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Selection: with tag forest-biomass [50 articles] 


An assessment of forest biomass maps in Europe using harmonized national statistics and inventory plots

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 409 (February 2018), pp. 489-498,


[Highlights] [::] We assessed four biomass maps for Europe using harmonized biomass reference data. [::] The harmonized statistics were derived from ∼430,000 plots from 26 countries. [::] All maps overestimated at low biomass and underestimated at high biomass. [::] All maps had an overall negative bias (23–43 Mg ha−1 at national level). [::] The maps relative errors was 29–40% at national level and 63–72% at cell level. [Abstract] Maps of aboveground forest biomass based on different input data and modelling approaches have been recently produced for Europe, opening up the ...


Mapping wood production in European forests

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 357 (December 2015), pp. 228-238,


[Highlights] [::] We constructed high-resolution wood production maps for Europe. [::] Productivity, tree species and ruggedness affect wood production patterns. [::] Using these factors improves disaggregation of wood production statistics. [Abstract] Wood production is an important forest use, impacting a range of other ecosystem services. However, information on the spatial patterns in wood production is limited and often available only for larger administrative units. In this study, we developed high-resolution wood production maps for European forests. We collected wood production statistics for 29 European countries from ...


Generalized allometric volume and biomass equations for some tree species in Europe

In European Journal of Forest Research, Vol. 126, No. 2. (2007), pp. 157-166,


Since biomass is one of the key variables in ecosystem studies, widespread effort has aimed to facilitating its estimation. Numerous stand-specific volume and biomass equations are available, but these cannot be used for scaling up biomass to the regional level where several age-classes and structural types of stands coexist. Therefore simplified generalized volume and biomass equations are needed. In the present study, generalized biomass and volume regression equations were developed for the main tree species in Europe. These equations were based ...


Drought sensitivity of the Amazon rainforest

Science, Vol. 323, No. 5919. (06 March 2009), pp. 1344-1347,


Amazon forests are a key but poorly understood component of the global carbon cycle. If, as anticipated, they dry this century, they might accelerate climate change through carbon losses and changed surface energy balances. We used records from multiple long-term monitoring plots across Amazonia to assess forest responses to the intense 2005 drought, a possible analog of future events. Affected forest lost biomass, reversing a large long-term carbon sink, with the greatest impacts observed where the dry season was unusually intense. ...


Biomass collapse in Amazonian forest fragments

Science, Vol. 278, No. 5340. (7 November 1997), pp. 1117-1118,


Rain forest fragments in central Amazonia were found to experience a dramatic loss of above-ground tree biomass that is not offset by recruitment of new trees. These losses were largest within 100 meters of fragment edges, where tree mortality is sharply increased by microclimatic changes and elevated wind turbulence. Permanent study plots within 100 meters of edges lost up to 36 percent of their biomass in the first 10 to 17 years after fragmentation. Lianas (climbing woody vines) increased near edges ...


An integrated pan-tropical biomass map using multiple reference datasets

Global Change Biology, Vol. 22, No. 4. (April 2016), pp. 1406-1420,


We combined two existing datasets of vegetation aboveground biomass (AGB) (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 108, 2011, 9899; Nature Climate Change, 2, 2012, 182) into a pan-tropical AGB map at 1-km resolution using an independent reference dataset of field observations and locally calibrated high-resolution biomass maps, harmonized and upscaled to 14 477 1-km AGB estimates. Our data fusion approach uses bias removal and weighted linear averaging that incorporates and spatializes the biomass patterns ...


Can recent pan-tropical biomass maps be used to derive alternative Tier 1 values for reporting REDD+ activities under UNFCCC?

Environmental Research Letters, Vol. 9 (2014), 124008,


The IPCC Guidelines propose 3 Tier levels for greenhouse gas monitoring within the forest land category with a hierarchical order in terms of accuracy, data requirements and complexity. Due to missing data and/or capacities, many developing countries, potentially interested in the reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation scheme, have to rely on Tier 1 default values with highest uncertainties. A possible way to increase the credibility of uncertain estimates is to apply a conservative approach, for which standard statistical information ...


Evaluation of BioSoil demonstration project - Soil data analysis

EUR - Scientific and Technical Research, Vol. 24729 (2011),


The BioSoil demonstration Project was initiated under the Forest Focus-Scheme (Regulation (EC) Nr. 2152/2003) concerning the monitoring of forests and environmental interactions in the Community, and aimed to broaden the scope of previous forest monitoring activities (on atmospheric pollution and forest fires) to the fields of soil characteristics and biodiversity indicators. The evaluation of the project concentrated on analysing a selected number of parameters submitted by NFCs for estimating the distribution and changes in soil organic carbon and the performance of ...


  1. Annoni, A., Luzet, C., Gubler, E., Ihde, J., 2003. Map Projections for Europe. In, Luxembourg, p. 131.
  2. Breiman, L., Friedman, J.H., Olshen, R.A., Stone, C.J., 1984. Classification and Regression Trees.
  3. Chapman & Hall, New York, .
  4. Granke, O., 2006. ForestBIOTA Work Report: Assessment of Ground vegetation. In. Federal Research Centre for Forestry and Forest Products (BFH), Hamburg, Germany, p. 20.
  5. Shannon, C.E., 1948. A Mathematical

How temperature, precipitation and stand age control the biomass carbon density of global mature forests

Global Ecology and Biogeography, Vol. 23, No. 3. (March 2014), pp. 323-333,


[::Aim] To understand: (1) how temperature, precipitation and stand age control the above-ground biomass carbon density (BCDa) of mature forests and its macroecology patterns across latitudes; (2) the age threshold for old-growth forests at a global scale. [::Location] Global forests. [::Methods] We compiled a database (897 sites) of mature forests between 80 and 1200 years old. The site data include latitude, longitude, mean annual temperature, mean annual precipitation, forest type, stand age, BCDa, living biomass (above- and below-ground biomass) carbon density and total (living plus dead) ...


Use of forest based biomass for bioenergy in EU-28

In Annual 20th International Scientific Conference Proceedings "Research for Rural Development", Vol. 2 (2014), pp. 7-13


Europe's future wood demand for energy is expected to increase by 10 million to 200 million m3 in the period 2010-2030. This will be supplied by both domestic sources (forests, industrial residues post-consumer wood waste), but also from sources outside Europe. The EU-28 predicts a near future (2020) gap between solid biomass supply and demand for renewable energy: 21.4 million tonnes of oil equivalents (MTOE). This is estimated via preliminary renewable energy action plans (NREAP's) per country. The EU-28 expects wood ...


Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) improvement in Hungary: a review

Acta Silvatica et Lignaria Hungarica, Vol. 4 (2008), pp. 127-132


Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) was the first forest tree species introduced and acclimated from North America to Europe at the beginning of the 17th century. It is a fast growing, nitrogen fixing, site tolerant, excellent coppicing species with frequent and abundant seed production and relatively high yielding potential. It has a durable and high quality wood, which is used for many purposes. Although native of North America, black locust is now naturalized and widely planted throughout the world from temperate ...


Aboveground biomass production in an irrigation and fertilization field experiment with Eucalyptus globulus

Annales des Sciences Forestières, Vol. 46, No. Supplement. (1989), pp. 526s-528s,

Recent development in forest biomass derived phenol formaldehyde (PF) resol resin for wood adhesives application

Journal of Biobased Materials and Bioenergy (October 2014), pp. 465-480,


In recent years, forest biomass materials, including wood, bark, lignin, tannins, are explored intensively as bio-derived phenolic compounds for PF resin synthesis. Liquefaction, pyrolysis and extraction are some frequently used methods to convert these forest biomass materials into phenol substitutes in the resin formulation. The inclusion of these bio-derived phenolic compounds, either in the form of extractives or as liquefied or pyrolyzed products, resulted in bio-based PF resins with different molecular weight, viscosity, gel time, curing behavior from typical commercial PF ...


Developing a spatially-explicit pan-European dataset of forest biomass increment

In 22nd European Biomass Conference and Exhibition (2014), pp. 41-46,


Among the services provided by forest ecosystems, biomass is one of the most important. Nevertheless, spatially explicit data on forest biomass increment is rarely available for large regions. Thus the aim of this study is to develop a methodology for the spatial assessment of forest biomass increment at the panEuropean level. To address this aim, we used MODIS GPP data (NASA Product MOD17A3) adjusted with GPP data derived from upscaling FLUXNET observations using the Model Tree Ensemble (MTE) technique (Jung et ...


Calibrated pollen accumulation rates as a basis for quantitative tree biomass reconstructions

The Holocene, Vol. 19, No. 2. (01 March 2009), pp. 209-220,


Recent investigations show that the pollen accumulation rate (PAR) of the common tree taxa is directly related to the biomass and, by inference, to the population size of the taxa around the study site. Fossil PAR records preserved in lakes provide therefore a potential proxy for quantitative biomass and population reconstructions. We use the high-resolution PAR records obtained from two accurately dated lake sediment cores in Finland to generate quantitative Holocene biomass records for Pinus, Picea and Betula, the most common ...


Measurement and prediction of biomass and carbon content of Pinus pinaster trees in farm forestry plantations, south-western Australia

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 175, No. 1-3. (March 2003), pp. 103-117,


A total of 148 Pinus pinaster trees from 18 farm plantations in south-western Australia were destructively sampled to develop biomass and carbon mass prediction equations for inventory application. Sampling covered a range of ages (1–47-year-old), sizes (e.g. DBH 0–47 cm) and spacings (close- and open-spaced arrangements). Equations were developed to predict biomass and carbon mass of whole-trees and tree components (stems, crowns, tops and roots) as functions of stem diameter (DBH), tree height (h) and height to crown base (hc) or basal ...


Evaluation of BioSoil demonstration project: forest biodiversity - Analysis of biodiversity module

EUR - Scientific and Technical Research, Vol. 24777 (2011),


The BioSoil demonstration Project was initiated under the Forest Focus-Scheme (Regulation (EC) Nr. 2152/2003) concerning the monitoring of forests and environmental interactions in the Community, and aimed to broaden the scope of previous forest monitoring activities (on atmospheric pollution and forest fires) to the fields of soil characteristics and biodiversity indicators. The results presented here are from the Biodiversity module in which various aspects of forest biodiversity, including species composition, structural elements and deadwood, were assessed over 3379 plots in Europe. ...


  1. Annoni, A., Luzet, C., Gubler, E., Ihde, J., 2003. Map Projections for Europe. In, Luxembourg, p. 131.
  2. Breiman, L., Friedman, J.H., Olshen, R.A., Stone, C.J., 1984. Classification and Regression Trees.
  3. Chapman & Hall, New York, .
  4. Granke, O., 2006. ForestBIOTA Work Report: Assessment of Ground vegetation. In. Federal Research Centre for Forestry and Forest Products (BFH), Hamburg, Germany, p. 20.
  5. Shannon, C.E., 1948. A Mathematical

Changes and interactions between forest landscape connectivity and burnt area in Spain

Ecological Indicators, Vol. 33 (October 2013), pp. 129-138,


The spatial structure, functionality and dynamics of forest landscapes in peninsular Spain and the Balearic Islands were compared over the last five decades. Two particular features were studied in the sample sites: forest connectivity for wildlife and areas burnt by wildfires. 191 Squares, each 4 km × 4 km, were selected from the SISPARES (the monitoring framework designed to evaluate the trends in the structure of Spanish rural landscapes) environmental strata. Aerial photographs from 1956, 1984, 1998 and 2008 were interpreted ...


European biomass resource potential and costs

Biomass and Bioenergy, Vol. 34, No. 2. (21 February 2010), pp. 188-202,


The objective of this study is to assess the European (EU27 + and Ukraine) cost and supply potential for biomass resources. Three methodological steps can be distinguished (partly based on studies explained elsewhere in this volume) (i) an evaluation of the available ‘surplus’ land, (ii) a modeled productivity and (iii) an economic assessment for 13 typical bioenergy crops. Results indicate that the total available land for bioenergy crop production – following a ‘food first’ paradigm – could amount to 900 000 km ...


Assessment of the potential biomass supply in Europe using a resource-focused approach

Biomass and Bioenergy, Vol. 30, No. 1. (January 2006), pp. 1-15,


This paper analyses the potential biomass supply in the 15 EU countries (EU15), 8 new member states and 2 candidate countries (ACC10), plus Belarus and the Ukraine. The objective of this study is to make a more detailed assessment of the potential in Europe than previously undertaken. For this purpose five scenarios were designed to describe the short-, medium- and long-term potential of biomass for energy. The scenarios are based on assumptions regarding residue harvests, energy-crop yields and surplus agricultural land. ...


Sustainable utilisation of forest biomass for energy - Possibilities and problems: policy, legislation, certification, and recommendations and guidelines in the Nordic, Baltic, and other European countries

Biomass and Bioenergy, Vol. 31, No. 10. (October 2007), pp. 666-684,


The substitution of biomass for fossil fuels in energy consumption is a measure to mitigate global warming, as well as having other advantages. Political action plans for increased use exist at both European and national levels. This paper briefly reviews the contents of recommendations, guidelines, and other synthesis publications on sustainable use of forest biomass for energy. Topics are listed and an overview of advantages, disadvantages, and trade-offs between them is given, from the viewpoint of society in general and the ...


Temperature drives global patterns in forest biomass distribution in leaves, stems, and roots

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 111, No. 38. (23 September 2014), pp. 13721-13726,


[Significance] Do forests in cold or dry climate zones distribute more resources in roots to enhance uptake of water and nutrients, which are scarce in such climates? Despite its importance to forest ecology and global carbon cycle modeling, this question is unanswered at present. To answer this question, we compiled and analyzed a large dataset (>6,200 forests, 61 countries) and determined that the proportion of total forest biomass in roots is greater and in foliage is smaller in increasingly cold climates. ...


Global forest resources assessment 2010: Main report



The Global Forest Resources Assessment 2010 (FRA 2010) is the most comprehensive assessment of the world’s forests ever. It covers 233 countries and areas for the period 1990 to 2010. This publication, the main report of FRA 2010, contains country data, contributed by national correspondents and reviewed and collated by FAO, for more than 90 key variables related to the extent, condition, uses and values of forests. Seven core chapters evaluate the status and trends for key aspects of sustainable forest ...


Forest owner motivations and attitudes towards supplying biomass for energy in Europe

Biomass and Bioenergy, Vol. 67 (August 2014), pp. 223-230,


[Highlights] [::] Evidence on European forest owner attitudes to supplying bioenergy is provided. [::] European forest owner attitudes are unexplained by changes in prices and markets. [::] The readiness to supply stemwood for energy is lower than previously assumed. [::] The share of forest biomass needed to meet EU renewable energy target cannot be met. [Abstract] The European Commission expects the use of biomass for energy in the EU to increase significantly between 2010 and 2020 to meet a legally binding target to cover at ...


Life cycle assessment of biomass production: development of a methodology to improve the environmental indicators and testing with fiber sorghum energy crop

Biomass and Bioenergy, Vol. 34, No. 10. (12 October 2010), pp. 1513-1522,


At the Biomass Research Centre – University of Perugia some LCA studies were carried out on different biomass chains, using a detailed software (Simapro 7.0) and the EcoIndicator 99 model in order to evaluate the global burden. Results showed that EcoIndicator 99 lacks some important features (e.g. freshwater consumption, nutrient emissions into water, soil erosion) that are necessary in evaluating the environmental load of energy crops. Therefore a new LCA methodology, tailored to biomass production, was developed, in which all resources ...


(INRMM-MiD internal record) List of keywords of the INRMM meta-information database - part 13

(February 2014)
Keywords: extrapolation-error   extreme-events   extreme-weather   f-script   fabaceae   factor-analysis   fagus-crenata   fagus-engleriana   fagus-grandifolia   fagus-hayatae   fagus-japonica   fagus-longipetiolata   fagus-lucida   fagus-mexicana   fagus-moesiaca   fagus-multinervis   fagus-orientalis   fagus-silvatica   fagus-spp   fagus-sylvatica   fagus-taurica   faidherbia-albida   fallopia-spp   false-observations-propagation   false-positive   family-heritability   fao-ecozones   faostat   fapar   feather-moss   featured-publication   feedback   feedforward-networks   fennoscandia   fertile-islands   fertilization   ficus-altissima   ficus-aurea   ficus-benghalensis   ficus-carica   ficus-citrifolia   ficus-elastica   ficus-macrophylla   ficus-religiosa   field-measurements   filbert   financial-modelling   fine-roots   finland   fir-decline   fire   fire-ecology   fire-emissions   fire-fuel   fire-regimes   fire-season   fire-severity   fise   fish-resources   fitness   fitzroya-cupressoides   flagship-species   flammability   flash-flood   fleshy-fruit   flood-control   flood-frequency   flood-tolerance   flooding-tolerance   floodplain   floodplain-forest   floods   flora   floss   flow-accumulation   flowering-period   flowering-phenology   fluvial   fodder-tree   foliage   food-plant   food-security   food-web   forecast   forest-bioeconomy   forest-biomass   forest-classification   forest-communities   forest-conservation   forest-conversion   forest-damage   forest-degradation   forest-disturbance   forest-dynamics   forest-ecology   forest-ecosystem   forest-ecosystems   forest-edges   inrmm-list-of-tags   postfire-recovery  


List of indexed keywords within the transdisciplinary set of domains which relate to the Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management (INRMM). In particular, the list of keywords maps the semantic tags in the INRMM Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD). [\n] The INRMM-MiD records providing this list are accessible by the special tag: inrmm-list-of-tags ( ). ...


Carbon profiles of typical forest types across Europe assessed with CO2FIX

Ecological Indicators, Vol. 1, No. 3. (March 2002), pp. 213-223,


This paper presents for 16 typical forest types across Europe a standard carbon sequestration profile. The study was carried out with the model CO2FIX which was parameterised with local yield table data and additional required parameters. CO2FIX quantifies the carbon of the forest ecosystem–soil–wood products chain at the stand level. To avoid misleading results annual net sequestration rates are not presented here, because these strongly fluctuate in time. Therefore, only its advancing mean is presented as a more reliable indicator. This ...


Modelling regional climate change effects on potential natural ecosystems in Sweden

Climatic Change In Climatic Change, Vol. 78, No. 2-4. (October 2006), pp. 381-406,


This study aims to demonstrate the potential of a process-based regional ecosystem model, LPJ-GUESS, driven by climate scenarios generated by a regional climate model system (RCM) to generate predictions useful for assessing effects of climatic and CO2 change on the key ecosystem services of carbon uptake and storage. Scenarios compatible with the A2 and B2 greenhouse gas emission scenarios of the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES) and with boundary conditions from two general circulation models (GCMs) – HadAM3H and ECHAM4/OPYC3 ...


Radar backscatter is not a 'direct measure' of forest biomass

Nature Climate Change, Vol. 2, No. 8. (15 July 2012), pp. 556-557,


[Excerpt] Accurately mapping forest carbon now has important financial and livelihood implications for many smallholder farmers, businesses, investors, land-use projects and governments. The urgent need to reduce uncertainties in the carbon cycle, the increasing focus on global sustainable forestry, and the international agenda on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) has led to the creation of new communities clamouring for robust methods to map forest aboveground biomass (AGB). Satellite radar is often proposed as the best tool to overcome the ...


Ecosystem properties and forest decline in contrasting long-term chronosequences

Science, Vol. 305, No. 5683. (23 July 2004), pp. 509-513,


During succession, ecosystem development occurs; but in the long-term absence of catastrophic disturbance, a decline phase eventually follows. We studied six long-term chronosequences, in Australia, Sweden, Alaska, Hawaii, and New Zealand; for each, the decline phase was associated with a reduction in tree basal area and an increase in the substrate nitrogen–to-phosphorus ratio, indicating increasing phosphorus limitation over time. These changes were often associated with reductions in litter decomposition rates, phosphorus release from litter, and biomass and activity of decomposer microbes. ...


Biomass, nutrient content, litterfall and nutrient return to the soil in Mediterranean oak forests

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 119, No. 1-3. (June 1999), pp. 39-49,


We estimated above-ground biomass, nutrient content, litterfall and nutrient return to the soil in deciduous and evergreen Quercus pyrenaica Will., Quercus lanuginosa Lamk and evergreen Quercus ilex L. oak forests, respectively, near Salamanca (Spain) and Montpellier (France). The calculated biomass ranged from 64 to 121 Mg ha−1. Perennial material (trunks and branches) represented 96–97% in the four Spanish Q. pyrenaica stands and 93% in the French Q. lanuginosa and Q. ilex stands. Q. pyrenaica had higher P, Mg, Fe and Mn contents than ...


First signs of carbon sink saturation in European forest biomass

Nature Climate Change, Vol. 3, No. 9. (18 August 2013), pp. 792-796,


European forests are seen as a clear example of vegetation rebound in the Northern Hemisphere; recovering in area and growing stock since the 1950s, after centuries of stock decline and deforestation. These regrowing forests have shown to be a persistent carbon sink, projected to continue for decades, however, there are early signs of saturation. Forest policies and management strategies need revision if we want to sustain the sink. ...


Continental-scale living forest biomass and carbon stock: a robust fuzzy ensemble of IPCC Tier 1 maps for Europe

IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology, Vol. 413 (2013), pp. 271-284,


Forest ecosystems play a key role in the global carbon cycle. Spatially explicit data and assessments of forest biomass and carbon are therefore crucial for designing and implementing effective sustainable forest management options and forest related policies. In this contribution, we present European-wide maps of forest biomass and carbon stock spatially disaggregated at 1km x 1km. The maps originated from a spatialisation improvement of the IPCC methodology for estimating the forest biomass at IPCC Tier 1 level (IPCC-T1). [\n] Using a categorical ...

Visual summary


Wood: The fuel of the future

The Economist, No. Apr 6th, 2013. (2013)


Excerpt: Which source of renewable energy is most important to the European Union? Solar power, perhaps? (Europe has three-quarters of the world’s total installed capacity of solar photovoltaic energy.) Or wind? The answer is neither. By far the largest so-called renewable fuel used in Europe is wood. ...


Comparison of modeling approaches for carbon partitioning: Impact on estimates of global net primary production and equilibrium biomass of woody vegetation from MODIS GPP

Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, Vol. 115, No. G4. (1 December 2010), pp. G04025-G04025,


Partitioning of gross primary production (GPP) to aboveground versus belowground, to growth versus respiration, and to short versus long-lived tissues exerts a strong influence on ecosystem structure and function, with potentially large implications for the global carbon budget. A recent meta-analysis of forest ecosystems suggests that carbon partitioning to leaves, stems, and roots varies consistently with GPP and that the ratio of net primary production (NPP) to GPP is conservative across environmental gradients. To examine influences of carbon partitioning schemes employed ...


Potential stocks and increments of woody biomass in the European Union under different management and climate scenarios

Carbon Balance and Management, Vol. 8, No. 1. (2013), 2,


[Background] Forests play an important role in the global carbon flow. They can store carbon and can also provide wood which can substitute other materials. In EU27 the standing biomass is steadily increasing. Increments and harvests seem to have reached a plateau between 2005 and 2010. One reason for reaching this plateau will be the circumstance that the forests are getting older. High ages have the advantage that they typical show high carbon concentration and the disadvantage that the increment rates are ...


Assessment of forest biomass for use as energy. GIS-based analysis of geographical availability and locations of wood-fired power plants in Portugal

Applied Energy, Vol. 87, No. 8. (01 August 2010), pp. 2551-2560,


Following the European Union strategy concerning renewable energy (RE), Portugal established in their national policy programmes that the production of electrical energy from RE should reach 45% of the total supply by 2010. Since Portugal has large forest biomass resources, a significant part of this energy will be obtained from this source. In addition to the two existing electric power plants, with 22 MW of power capacity, 13 new power plants having a total of 86.4 MW capacity are in construction. Together these ...


Biomass estimation over a large area based on standwise forest inventory data and ASTER and MODIS satellite data: A possibility to verify carbon inventories

Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 107, No. 4. (30 April 2007), pp. 617-624,


According to the IPCC GPG (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Good Practice Guidance), remote sensing methods are especially suitable for independent verification of the national LULUCF (Land Use, Land-Use Change, and Forestry) carbon pool estimates, particularly the aboveground biomass. In the present study, we demonstrate the potential of standwise (forest stand is a homogenous forest unit with average size of 1–3 ha) forest inventory data, and ASTER and MODIS satellite data for estimating stand volume (m3 ha− 1) and aboveground biomass (t ha− 1) ...


Aboveground Forest Biomass and the Global Carbon Balance

Global Change Biology, Vol. 11, No. 6. (1 June 2005), pp. 945-958,


The long-term net flux of carbon between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere has been dominated by two factors: changes in the area of forests and per hectare changes in forest biomass resulting from management and regrowth. While these factors are reasonably well documented in countries of the northern mid-latitudes as a result of systematic forest inventories, they are uncertain in the tropics. Recent estimates of carbon emissions from tropical deforestation have focused on the uncertainty in rates of deforestation. By using ...


Remote sensing estimates of boreal and temperate forest woody biomass: carbon pools, sources, and sinks

Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 84, No. 3. (March 2003), pp. 393-410,


The relation between satellite measurements of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), cumulated over the growing season, and inventory estimates of forest woody biomass carbon is estimated statistically with data from 167 provinces and states in six countries (Canada, Finland, Norway, Russia and the USA for a single time period and Sweden for two periods). Statistical tests indicate that the regression model can be used to represent the relation between forest biomass and NDVI across spatial, temporal and ecological scales for ...


The growing stock of European forests using remote sensing and forest inventory data

Forestry, Vol. 82, No. 5. (01 December 2009), pp. 479-490,


This paper presents a methodology for producing broadleaf, coniferous and total growing stock maps for the Pan-European forest area. The approach is based on the combination of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration – Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (NOAA-AVHRR) data and statistics derived from national forest inventories of European countries. Data were compiled at sub-national level for 14 countries comprising 224 regions and at the national level for 24 countries growing stock data where data were only available at the national ...


A global forest growing stock, biomass and carbon map based on FAO statistics

Silva Fennica, Vol. 42, No. 3. (2008), pp. 387-396


Currently, information on forest biomass is available from a mixture of sources, including in-situ measurements, national forest inventories, administrative-level statistics, model outputs and regional satellite products. These data tend to be regional or national, based on different methodologies and not easily accessible. One of the few maps available is the Global Forest Resources Assessment (FRA) produced by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO 2005) which contains aggregated country-level information about the growing stock, biomass and carbon stock ...


EU-wide maps of growing stock and above-ground biomass in forests based on remote sensing and field measurements

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 260, No. 3. (30 June 2010), pp. 252-261,


The overall objective of this study was to combine national forest inventory data and remotely sensed data to produce pan-European maps on growing stock and above-ground woody biomass for the two species groups “broadleaves” and “conifers”. An automatic up-scaling approach making use of satellite remote sensing data and field measurement data was applied for EU-wide mapping of growing stock and above-ground biomass in forests. The approach is based on sampling and allows the direct combination of data with different measurement units ...


European Union forest action plan

No. COM(2006) 302 final. (June 2006)

Biomass and stem volume equations for tree species in Europe

Vol. 4 (2005)


Review of stem volume and biomass equations for tree species growing in Europe is presented. The mathematical forms of the empirical models, the associated statistical parameters and information about the size of the trees and the country of origin were collated from scientific articles and from technical reports. The collected information provides a basic tool for estimation of carbon stocks and nutrient balance of forest ecosystems across Europe as well as for validation of theoretical models of biomass allocation. ...


Re-evaluation of forest biomass carbon stocks and lessons from the world's most carbon-dense forests

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 106, No. 28. (14 July 2009), pp. 11635-11640,


From analysis of published global site biomass data (n = 136) from primary forests, we discovered (i) the world's highest known total biomass carbon density (living plus dead) of 1,867 tonnes carbon per ha (average value from 13 sites) occurs in Australian temperate moist Eucalyptus regnans forests, and (ii) average values of the global site biomass data were higher for sampled temperate moist forests (n = 44) than for sampled tropical (n = 36) and boreal (n = 52) forests (n ...


Exploring the likelihood and mechanism of a climate-change-induced dieback of the Amazon rainforest

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences In Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 106, No. 49. (08 February 2009), pp. 20610-20615,


We examine the evidence for the possibility that 21st-century climate change may cause a large-scale “dieback” or degradation of Amazonian rainforest. We employ a new framework for evaluating the rainfall regime of tropical forests and from this deduce precipitation-based boundaries for current forest viability. We then examine climate simulations by 19 global climate models (GCMs) in this context and find that most tend to underestimate current rainfall. GCMs also vary greatly in their projections of future climate change in Amazonia. We ...


Carbon accumulation in European forests

Nature Geoscience, Vol. 1, No. 7. (22 June 2008), pp. 425-429,


European forests are intensively exploited for wood products, yet they also form a sink for carbon. European forest inventories, available for the past 50 years, can be combined with timber harvest statistics to assess changes in this carbon sink. Analysis of these data sets between 1950 and 2000 from the EU-15 countries excluding Luxembourg, plus Norway and Switzerland, reveals that there is a tight relationship between increases in forest biomass and forest ecosystem productivity but timber harvests grew more slowly. Encouragingly, ...


Impact of Tilia platyphyllos Scop., Fraxinus excelsior L., Acer pseudoplatanus L., Quercus robur L. and Fagus sylvatica L. on earthworm biomass and physico-chemical properties of a loamy topsoil

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 133, No. 3. (August 2000), pp. 275-286,


Impact of hardwoods of different humus forms on earthworm biomass and physico-chemical properties of the topsoil of a loamy acid brown forest soil after a time-span of 60–65 years was examined in the Forest of Halle near Brussels. Three sites were selected in which homogeneous stands of mull-forming tree species (Tilia platyphyllos Scop., Fraxinus excelsior L. and Acer pseudoplatanus L.) were compared with adjacent stands of Fagus sylvatica L. and/or Quercus robur L. where a mullmoder had developed. Total earthworm biomass ...


Changes in forest biomass carbon storage in China between 1949 and 1998

Science, Vol. 292, No. 5525. (22 June 2001), pp. 2320-2322,


The location and mechanisms responsible for the carbon sink in northern mid-latitude lands are uncertain. Here, we used an improved estimation method of forest biomass and a 50-year national forest resource inventory in China to estimate changes in the storage of living biomass between 1949 and 1998. Our results suggest that Chinese forests released about 0.68 petagram of carbon between 1949 and 1980, for an annual emission rate of 0.022 petagram of carbon. Carbon storage increased significantly after the late 1970s ...

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