remain at different scales in terms of harmonising or standardising practices for the assessment and management of wildfire risk. [\n] Resilience theory is providing a suitable framework by which to explain abrupt changes in socioecological systems. The importance of community participation and building social capital through collective learning and governance mechanisms has been highlighted as a required basis for building disaster resilience (Aldunce et al., 2015; Aldunce et al., 2016; Montiel and Kraus, 2010; O’Brien et al., ...

References

  1. SCION, 2009. Fire behavioiur app. https://www.scionresearch.com/research/forest-science/rural-fire-research/tools/fire-behaviour-smartphone-apps .
  2. NFPA, 2016 Firewise Communities Program. http://www.firewise.org/ .
  3. GOV.UK, n.d. LH1: Management of lowland heathlandhttps://www.gov.uk/countryside-stewardship-grants/management-of-lowland-heathland-lh1 .
  4. KWFW, 2014. Wildfire Threat Analysis (WTA):NERC-funded scoping project with Forestry Commission. http://www.kfwf.org.uk/_assets/documents/Wildfire_Threat_Analysis_post-project_report.pdf .
  5. HM Tresaury, 2013. Orange book: management of risk - principles and concepts. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/orange-book .
  6. Cabinet Office, 2015. National Risk
 

History matters: previous land use changes determine post-fire vegetation recovery in forested Mediterranean landscapes

  
Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 279 (September 2012), pp. 121-127, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2012.05.020

Abstract

[Abstract] Land use changes and shifts in disturbance regimes (e.g. wildfires) are recognized worldwide as two of the major drivers of the current global change in terrestrial ecosystems. We expect that, in areas with large-scale land use changes, legacies from previous land uses persist and affect current ecosystem responses to climate-associated disturbances like fire. This study analyses whether post-fire vegetation dynamics may differ according to specific historical land use histories in a Mediterranean forest landscape of about 60,000 ha that was burnt ...

 

Shifts in community-level traits and functional diversity in a mixed conifer forest: a legacy of land-use change

  
Journal of Applied Ecology, Vol. 53, No. 6. (December 2016), pp. 1755-1765, https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2664.12737

Abstract

[Summary] [::1] Historical reference conditions have long been used to guide the restoration of degraded ecosystems. However, a rapidly changing climate and altered disturbance regimes are calling into question the usefulness of this approach. As a consequence, restoration goals are increasingly focused on creating communities that are resilient to novel environmental stressors and emphasis is being placed on defining functional targets through the use of plant traits. While changes in forest structure and composition have received much attention, long-term changes in stand-level ...

 

Newly discovered landscape traps produce regime shifts in wet forests

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 108, No. 38. (20 September 2011), pp. 15887-15891, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1110245108

Abstract

We describe the “landscape trap” concept, whereby entire landscapes are shifted into, and then maintained (trapped) in, a highly compromised structural and functional state as the result of multiple temporal and spatial feedbacks between human and natural disturbance regimes. The landscape trap concept builds on ideas like stable alternative states and other relevant concepts, but it substantively expands the conceptual thinking in a number of unique ways. In this paper, we (i) review the literature to develop the concept of landscape ...

 

Effects of logging on fire regimes in moist forests

  
Conservation Letters, Vol. 2, No. 6. (December 2009), pp. 271-277, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-263x.2009.00080.x

Abstract

Does logging affect the fire proneness of forests? This question often arises after major wildfires, but data suggest that answers differ substantially among different types of forest. Logging can alter key attributes of forests by changing microclimates, stand structure and species composition, fuel characteristics, the prevalence of ignition points, and patterns of landscape cover. These changes may make some kinds of forests more prone to increased probability of ignition and increased fire severity. Such forests include tropical rainforests where fire was ...

 

Patterns of fire severity and forest conditions in the western Klamath Mountains, California

  
Conservation Biology, Vol. 18, No. 4. (August 2004), pp. 927-936, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2004.00493.x

Abstract

The Klamath-Siskiyou region of northwestern California and southwestern Oregon supports globally outstanding temperate biodiversity. Fire has been important in the evolutionary history that shaped this diversity, but recent human influences have altered the fire environment. We tested for modern human impacts on the fire regime by analyzing temporal patterns in fire extent and spatial patterns of fire severity in relation to vegetation structure, past fire occurrence, roads, and timber management in a 98,814-ha area burned in 1987. Fire severity was mapped ...

 

The concept of potential natural vegetation: an epitaph?

  
Journal of Vegetation Science, Vol. 21, No. 6. (December 2010), pp. 1172-1178, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1654-1103.2010.01218.x

Abstract

We discuss the usefulness of the concept of Potential Natural Vegetation (PNV), which describes the expected state of mature vegetation in the absence of human intervention. We argue that it is impossible to model PNV because of (i) the methodological problems associated to its definition and (ii) the issues related to the ecosystems dynamics.We conclude that the approach to characterizing PNV is unrealistic and provides scenarios with limited predictive power. In places with a long-term human history, interpretations of PNV need ...

 

Human factors of fire occurrence in the Mediterranean

  
In Earth Observation of Wildland Fires in Mediterranean Ecosystems (2009), pp. 149-170, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-01754-4_11
edited by Emilio Chuvieco

Abstract

The Mediterranean region accounts the larger proportion of human caused fires in the world (95%) followed by South Asia (90%), South America (85%) and Northeast Asia (80%) (FAO 2007). Socio-economic changes which are occurring in Europe along with global warming result in an augment of fire risk. Systematic and reliable information on fire causes is necessary in order to improve wildland fire management. However, collection of information on forest fire causes and motivations is still quite restricted in most countries around ...

 

Investigation of root reinforcement decay after a forest fire in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) protection forest

  
Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 400 (September 2017), pp. 339-352, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2017.06.005

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] Engineering resilience of Scots pine 4 years after forest fire has been quantified. [::] Spatial distribution of root reinforcement (RR) has been modeled. [::] RR decay by a factor of 3.6, 4 years after a stand replacing forest fire. [::] Natural regeneration has almost no root reinforcement 4 years after fire. [::] Decay of root mechanical properties determine most of RR loss. [Abstract] Natural disturbances may cause a temporary reduction or elimination of the protective effect of forests. The management of protection forests aims to influence ...

 

Exploring spatial patterns and drivers of forest fires in Portugal (1980–2014)

  
Science of The Total Environment, Vol. 573 (December 2016), pp. 1190-1202, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.03.121

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] Wildfires are irregularly distributed in Portugal, both in ignitions and burnt area. [::] In 80% of the municipality's ignition density reveal a positive trend since the 80s. [::] Geographically Weighted Regression was used to identify relevant municipal drivers of fires. [::] Topography and population density were significant factors in municipal ignitions. [::] Topography and uncultivated land were significant factors in municipal burnt area. [Abstract] Information on the spatial incidence of fire ignition density and burnt area, trends and drivers of wildfires is vitally important in providing ...

 

Analysis of recent spatial–temporal evolution of human driving factors of wildfires in Spain

  
Natural Hazards, Vol. 84, No. 3. (2016), pp. 2049-2070, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-016-2533-4

Abstract

Fire regimes are strongly dependent on human activities. Understanding the relative influence of human factors on wildfire is an important ongoing task especially in human-dominated landscapes such as the Mediterranean, where anthropogenic ignitions greatly surpass natural ignitions and human activities are modifying historical fire regimes. Most human drivers of wildfires have a temporal dimension, far beyond the appearance of change, and it is for this reason that we require an historical/temporal analytical perspective coupled to the spatial dimension. In this paper, ...

 

Retrieval of forest fuel moisture content using a coupled radiative transfer model

  
Environmental Modelling & Software, Vol. 95 (September 2017), pp. 290-302, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsoft.2017.06.006

Abstract

Forest fuel moisture content (FMC) dynamics are paramount to assessing the forest wildfire risk and its behavior. This variable can be retrieved from remotely sensed data using a radiative transfer model (RTM). However, previous studies generally treated the background of forest canopy as soil surface while ignored the fact that the soil may be covered by grass canopy. In this study, we focused on retrieving FMC of such forestry structure by coupling two RTMs: PROSAIL and PRO-GeoSail. The spectra of lower ...

 

Fire regime changes in the Western Mediterranean Basin: from fuel-limited to drought-driven fire regime

  
Climatic Change In Climatic Change, Vol. 110, No. 1-2. (1 January 2012), pp. 215-226, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-011-0060-6

Abstract

Wildfires are an integral part of Mediterranean ecosystems; humans impact on landscapes imply changes in fuel amount and continuity, and thus in fire regime. We tested the hypothesis that fire regime changed in western Mediterranean Basin during the last century using time series techniques. We first compiled a 130-year fire history for the Valencia province (Spain, Eastern Iberian Peninsula, Western Mediterranean Basin) from contemporary statistics plus old forest administration dossiers and newspapers. We also compiled census on rural population and climatic ...

 

Ecological stability of mixed-species forests

  
In Mixed-Species Forests (2017), pp. 337-382, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-54553-9_7

Abstract

In many parts of the world, forests are likely to face novel disturbance regimes as a result of global change processes, and there is concern that the capacity of forest ecosystems to withstand, recover from, or adapt to these novel disturbance regimes may decline. Creation and maintenance of species-diverse forests is seen as an important option to adapt forests to uncertain future disturbances. However, it is not known whether benefits of mixed-species forests consist mainly of risk spreading among tree species ...

 

Influence of landscape structure on patterns of forest fires in boreal forest landscapes in Sweden

  
Canadian Journal of Forest Research, Vol. 34, No. 2. (1 February 2004), pp. 332-338, https://doi.org/10.1139/x03-175

Abstract

To analyze the effect of landscape structure (viz. amount of wetlands) on the past forest fire regime in boreal Sweden, we reconstructed detailed fire histories by cross-dating fire scars in living and dead Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in two different landscape types: mire-free landscapes with a low proportion (1%?2%) of mires and mire-rich landscapes with a high proportion (21%?33%) of mires. Two localities were selected and at each one, adjacent mire-free and mire-rich areas of 256?601 ha were sampled. Over ...

 

Southern Annular Mode drives multicentury wildfire activity in southern South America

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 114, No. 36. (05 September 2017), pp. 9552-9557, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1705168114

Abstract

[Significance] Fire is a key ecological process affecting ecosystem dynamics and services, driven primarily by variations in fuel amount and condition, ignition patterns, and climate. In the Southern Hemisphere, current warming conditions are linked to the upward trend in the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) due to ozone depletion. Here we use tree ring fire scar data obtained from diverse biomes ranging from subtropical dry woodlands to sub-Antarctic rainforests to assess the effect of the SAM on regional fire activity over the past ...

 

Scientific opinion on the pest categorisation of Cryphonectria parasitica (Murrill) Barr

  
EFSA Journal, Vol. 12, No. 10. (1 October 2014), pp. n/a-n/a, https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2014.3859

Abstract

The European Commission requested the EFSA Panel on Plant Health to perform a pest categorisation of Cryphonectria parasitica (Murrill) Barr, the fungal pathogen responsible for chestnut blight, a highly destructive disease that kills trees through bark cankers. The pathogen is listed in Annex IIAII of Directive 2000/29/EC. Its identity is clearly defined as C.parasitica (Murrill) Barr and methods exist for its discriminative detection. Several hosts are known, but the main hosts are species of Castanea and Quercus, particularly C.sativa and Q.petraea. ...

References


  1. Adamcikova, K., Kobza, M., Juhasova, G., 2010. Characteristics of the Cryphonectria parasitica isolated from Quercus in Slovakia. Forest Pathology 40, 443–449.
  2. Adamcikova, K., Juhasova, G., Kobza, M., Ondruskova, E., 2013. Diversity of microfungi on branches of Castanea sativa in Slovakia. Polish Botanical Journal 58, 741–746.
  3. Aguín Casal, O., Montenegro Gregorio, D., Pérez Otero, R., Mansilla Vázquez, J.P., 2005. VI Congreso Forestal Español, Zaragoza 2005. Available online: http://www.efadip.org/es/publicaciones/Comunicaciones/2005/Cryphonectria%20parasitica(zaragoza).htm .
 

Forest fires are changing: let’s change the fire management strategy

  
Forest@ - Rivista di Selvicoltura ed Ecologia Forestale, Vol. 14, No. 4. (31 August 2017), pp. 202-205, https://doi.org/10.3832/efor2537-014

Abstract

Forest fires in Italy are changing. More frequent heatwaves and drought increase the flammability of the vegetation; the abandonment of rural land produces 30.000 ha of newly afforested areas each year; and the wildland-urban interface is expanding with the sprawl of urbanized areas. However, forest fires are rarely understood and managed in their complexity. The public opinion is often misinformed on the causes and consequences of fires in the forest. Moreover, fire management relies almost exclusively on extinction and emergency response, ...

 

Mechanisms of plant survival and mortality during drought: why do some plants survive while others succumb to drought?

  
New Phytologist, Vol. 178, No. 4. (1 June 2008), pp. 719-739, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2008.02436.x

Abstract

Severe droughts have been associated with regional-scale forest mortality worldwide. Climate change is expected to exacerbate regional mortality events; however, prediction remains difficult because the physiological mechanisms underlying drought survival and mortality are poorly understood. We developed a hydraulically based theory considering carbon balance and insect resistance that allowed development and examination of hypotheses regarding survival and mortality. Multiple mechanisms may cause mortality during drought. A common mechanism for plants with isohydric regulation of water status results from avoidance of drought-induced ...

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