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Selection: with tag floods [52 articles] 


Droughts, floods, and wildfire

In Climate science special report: fourth national climate assessment, volume I (2017), pp. 231-253,


[Excerpt:Key findings] [::1] Recent droughts and associated heat waves have reached record intensity in some regions of the United States; however, by geographical scale and duration, the Dust Bowl era of the 1930s remains the benchmark drought and extreme heat event in the historical record (very high confidence). While by some measures drought has decreased over much of the continental United States in association with long-term increases in precipitation, neither the precipitation increases nor inferred drought decreases have been confidently attributed to ...


Terrestrial ecosystems, soil and forests

In Climate change, impacts and vulnerability in Europe 2016 - An indicator-based report, Vol. 1/2017 (January 2017), pp. 153-182,


[Excerpt: Key messages] [::] Observed climate change has had many impacts on terrestrial ecosystems, such as changes in soil conditions, advances in phenological stages, altitudinal and latitudinal migration of plant and animal species (generally northwards and upwards), and changes in species interactions and species composition in communities, including local extinctions. [::] The relative importance of climate change as a major driver of biodiversity and ecosystem change is projected to increase further in the future. In addition to climate change, human efforts to mitigate and adapt to ...


  1. Alkemade, R., Bakkenes, M., Eickhout, B., 2011. Towards a general relationship between climate change and biodiversity: An example for plant species in Europe. Regional Environmental Change 11, 143–150. .
  2. Allen, C. D., Macalady, A. K., Chenchouni, H., Bachelet, D., McDowell, N., Vennetier, M., Kitzberger, T., Rigling, A., Breshears, D. D., Hogg, E. H. (Ted), Gonzalez, P., Fensham, R., Zhang, Z., Castro, J., Demidova, N., Lim, J.-H., Allard, G., Running, S. W., Semerci, A.,

Executive summary

In Climate change, impacts and vulnerability in Europe 2016 - An indicator-based report, Vol. 1/2017 (January 2017), pp. 12-30,


[Excerpt: Key messages] [::] All of the key findings from the 2012 European Environment Agency (EEA) report on climate change, impacts and vulnerability in Europe are still valid. [::] Climate change is continuing globally and in Europe. Land and sea temperatures are increasing; precipitation patterns are changing, generally making wet regions in Europe wetter, particularly in winter, and dry regions drier, particularly in summer; sea ice extent, glacier volume and snow cover are decreasing; sea levels are rising; and climate-related extremes such as heat waves, heavy precipitation ...


  1. Ciscar, J.-C., Feyen, L., Soria, A., Lavalle, C., Raes, F., Perry, M., Nemry, F., Demirel, H., Rozsai, M., Dosio, A., Donatelli, M., Srivastava, A. K., Fumagalli, D., Niemeyer, S., Shrestha, S., Ciaian, P., Himics, M., Van Doorslaer, B., Barrios, S., Ibáñez, N., Forzieri, G., Rojas, R., Bianchi, A., Dowling, P., Camia, A., Libertà, G., San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., de Rigo, D., Caudullo, G., Barredo, J. I., Paci, D., Pycroft, J., Saveyn, B., Van Regemorter, D., Revesz, T., Vandyck, T.,

Climate change, impacts and vulnerability in Europe 2016 - An indicator-based report

Vol. 1/2017 (January 2017),


[Excerpt: Executive summary] Key messages [::] All of the key findings from the 2012 European Environment Agency (EEA) report on climate change, impacts and vulnerability in Europe are still valid. [::] Climate change is continuing globally and in Europe. Land and sea temperatures are increasing; precipitation patterns are changing, generally making wet regions in Europe wetter, particularly in winter, and dry regions drier, particularly in summer; sea ice extent, glacier volume and snow cover are decreasing; sea levels are rising; and climate-related extremes such as heat waves, heavy ...


A multi-criteria optimisation of scenarios for the protection of water resources in Europe: support to the EU blueprint to safeguard Europe's waters



A modelling environment has been developed to assess optimum combinations of water retention measures, water savings measures, and nutrient reduction measures for continental Europe. This modelling environment consists of linking the agricultural CAPRI model, the LUMP land use model, the LISFLOOD water quantity model, the EPIC water quality model, the LISQUAL combined water quantity, quality and hydro-economic model, and a multi-criteria optimisation routine. Simulations have been carried out to assess the effects of water retention measures, water savings measures, and nutrient ...


Natural hazards monitoring: forest fires, droughts and floods - The example of European pilot projects

Surveys in Geophysics, Vol. 21, No. 2-3. (2000), pp. 291-305,


This paper reviews the subject of natural hazards and the use of existing remote sensing systems in the different phases of disaster management for some specific natural hazards: forest fires, droughts and floods. It centers on the applicability of remote sensing for increasing preparedness, providing early warnings, monitoring the hazards in real time, and assessing the damage so that relief can be provided. Comparison of the information provided by existing systems and that needed for operational use of remote sensing in ...


Impacts of natural disasters in agriculture, rangeland and forestry: an overview

In Natural Disasters and Extreme Events in Agriculture (2005), pp. 1-22,


Natural disasters play a major role in agricultural development and the economic cost associated with all natural disasters has increased 14 fold since the 1950s. Natural disasters are classified into hydro-meteorological and geophysical disasters. Definitions of various types of hydrometeorological disasters such as floods, droughts, cyclones, forest fires, heatwaves were presented. Evidence available from different parts of the world showed that there is a rising trend in the occurrence of natural disasters from 1993 to 2002. Impacts of droughts, cyclones, floods, ...


The role of biodiversity in supporting ecosystem services in Natura 2000 sites

Ecological Indicators, Vol. 24 (January 2013), pp. 12-22,


[Abstract] The recent discussion about the relationships between biodiversity and ecosystem services also raises the question as to whether the argumentative basis for nature conservation can be strengthened by emphasizing the role of species and habitats in supporting ecosystem services. A literature survey shows that mainly socio-cultural and some regulating services are dependent on particular species, groups of species, or habitat types, while many other services, especially those related to provisioning, rely more heavily on vegetation structures and land cover. These findings ...


Applicazione del modello dimostrativo di valutazione qualitativa e quantitativa dei servizi ecosistemici nei siti pilota - Parte 1: quantificazione dei servizi ecosistemici



[Excerpt: Introduzione] Sulla base della valutazione qualitativa degli habitat e della copertura, del questionario e degli incontri con gli stakeholder sono stati selezionati 2-3 servizi ecosistemici (SE) per ogni sito pilota LIFE+ MGN [...]. Per ognuno di questi SE viene riportato in questo report il risultato della quantifiazione biofisica e monetaria. [...] [:English version (Ed.): Introduction] For each pilot site LIFE+ MGN, 2-3 ecosystem services (ES) have been selected. The selection considered the qualitative assessment of habitat and cover; the survey and the ...


  1. ARPA Lombardia. Servizio Idrografico. .
  2. ASR Lombardia (2014). Valori medi dei terreni agricoli in Provincia di Cremona - Regione agraria. .
  3. Autorità di bacino del fiume Arno (2008). Progetto di Piano di Bacino Stralcio “Bilancio Idrico”.
  4. Autorità di bacino del fiume Po (1999). Progetto di Piano stralcio per l’Assetto Idrogeologico (PAI). .
  5. Autorità di bacino del

Investigating the effects of large wood and forest management on flood risk and flood hydrology



The changes to catchment scale flood risk following river restoration works, including the addition of large wood logjams to the channel, are poorly quantified in the literature. Key concerns following river restoration for river managers and other stakeholders are changes to flood hydrology at the reach and catchment scale and changes in the mobility of large wood pieces. The effects of accumulations of large wood (logjams) on local flood hydrology have been documented in the literature, showing logjams slow flood wave ...


European atlas of forest tree species

Keywords: bioeconomy   chorology   classification   climate   constrained-spatial-multi-frequency-analysis   data-heterogeneity   data-integration   data-uncertainty   disasters   disturbances   ecological-zones   ecology   ecosystem-services   europe   floods   forest-fires   forest-pests   forest-resources   free-software   geospatial   geospatial-semantic-array-programming   gis   gnu-bash   gnu-linux   gnu-octave   habitat-suitability   integrated-modelling   integrated-natural-resources-modelling-and-management   integration-techniques   knowledge-integration   landslides   mastrave-modelling-library   modelling-uncertainty   open-data   paleoecology   relative-distance-similarity   reproducible-research   review   science-policy-interface   science-society-interface   semantic-array-programming   semantic-constraints   semantics   semap   software-uncertainty   soil-erosion   soil-resources   species-distribution   tree-species   uncertainty   water-resources   windstorm  


[Excerpt] The European Atlas of Forest Tree Species is the first comprehensive publication of such a unique and essential environmental resource, that is, our trees. Leading scientists and forestry professionals have contributed in the many stages of the production of this atlas, through the collection of ground data on the location of tree species, elaboration of the distribution and suitability maps, production of the photographic material and compilation of the different chapters. The European Atlas of Forest Tree Species is both ...


Flood plains: critically threatened ecosystems

In Aquatic Ecosystems (2008), pp. 45-62,


[Excerpt: Introduction] Riparian zones, river-marginal wetland environments and flood plains are key landscape elements with a high diversity of natural functions and services. They are dynamic systems that are shaped by repeated erosion and deposition of sediment, inundation during rising water levels, and complex groundwater–surface water exchange processes (Chapter 3). This dynamic nature makes flood plains among the most biologically productive and diverse ecosystems on earth [...]. Flood plains are also of great cultural and economic importance; most early civilizations arose in fertile flood plains and throughout history people have learned to ...


The role of forests in reducing hydrogeomorphic hazards

Forest Snow and Landscape Research, Vol. 80, No. 1. (2006), pp. 11-22


Increasingly, forests are being valued for goods and services beyond wood fibre; one of these is protection forests. Functions provided by natural and managed forests have been associated with reduced hazards from floods, debris floods, debris flows, snow avalanches and rockfalls. Maintaining a high level of protection may require active management, as forests are dynamic and the protection capabilities are strongly determined by forest condition. The nature of protection provided varies depending upon the hazard processes and pathways, and the relative ...


Planted forests and water in perspective

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 251, No. 1-2. (October 2007), pp. 1-9,


Afforestation is increasingly considered as a land use activity that threatens water resources security. At the same time, it is advocated for a wide range of other water-related benefits. We review the contributions to this special issue and the wider literature, intended as a contribution towards a framework for predicting the impact on water resources and other water-related issues of afforestation in agricultural landscapes. Current evidence suggests that afforestation will typically reduce local average water yield as well as low flows. ...


Soil characteristics and landcover relationships on soil hydraulic conductivity at a hillslope scale: a view towards local flood management

Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 497 (August 2013), pp. 208-222,


We evaluate woodland/grassland cover and soil types to reduce local flooding. We measured field saturated hydraulic conductivity under grassland and woodland. Established broadleaf woodland had significantly higher infiltration rates than grassland. 1 in 10 year storm events would cause infiltration-excess overland flow on grassland. We suggest deciduous shelterbelts upslope could locally reduce overland flow. There are surprisingly few studies in humid temperate forests which provide reliable evidence that soil permeability is enhanced under forests. This work addresses this research gap through a ...


Factors affecting Lymantria dispar mortality in a willow wood in northern Italy

Bulletin of Insectology, Vol. 62, No. 1. (2009), pp. 21-25


Mortality factors affecting a Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera Lymantriidae) population in a willow wood next to the Po River (northern Italy) were studied from 1997 to 2007. In that period population density of L. dispar was low, ranging from 5.5 egg masses/100 trees to 18.8 egg masses/100 trees. Willow woods are not the most suitable habitat for gypsy moth populations, which rarely increase to an epidemic level on this host. Mortality is affected by the action of several natural enemies: Anastatus ...


Flooding effects on trees



Flood damage may affect tree height and diameter growth and tree survival. Such tree damage may be caused by soil changes, physical damage, insects, and diseases. The potential for damage to trees from flooding depends on flood characteristics and tree characteristics. Trees may need special care following a flood to minimize longer-term decline. ...


Molecular and physiological responses of trees to waterlogging stress

Plant, Cell & Environment (May 2014), pp. n/a-n/a,


One major effect of global climate change will be altered precipitation patterns in many regions of the world. This will cause a higher probability of long-term waterlogging in winter/spring and flash floods in summer because of extreme rainfall events. Particularly, trees not adapted at their natural site to such waterlogging stress can be impaired. Despite the enormous economic, ecological and social importance of forest ecosystems, the effect of waterlogging on trees is far less understood than the effect on many crops ...


Flooding tolerance of Central European tree and shrub species

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 235, No. 1-3. (November 2006), pp. 1-13,
Keywords: abies-alba   acer-campestre   acer-platanoides   acer-pseudoplatanus   aesculus-hippocastanum   alnus-glutinosa   alnus-incana   alnus-viridis   betula-pendula   carpinus-betulus   castanea-sativa   cornus-sanguinea   corylus-avellana   crataegus-monogyna   disturbances   fagus-sylvatica   floods   forest-resources   frangula-alnus   fraxinus-excelsior   ilex-aquifolium   juglans-regia   juniperus-communis   larix-decidua   malus-sylvestris   picea-abies   pinus-sylvestris   populus-alba   populus-nigra   populus-tremula   prunus-avium   prunus-domestica   prunus-mahaleb   prunus-padus   prunus-spinosa   quercus-petraea   quercus-pubescens   quercus-robur   robinia-pseudoacacia   salix-alba   salix-caprea   salix-spp   sambucus-nigra   sorbus-aria   sorbus-aucuparia   taxus-baccata   tilia-cordata   tilia-platyphyllos   tolerance   ulmus-glabra   ulmus-minor   viburnum-opulus   water-resources  


Extensive efforts have been made in recent years to restore rivers with a view to increasing the ecological value of riparian areas and the surrounding landscape and to improving the protection provided against extreme flooding events. One of the important factors for the successful establishment and survival of tree and shrub species in enlarged river corridors (particularly in lowlands) – and in retention basins – is their capacity to survive in anoxic conditions, i.e. their flooding tolerance. The importance of improving ...


River dynamics as a forest process: Interaction between fluvial systems and alluvial forests in large European river plains

The Botanical Review, Vol. 63, No. 1. (1997), pp. 40-64,


This paper corresponds to an overview of the impacts of the inundations on gallery forest processes, with examples of the upper Rhine valley, France. The geomorphic pattern of big river plains, the particularities of the nutrient cycle, the adaptations of the flora, the specificities of the sylvigenetic cycles are detailed, with examples of the upper Rhine valley. [Excerpt: Specific Particularities] The flow of water in terrestrial ecosystems has many effects on plants and animals. Water acts as a resource because floods act as migration ...


The nature of small-scale flooding, muddy floods and retention pond sedimentation in central Belgium

Geomorphology, Vol. 29, No. 3-4. (September 1999), pp. 275-292,


This study investigates the spatial variation of small-scale flooding and muddy floods in rural areas in a medium sized study area (5516 km2) and the linkage with controlling factors. A questionnaire set up in central Belgium indicates that 43% of the municipalities have to deal from time to time with muddy floods generated from direct runoff from arable land and 36% with flooding of permanent streams. A strong relation exists between the nature of the problem and the site in relation ...


Strong influence of El Niño Southern Oscillation on flood risk around the world

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 111, No. 44. (04 November 2014), pp. 15659-15664,


[Significance] El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) affects hydrological processes around the globe. However, little is known about its influence on the socioeconomic impacts of flooding (i.e., flood risk). We present, to our knowledge, the first global assessment of ENSO’s influence on flood risk in terms of economic damage and exposed population and gross domestic product. We show that reliable flood risk anomalies exist during ENSO years in basins spanning almost half of Earth’s surface. These results are significant for flood-risk management. ...


Spatial indicators for the assessment of ecosystem services: providing, benefiting and connecting areas and landscape metrics

Ecological Indicators, Vol. 21 (October 2012), pp. 80-88,


The ecosystem services approach is an established framework for the balanced evaluation of ecological, economic and social landscape resources. It promotes functional synergies (win–win situations) as well as trade-offs among various benefits resulting from ecosystem processes. Spatial aspects of heterogeneity and configuration play a major role in maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem services and hence in human wellbeing. Cultural artifacts also contribute to landscape functionality. Because of the underlying areal aspects, an additional term, landscape service has been proposed and is increasingly ...


Coping with the curse of freshwater variability

Science, Vol. 346, No. 6208. (24 October 2014), pp. 429-430,


Coping with variable and unpredictable freshwater resources represents a profound challenge to climate adaptation. Rainfall, snowmelt, soil moisture, and runoff can vary from zero to large quantities, over a range of time scales and in ways not well predicted by climate models. Extreme floods and droughts are the most obvious manifestations, but hydrologic variability can also have chronic impacts. Water security involves managing these risks so that they do not place an intolerable burden on society and the economy (1). We ...


Beyond climatological extremes - assessing how the odds of hydrometeorological extreme events in South-East Europe change in a warming climate

Climatic Change In Climatic Change, Vol. 125, No. 3-4. (2014), pp. 381-398,


With record breaking heat waves, dryness, and floods in several parts of the world in recent years the question arises whether and to what extent the hazard of hydrometeorological extreme weather events has changed, and if changes can be attributed to specific causes. The methodology of probabilistic event attribution allows to evaluate such potential changes in the occurence probabilities of particular types of extreme events. We show that such a probabilistic assessment not only provides information on changing hazards in hydrometerological ...


Increasing stress on disaster-risk finance due to large floods

Nature Climate Change, Vol. 4, No. 4. (2 March 2014), pp. 264-268,


Recent major flood disasters have shown that single extreme events can affect multiple countries simultaneously1, 2, 3, which puts high pressure on trans-national risk reduction and risk transfer mechanisms4, 5, 6. So far, little is known about such flood hazard interdependencies across regions7, 8 and the corresponding joint risks at regional to continental scales1, 9. Reliable information on correlated loss probabilities is crucial for developing robust insurance schemes5 and public adaptation funds10, and for enhancing our understanding of climate change impacts9, ...


Advances in pan-European flood hazard mapping

Hydrological Processes, Vol. 28, No. 13. (30 June 2014), pp. 4067-4077,


Flood hazard maps at trans-national scale have potential for a large number of applications ranging from climate change studies, reinsurance products, aid to emergency operations for major flood crisis, among others. However, at continental scales, only few products are available, due to the difficulty of retrieving large consistent data sets. Moreover, these are produced at relatively coarse grid resolution, which limits their applications to qualitative assessments. At finer resolution, maps are often limited to country boundaries, due to limited data sharing ...


Major flood disasters in Europe: 1950–2005

Natural Hazards In Natural Hazards, Vol. 42, No. 1. (July 2007), pp. 125-148,


There is a need for comprehensive, standardised and georeferenced information on floods for political and economic decision-making. Relevant, accurate and up-to-date data is an important aspect for resource distribution, mitigation programmes, disaster monitoring and assessment. Despite this, there is a lack of spatial and thematic accurate global data for floods. In Europe, historic data on flood losses and casualties are neither comprehensive nor standardised, thus making long-term analyses at continental level difficult. In this article, we present a map and catalogue ...


Climate change impact on flood hazard in Europe: An assessment based on high-resolution climate simulations

Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 113, No. D19. (08 October 2008), D19105,


[1] Global warming is generally expected to increase the magnitude and frequency of extreme precipitation events, which may lead to more intense and frequent river flooding. This work assesses the implications of climate change for future flood hazard in Europe. Regional climate simulations from the HIRHAM model with 12-km horizontal resolution were used to drive the hydrological model LISFLOOD, and extreme value techniques were applied to the results to estimate the probability of extreme discharges. It was found that by the ...


A compilation of data on European flash floods

Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 367, No. 1-2. (March 2009), pp. 70-78,


Flash floods are one of the most significant natural hazards in Europe, causing serious risk to life and destruction of buildings and infrastructure. This type of flood, often affecting ungauged watersheds, remains nevertheless a poorly documented phenomenon. To address the gap in available information, and particularly to assess the possible ranges for peak discharges on watersheds with area smaller than 500 km2 and to describe the geography of the hazard across Europe, an intensive data compilation has been carried out for ...


Characterisation of selected extreme flash floods in Europe and implications for flood risk management

Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 394, No. 1-2. (17 November 2010), pp. 118-133,


High-resolution data enabling identification and analysis of the hydrometeorological causative processes of flash floods have been collected and analysed for 25 extreme flash floods (60 drainage basins, ranging in area from 9.5 to 1856 km2) across Europe. Most of the selected floods are located in a geographical belt crossing Europe from western Mediterranean (Catalunia and southwestern France) to Black Sea, covering northern Italy, Slovenia, Austria, Slovakia and Romania. Criteria for flood selection were high intensity of triggering rainfall and flood response and ...


The impacts of climate change on the risk of natural disasters

Disasters, Vol. 30, No. 1. (March 2006), pp. 5-18,


Human emissions of greenhouse gases are already changing our climate. This paper provides an overview of the relation between climate change and weather extremes, and examines three specific cases where recent acute events have stimulated debate on the potential role of climate change: the European heatwave of 2003; the risk of inland flooding, such as recently in Central Europe and Great Britain; and the harsh Atlantic hurricane seasons of 2004 and 2005. Furthermore, it briefly assesses the relation between climate change ...


State of Mediterranean forests 2013



[Abstract] Forest ecosystems and other wooded lands are an important component of landscapes in the Mediterranean region, contributing significantly to rural development, poverty alleviation and food security. They are sources of wood, cork, energy, food and incomes, and they provide important ecosystem services such as biodiversity conservation, soil and water protection, recreation and carbon storage. They are crucial for many of the region’s economic sectors, such as food supply, agriculture, soil and water conservation, drinking water supply, tourism and energy. The ...


Evaluating flood resilience strategies for coastal megacities

Science, Vol. 344, No. 6183. (02 May 2014), pp. 473-475,


Recent flood disasters in the United States (2005, 2008, 2012); the Philippines (2012, 2013); and Britain (2014) illustrate how vulnerable coastal cities are to storm surge flooding (1). Floods caused the largest portion of insured losses among all catastrophes around the world in 2013 (2). Population density in flood-prone coastal zones and megacities is expected to grow by 25% by 2050; projected climate change and sea level rise may further increase the frequency and/or severity of large-scale floods (3–7). ...


In new report, IPCC gets more specific about warming risks

Science, Vol. 344, No. 6179. (4 April 2014), pp. 21-21,


The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's (IPCC's) 31 March report on climate impacts and adaptation echoes many of the concerns raised by the last edition, issued in 2007. It says that climate change is already affecting human communities, agriculture, and natural ecosystems—and impacts are likely to grow in the future. But the report breaks with the past in drawing on an emerging body of social science to identify eight major risks posed by climate change, and to inform an extensive discussion ...


U.S. and Mexico Unleash a Flood Into Colorado Delta

Science, Vol. 343, No. 6177. (21 March 2014), pp. 1301-1301,


The Colorado River delta once supported many birds and other species. After the U.S. government dammed the river, the lush habitat became a salt-caked wasteland. Now, an experimental flood will send water down the dry channel to help restore the ecosystem. Researchers will evaluate the responses of the riverbed, soil, and native vegetation, and perhaps pave the way for future floods. ...


Making use of the ecosystem services concept in regional planning - trade-offs from reducing water erosion

Landscape Ecology In Landscape Ecology (2014), pp. 1-15,


In this article we demonstrate how to integrate the ecosystem services concept into regional planning using the example of a case study in Saxony, Germany. We analysed how the reduction of water erosion as a regulating service impacts six other ecosystem services. Ecological integrity, provisioning services (provision of food and fibre, provision of biomass), regulating services (soil erosion protection, drought-risk regulation, flood regulation), and the cultural service landscape aesthetics are taken into account. Using a decision support software, we found that ...


Floods in a changing climate



"Flood risk management is presented in this book as a framework for identifying, assessing and prioritizing climate-related risks and developing appropriate adaptation responses. Rigorous assessment is employed to determine the available probabilistic and fuzzy set-based analytic tools, when each is appropriate and how to apply them to practical problems. Academic researchers in the fields of hydrology, climate change, environmental science and policy and risk assessment, and professionals and policy-makers working in hazard mitigation, water resources engineering and environmental economics, will find ...


(INRMM-MiD internal record) List of keywords of the INRMM meta-information database - part 13

(February 2014)
Keywords: extrapolation-error   extreme-events   extreme-weather   f-script   fabaceae   factor-analysis   fagus-crenata   fagus-engleriana   fagus-grandifolia   fagus-hayatae   fagus-japonica   fagus-longipetiolata   fagus-lucida   fagus-mexicana   fagus-moesiaca   fagus-multinervis   fagus-orientalis   fagus-silvatica   fagus-spp   fagus-sylvatica   fagus-taurica   faidherbia-albida   fallopia-spp   false-observations-propagation   false-positive   family-heritability   fao-ecozones   faostat   fapar   feather-moss   featured-publication   feedback   feedforward-networks   fennoscandia   fertile-islands   fertilization   ficus-altissima   ficus-aurea   ficus-benghalensis   ficus-carica   ficus-citrifolia   ficus-elastica   ficus-macrophylla   ficus-religiosa   field-measurements   filbert   financial-modelling   fine-roots   finland   fir-decline   fire   fire-ecology   fire-emissions   fire-fuel   fire-regimes   fire-season   fire-severity   fise   fish-resources   fitness   fitzroya-cupressoides   flagship-species   flammability   flash-flood   fleshy-fruit   flood-control   flood-frequency   flood-tolerance   flooding-tolerance   floodplain   floodplain-forest   floods   flora   floss   flow-accumulation   flowering-period   flowering-phenology   fluvial   fodder-tree   foliage   food-plant   food-security   food-web   forecast   forest-bioeconomy   forest-biomass   forest-classification   forest-communities   forest-conservation   forest-conversion   forest-damage   forest-degradation   forest-disturbance   forest-dynamics   forest-ecology   forest-ecosystem   forest-ecosystems   forest-edges   inrmm-list-of-tags   postfire-recovery  


List of indexed keywords within the transdisciplinary set of domains which relate to the Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management (INRMM). In particular, the list of keywords maps the semantic tags in the INRMM Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD). [\n] The INRMM-MiD records providing this list are accessible by the special tag: inrmm-list-of-tags ( ). ...


Anthropogenic greenhouse gas contribution to flood risk in England and Wales in autumn 2000

Nature, Vol. 470, No. 7334. (17 February 2011), pp. 382-385,


Human emissions of greenhouse gasses  and related warming  have been shown to be an influence on global and regional warming and on broad-scale precipitation changes. But so far, assessing the human imprint on specific weather events has proven difficult. Now, publicly contributed climate simulations are used to show that increased greenhouse gas emissions substantially increased the risk of flood occurrence during the catastrophic 2000 England and Wales floods. ...


Flood management in a complex river basin with a real-time decision support system based on hydrological forecasts

Vol. 48, No. EPFL-BOOK-172964. (2011)


In alpine valleys with strong urban development, river training works for flood safety become more and more difficult to implement because of economic and environmental constraints. Thus flood management has a great importance especially in river basins equipped with storage power plants having a large retention potential. To reduce the flood risk in the Upper Rhone River basin in the Cantons of Vaud and Valais, the MINERVE flood forecast system was developed. It aims an optimized flood management by taking advantage ...


Water forecasts

Nature Climate Change, Vol. 3, No. 9. (28 August 2013), pp. 765-765,


The effect of climate change on precipitation and flooding is of global concern. The strength of water movement through the hydrological cycle is influenced by climate change. Warming of the atmosphere increases its water-holding capacity — by approximately 7% per degree — which can increase the intensity of precipitation. This impact is expected to be seen predominantly in the tropics and high-latitude regions. Overall precipitation is also expected to increase in the tropics, and it is assumed that wet regions will ...


A review of the characteristics of black alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.) and their implications for silvicultural practices

Forestry, Vol. 83, No. 2. (01 April 2010), pp. 163-175,


Black alder is a scattered, widespread and short-lived species that thrives in low-lying damp and riparian places. It has a use in flood control, stabilization of riverbanks and in functioning of the river ecosystems. To thrive, precipitation must exceed 1500 mm if access to groundwater is not possible. Alders are unusual among European trees in that they fix nitrogen. To regenerate naturally, alder requires high levels of both light and moisture, usually achievable only on disturbed sites. Growth rates up to ...


Flash-flood impacts cause changes in wood anatomy of Alnus glutinosa, Fraxinus angustifolia and Quercus pyrenaica

Tree Physiology, Vol. 30, No. 6. (01 June 2010), pp. 773-781,


Flash floods may influence the development of trees growing on channel bars and floodplains. In this study, we analyze and quantify anatomical reactions to wounding in diffuse-porous (Alnus glutinosa L.) and ring-porous (Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl. and Quercus pyrenaica Willd.) trees in a Mediterranean environment. A total of 54 cross-sections and wedges were collected from trees that had been injured by past flash floods. From each of the samples, micro-sections were prepared at a tangential distance of 1.5 cm from the injury to ...


Hydrologic response of upland catchments to wildfires

Advances in Water Resources, Vol. 30, No. 10. (October 2007), pp. 2072-2086,


To which extent do wildfires affect runoff production, soil erosion and sediment transport in upland catchments? This transient effect is investigated here by combining data of long term precipitation, sediment yield and wildfire records with a fine resolution spatially distributed modeling approach to flow generation and surface erosion. The model accounts for changes in the structure and properties of soil and vegetation cover by combining the tube-flux approach to topographic watershed partition with a parsimonious parametrization of hydrologic processes. This model ...


Linking runoff response to burn severity after a wildfire

Hydrological Processes, Vol. 22, No. 13. (30 June 2008), pp. 2063-2074,
Keywords: floods   precipitation   runoff   wildfires  


Extreme floods often follow wildfire in mountainous watersheds. However, a quantitative relation between the runoff response and burn severity at the watershed scale has not been established. Runoff response was measured as the runoff coefficient C, which is equal to the peak discharge per unit drainage area divided by the average maximum 30 min rainfall intensity during each rain storm. The magnitude of the burn severity was expressed as the change in the normalized burn ratio. A new burn severity variable, ...


Storm rainfall conditions for floods and debris flows from recently burned areas in southwestern Colorado and southern California

Geomorphology, Vol. 96, No. 3-4. (April 2008), pp. 250-269,


Debris flows generated during rain storms on recently burned areas have destroyed lives and property throughout the Western U.S. Field evidence indicate that unlike landslide-triggered debris flows, these events have no identifiable initiation source and can occur with little or no antecedent moisture. Using rain gage and response data from five fires in Colorado and southern California, we document the rainfall conditions that have triggered post-fire debris flows and develop empirical rainfall intensity–duration thresholds for the occurrence of debris flows and ...


Effects of forest fires on flood frequency curves in a Mediterranean catchment

Hydrological Sciences Journal, Vol. 50, No. 2. (1 April 2005), pp. 193-206,


Abstract The effect of land-use change on the flood frequency curve (FFC) in a natural catchment is analysed. To achieve this, a simple methodology for the derivation of FFCs in land-use change scenarios is proposed. The adopted methodology, using a stochastic model in Monte Carlo simulation of FFCs, was found to provide a useful framework for detecting changes in flood magnitudes in both pre- and post-fire conditions. In particular, the importance of the antecedent soil moisture condition in the determination of ...


Forest impact on floods due to extreme rainfall and snowmelt in four Latin American environments 2: model analysis

Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 400, No. 3-4. (16 April 2011), pp. 292-304,


Through a systematic modelling analysis for focus catchments in Costa Rica (131 km2), Ecuador (10 km2), Chile (0.35 km2) and Argentina (12.9 km2), the hypothesis is tested that, as the size of the hydrological event increases, the effect of forest cover on the peak discharge becomes less important. For each focus catchment, a 1000-year synthetic rainfall time series was generated, representative of the current climate. This time series was used to run SHETRAN hydrological models for each catchment with two contrasting land use scenarios (generally ...


Forest impact on floods due to extreme rainfall and snowmelt in four Latin American environments 1: field data analysis

Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 400, No. 3-4. (22 April 2011), pp. 281-291,


Flood peak data for focus catchments in Costa Rica, Ecuador, Chile and Argentina are analyzed to test the hypothesis that, as the size of the hydrological event increases, the effect of forest cover on the peak discharge becomes less important. Previous research suggests that this hypothesis may hold for small catchments (less than 1 km2) but the pattern is less clear for large catchments. The principal study results are for small paired catchments (0.6–10 km2) with different forest covers (forest/pasture) in highland Ecuador ...

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