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Selection: with tag featured-publication [187 articles] 

 

A gridded global data set of soil, intact regolith, and sedimentary deposit thicknesses for regional and global land surface modeling

  
Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, Vol. 8, No. 1. (March 2016), pp. 41-65, https://doi.org/10.1002/2015ms000526

Abstract

Earth's terrestrial near-subsurface environment can be divided into relatively porous layers of soil, intact regolith, and sedimentary deposits above unweathered bedrock. Variations in the thicknesses of these layers control the hydrologic and biogeochemical responses of landscapes. Currently, Earth System Models approximate the thickness of these relatively permeable layers above bedrock as uniform globally, despite the fact that their thicknesses vary systematically with topography, climate, and geology. To meet the need for more realistic input data for models, we developed a high-resolution ...

 

An ecoregion-based approach to protecting half the terrestrial realm

  
BioScience (14 April 2017), https://doi.org/10.1093/biosci/bix014

Abstract

We assess progress toward the protection of 50% of the terrestrial biosphere to address the species-extinction crisis and conserve a global ecological heritage for future generations. Using a map of Earth's 846 terrestrial ecoregions, we show that 98 ecoregions (12%) exceed Half Protected; 313 ecoregions (37%) fall short of Half Protected but have sufficient unaltered habitat remaining to reach the target; and 207 ecoregions (24%) are in peril, where an average of only 4% of natural habitat remains. We propose a ...

 

Geographic distribution of 24 major tree species in the Mediterranean and their genetic resources

  
(2016)

Abstract

[Excerpt: Introduction] The Mediterranean Basin is one of the world’s richest places in terms of animal and plant diversity. It is a highly diverse region and its mountains, rivers, forests and thousands of islands form a mosaic of natural and cultural landscapes of incomparable value. With around 25,000 species of native plants, of which more than half are endemic, and because many habitats and species are threatened, the Mediterranean is recognized as one of the Global Biodiversity Hotspots [18]. For millennia, ...

 

Robust modelling of the impacts of climate change on the habitat suitability of forest tree species

  
Keywords: abies-alba   array-of-factors   artificial-neural-networks   bioclimatic-predictors   change-factor   climate-change   data-uncertainty   diversity   environmental-modelling   europe   extrapolation-uncertainty   featured-publication   forest-resources   free-scientific-knowledge   free-scientific-software   free-software   fuzzy   gdal   genetic-diversity   geospatial   geospatial-semantic-array-programming   gnu-bash   gnu-linux   gnu-octave   habitat-suitability   integration-techniques   mastrave-modelling-library   maximum-habitat-suitability   modelling-uncertainty   multiplicity   peseta-series   python   regional-climate-models   relative-distance-similarity   robust-modelling   semantic-array-programming   semantic-constraints   semantics   spatial-disaggregation   sres-a1b   supervised-training   unsupervised-training  

Abstract

[::] In Europe, forests play a strategic multifunctional role, serving economic, social and environmental purposes. However, their complex interaction with climate change is not yet well understood. [::] The JRC PESETA project series proposes a consistent multi-sectoral assessment of the impacts of climate change in Europe. [::] Within the PESETA II project, a robust methodology is introduced for modelling the habitat suitability of forest tree species (2071-2100 time horizon). [::] Abies alba (the silver fir) is selected as case study: a main European tree ...

References

  1. European Commission, 2013. Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions - A new EU forest strategy: for forests and the forest based sector. No. COM(2013) 659 final. Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=celex:52013DC0659 , INRMM-MiD:12642065 .
  2. European Commission, 2013. Commission staff working document accompanying the document: Communication from the commission to
 

Managing alpine forests in a changing climate

  
In Management Strategies to Adapt Alpine Space Forests to Climate Change Risks (28 August 2013), pp. 369-383, https://doi.org/10.5772/56272
edited by Gillian Cerbu

Abstract

[Excerpt: Introduction] There is mounting evidence that Alpine forest ecosystems will not be able to fully absorb the changes in site factors associated with climate change, such as higher temperatures, more intensive drought stress and associated biotic impacts since these changes exceed the adaptive capacity of the trees. The projected changes in temperature by 2.2 to 5.1 K from 1980 to 1999 to 2080 to 2099, for the A1B scenario in southern Europe [1], correspond to an altitudinal shift of 300 to ...

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Observational evidence for cloud cover enhancement over western European forests

  
Nature Communications, Vol. 8 (11 January 2017), 14065, https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms14065

Abstract

Forests impact regional hydrology and climate directly by regulating water and heat fluxes. Indirect effects through cloud formation and precipitation can be important in facilitating continental-scale moisture recycling but are poorly understood at regional scales. In particular, the impact of temperate forest on clouds is largely unknown. Here we provide observational evidence for a strong increase in cloud cover over large forest regions in western Europe based on analysis of 10 years of 15 min resolution data from geostationary satellites. In addition, ...

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Abies Miller

  
In Flora Europaea, Volume 1: Psilotaceae to Platanaceae (1993), pp. 37-38

Abstract

Published in five volumes, Flora Europaea is the definitive account of the flowering plants, ferns and fern-allies of Europe, covering all plants growing in the wild, including many naturalized species and all widely cultivated crop species. It provides full keys and concise descriptions of families, genera, species and subspecies, together with bibliographic details for accepted species, summaries of geographical distribution, chromosome numbers and habitat information. This new edition of Volume 1 brings the treatment of the first 79 families up to ...

 

Libros

  
Revista Montes, Vol. 125 (2016), pp. 76-77

Abstract

[Excerpt] [:Libro blanco del sector de aviones contra incendios forestales] [::Autores] Carles Algué y Aitor Martín [\n] [...] España cuenta con uno de los mejores sistemas de extinción de incendios forestales del mundo, en el que los medios aéreos constituyen un pilar clave. Los aviones anti-incendios operados por empresas privadas cada verano en España representan más de un tercio de la capacidad total de lanzamiento de agua disponible, aunque sólo la décima parte del presupuesto total anual destinado a medios aéreos. [...] [:Flora literaria del ...

 

GISCO - The Geographic Information System of the COmmission

  
(2016)

Abstract

[Excerpt] [What is GISCO?] Within Eurostat, GISCO is responsible for meeting the European Commission's geographical information needs at 3 levels: the European Union, its member countries, and its regions. [What does GISCO do?] In addition to creating statistical and other thematic maps, GISCO manages a database of geographical information, and provides related services to the Commission. Its database contains core geographical data covering the whole of Europe, such as administrative boundaries, and thematic geospatial information, such as population grid data. Some ...

 

Climatologies at high resolution for the earth's land surface areas

  
(21 Sep 2016)

Abstract

High resolution information of climatic conditions is essential to many application in environmental sciences. Here we present the CHELSA algorithm to downscale temperature and precipitation estimates from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) climatic reanalysis interim (ERA-Interim) to a high resolution of 30 arc sec. The algorithm for temperature is based on a statistical downscaling of atmospheric temperature from the ERA-Interim climatic reanalysis. The precipitation algorithm incorporates orographic predictors such as wind fields, valley exposition, and boundary layer height, ...

 

CHELSA climatologies at high resolution for the earth's land surface areas (Version 1.1)

  

Abstract

CHELSA_v1.1 (http://chelsa-climate.org/) is a high resolution (30 arc sec, ~1 km) climate data set for the earth land surface areas. It includes monthly and annual mean temperature and precipitation patterns as well as derived bioclimatic and interannual parameters for the time period 1979-2013. CHELSA_v1.1 is based on a quasi-mechanistical statistical downscaling of the ERA interim global circulation model (http://www.ecmwf.int/en/research/climate-reanalysis/era-interim) with a GPCC (https://www.dwd.de/EN/ourservices/gpcc/gpcc.html) and GHCN (https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/ghcnm/) bias correction. ...

 

Analysis of the energetic flows through the SEBAL application to the assessment of the actual evapotranspiration in a Napa Valley vineyard California (USA)

  
In Clima e agricoltura: strategie di adattamento e mitigazione, Vol. 12 (June 2009), 56

Abstract

The use of water resources is constantly growing in agriculture industry and the reduction of the this resource is due by both anthropogenic and climate factors. Under this perspective it is necessary to develop monitoring systems able to forecast the consumption of water. The knowledge of the actual water demand of a crop is therefore strategic for the rational use of resources and to improve the quality of the crop production. Recent applications of remote sensing in agriculture provide a valuable contribution to release this purpose, besides the integration of remotely sensed ...

 

How does BGS classify landslides?

  
In Engineering geology (2016)

Abstract

[Excerpt] The classification of landslides by the BGS currently follows the scheme based on Varnes (1978) and Cruden & Varnes (1996). The scheme terminology is also that suggested by the Unesco Working Party on the 'World Landslide Inventory' (WP/WLI 1990, 1993). [\n] The main classification criteria are: [::] type of movement (falls, topples, slides spreads, flows) [::] type of material involved in the movement (rock, debris, earth) [\n] Combining movement and material type terms enables an appropriately descriptive landslide name to be formulated. Naming can ...

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Size asymmetry of resource competition and the structure of plant communities

  
Journal of Ecology, Vol. 104, No. 4. (July 2016), pp. 899-910, https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2745.12557

Abstract

Plant communities show two general responses to gradients of soil resources: a decrease in species richness at high levels of resource availability and an associated shift in species composition from small and slow-growing species to large and fast-growing species. Models attempting to explain these responses have usually focused on a single pattern and provided contradicting predictions concerning the underlying mechanisms. [\n] We use an extension of Tilman's resource competition model to investigate the hypothesis that both patterns may ...

 

Define the Anthropocene in terms of the whole Earth

  
Nature, Vol. 536, No. 7616. (17 August 2016), pp. 251-251, https://doi.org/10.1038/536251a

Abstract

Researchers must consider human impacts on entire Earth systems and not get trapped in discipline-specific definitions, says Clive Hamilton. [Excerpt] The Anthropocene was conceived by Earth-system scientists to capture the very recent rupture in Earth’s history arising from the impact of human activity on the Earth system as a whole. Read that again. Take special note of the phrases ‘very recent rupture’ and ‘the Earth system as a whole’. Understanding the Anthropocene, and what humanity now confronts, depends on a firm grasp of ...

 

MSWEP: 3-hourly 0.25° global gridded precipitation (1979–2015) by merging gauge, satellite, and reanalysis data

  
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions (30 May 2016), pp. 1-38, https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-2016-236

Abstract

Current global precipitation (P) datasets do not take full advantage of the complementary nature of satellite and reanalysis data. Here, we present Multi-Source Weighted-Ensemble Precipitation (MSWEP), a global P dataset for the period 1979–2015 with a 3-hourly temporal and 0.25° spatial resolution, specifically designed for hydrological modeling. The design philosophy of MSWEP was to optimally merge the highest quality P data sources available as a function of time scale and location. The long-term mean of MSWEP was based on the CHPclim ...

 

Fast computing for distance covariance

  
Technometrics (25 June 2015), pp. 0-0, https://doi.org/10.1080/00401706.2015.1054435

Abstract

Distance covariance and distance correlation have been widely adopted in measuring dependence of a pair of random variables or random vectors. If the computation of distance covariance and distance correlation is implemented directly accordingly to its definition then its computational complexity is O(n2) which is a disadvantage compared to other faster methods. In this paper we show that the computation of distance covariance and distance correlation of real valued random variables can be implemented by an O(n log n) algorithm and ...

 

Spatial downscaling of European climate data

  
Int. J. Climatol., Vol. 36, No. 3. (1 March 2016), pp. 1444-1458, https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.4436

Abstract

E-OBS(European Observations) is a gridded climate data set which contains maximum temperature, minimum temperature, and precipitation on a daily time step. The data can be as fine as 0.25° in resolution and extends over the entire European continent and parts of Africa and Asia. However, for studying regional or local climatic effects, a finer resolution would be more appropriate. A continental data set with resolution would allow research that is large in scale and still locally relevant. Until now, a climate ...

 

Near-global freshwater-specific environmental variables for biodiversity analyses in 1 km resolution

  
Scientific Data, Vol. 2 (8 December 2015), 150073, https://doi.org/10.1038/sdata.2015.73

Abstract

The lack of freshwater-specific environmental information at sufficiently fine spatial grain hampers broad-scale analyses in aquatic biology, biogeography, conservation, and ecology. Here we present a near-global, spatially continuous, and freshwater-specific set of environmental variables in a standardized 1 km grid. We delineate the sub-catchment for each grid cell along the HydroSHEDS river network and summarize the upstream climate, topography, land cover, surface geology and soil to each grid cell using various metrics (average, minimum, maximum, range, sum, inverse distance-weighted average and sum). ...

 

A global 1-km consensus land-cover product for biodiversity and ecosystem modelling

  
Global Ecology and Biogeography, Vol. 23, No. 9. (1 September 2014), pp. 1031-1045, https://doi.org/10.1111/geb.12182

Abstract

[Aim] For many applications in biodiversity and ecology, existing remote sensing-derived land-cover products have limitations due to among-product inconsistency and their typically non-continuous nature. Here we aim to help address these shortcomings by generating a 1-km resolution global product that provides scale-integrated and accuracy-weighted consensus land-cover information on an approximately continuous scale. [Location] Global. [Methods] Using a generalized classification scheme and an accuracy-based integration approach, we integrated four global land-cover products. We evaluated the performance of this product compared with inputs for estimating subpixel 30-m resolution ...

 

GECO 2015 - Global energy and climate outlook: road to Paris

  
Vol. EUR 27239 EN (2015), https://doi.org/10.2791/198028

Abstract

This report presents the modelling work quoted in the EC communication "The Paris Protocol - a blueprint for tackling global climate change beyond 2020" in the EU's Energy Union package. It examines the effects of a Baseline scenario where current trends continue beyond 2020, and of a Global Mitigation scenario in line with keeping global warming below 2°C. The analysis uses the POLES and GEM-E3 models in a framework where economic welfare is maximised while tackling climate change. In the Baseline, ...

References

  1. Arezki, R., Blanchard, O., 2014. Seven Questions about the Recent Oil Price Slump. http://blog-imfdirect.imf.org/2014/12/22/seven-questions-about-the-recent-oil-price-slump .
  2. AR5 database, 2015. IPCC Assessment Report 5 database. https://secure.iiasa.ac.at/web-apps/ene/AR5DB/dsd?Action=htmlpage&page=welcome .
  3. Assunção, J., Gandour, C., Rocha, R., 2015. Deforestation slowdown in the Brazilian Amazon: prices or policies?. Environment and Development Economics, available on CJO2015. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1355770X15000078 .
  4. BGR (German Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources) 2013. Energy Study 2013.
 

Stability of atmospheric flow and low-level jets influencing forest fire behavior - An EFFIS report

  
Vol. EUR 27362 EN (2015), https://doi.org/10.2788/54976

Abstract

During the past years, there have been a considerable number of occasions that a forest fire burns with such strong intensity that seems far out of proportion to apparent burning conditions. This proved to be the case for the Sweden fire "blow-up" that took place during 4 August 2014 between Sala and Surahammar municipalities. The fire broke out after an unusual spell of hot, dry summer weather in northern Europe and proved to be the Sweden's largest wildfire in 40 years ...

References

  1. Anderson, H.E., 1982. Aids to determining fuel models for estimating fire behaviors. General Technical Report INT - 122. United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/pubs_int/int_gtr122.pdf .
  2. Andersson, E., Fisher, M., Hólm, E., Isaksen, L., Radnóti, G., Trémolet, Y., 2005. Will the 4D-Var approach be defeated by nonlinearity? ECMWF Tech Memo 479. http://www.ecmwf.int/publications .
  3. Bally, J., 1995. The Haines Index as a predictor of fire activity in
 

Action plan for the conservation of the Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) in Europe

  
Vol. 111 (2000)

Abstract

[Excerpt: Executive summary] Amongst the European large carnivores, the Iberian lynx is the only endemic species. Hence, Europe must ensure the preservation of the lynx to keep coherence when claiming similar efforts in other parts of the world. Another remarkable feature of the Iberian lynx is its qualification as the most endangered felid species in the world, given its low total population size, its highly fragmented distribution, and its declining population trend and strong range contraction during the last century. These characteristics make the conservation strategy for ...

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Decades of population genetic research reveal the need for harmonization of molecular markers: the grey wolf Canis lupus as a case study

  
Mammal Review, Vol. 46, No. 1. (January 2016), pp. 44-59, https://doi.org/10.1111/mam.12052

Abstract

Following protection measures implemented since the 1970s, large carnivores are currently increasing in number and returning to areas from which they were absent for decades or even centuries. Monitoring programmes for these species rely extensively on non-invasive sampling and genotyping. However, attempts to connect results of such studies at larger spatial or temporal scales often suffer from the incompatibility of genetic markers implemented by researchers in different laboratories. This is particularly critical for long-distance dispersers, revealing the need for harmonized monitoring ...

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Genetic variability of the grey wolf Canis lupus in the Caucasus in comparison with Europe and the Middle East: distinct or intermediary population?

  
PLoS ONE, Vol. 9, No. 4. (8 April 2014), e93828, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0093828

Abstract

Despite continuous historical distribution of the grey wolf (Canis lupus) throughout Eurasia, the species displays considerable morphological differentiation that resulted in delimitation of a number of subspecies. However, these morphological discontinuities are not always consistent with patterns of genetic differentiation. Here we assess genetic distinctiveness of grey wolves from the Caucasus (a region at the border between Europe and West Asia) that have been classified as a distinct subspecies C. l. cubanensis. We analysed their genetic variability based on mtDNA control ...

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Eurasian lynx - Lynx lynx

  
In Large carnivores - species factsheets (2016)

Abstract

[Excerpt:Lynx facts] [::Size] [::] Males 18 – 25 kg [::] Females 12 – 16 kg [::Reproduction] [::] Mating: March [::] Birth: May - June [::] Litter size: 1-4, normally 2-3 [::Diet] Strictly carnivorous. Roe deer, chamois, red deer, hares, forest birds, domestic sheep, semi-domestic reindeer. [::Social organisation] Solitary and territorial - little overlap with members of same sex. [::Home ranges] Vary from 120 to 1800 km2 for males and 80 to 500 km2 for females. [\n] [...] ...

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Wolverine - Gulo gulo

  
In Large carnivores - species factsheets (2016)

Abstract

[Excerpt] [::Size] [::] Males 12-18 kg [::] Females 8-13 kg [::Reproduction] [::] Mating: June - August [::] Birth: January - March [::] Litter size: 1-5, normally 2-3 [::Diet] Wide range of species from reindeer to rodents. Much food comes from scavenging, but can kill domestic sheep and semi-domestic reindeer. [::Social organisation] Solitary and territorial - little overlap with members of same sex. [::Home ranges] Vary from 100 to 500 km2 for males and 100 to 200 km2 for females. [\n] [...] ...

Visual summary

 

Wolf - Canis lupus

  
In Large carnivores - species factsheets (2016)

Abstract

[Excerpt:Wolf facts] [::Size] [::] Males 20 - 60 kg [::] Females 15 - 55 kg [::Reproduction] [::] Mating: January - March [::] Birth: March - May [::] Litter size: 1 - 11 [::Diet] Mainly carnivorous, specialised in wild ungulates, but can also feed on small and medium sized vertebrates, invertebrates, fruits, carrion and human garbage, as well as livestock. [::Social organisation] Group living in packs, normally with only two reproductive animals. Wolf packs are territorial. [::Home ranges] 100 to 1000 km2. [\n] [...] ...

Visual summary

 

Brown bear - Ursus arctos

  
In Large carnivores - species factsheets (2016)

Abstract

[Excerpt:Brown bear facts] [::Size] [::] Males 140 – 320 kg [::] Females 100 – 200 kg [::Reproduction] [::] Mating: May - July [::] Birth: January - February [::] Litter size: 1-4, normally 2-3 [::Diet] Omnivorous. Berries, nuts, ants, green vegetation, carcasses and young of wild ungulates, livestock, honey [::Social organisation] Solitary. Recent evidence indicates complex structure among related females. [::Home ranges] Vary from 120 to 1600 km2 for males and 60 to 300 km2 for females. [\n] [...] ...

Visual summary

 

State of the world's plants - 2016

  
(2016)

Abstract

This report provides, for the first time, a baseline assessment of our current knowledge on the diversity of plants on earth, the global threats these plants currently face, and the policies in place and their effectiveness in dealing with these threats. [\n] On the diversity of plants, we can report that there are now an estimated ~391,000 vascular plants known to science of which 369,000 are flowering plants. Around 2000 new vascular plant species are described each year. In 2015 these included ...

 

License: CeCILLv2

  
In Free Software Directory (2015), 7028

Abstract

[Excerpt] [::Name] CeCILLv2 [::URL] http://www.cecill.info/licences/Licence_CeCILL_V2-en.txt [Excerpt from the license text] [Preamble] The purpose of this Free Software license agreement is to grant users the right to modify and redistribute the software governed by this license within the framework of an open source distribution model. [\n] The exercising of these rights is conditional upon certain obligations for users so as to preserve this status for all subsequent redistributions. [\n] In consideration of access to the source code and the rights to copy, modify and redistribute granted by the ...

 

License: AGPLv3

  
In Free Software Directory (2015), 8704

Abstract

[Excerpt] [::Name] GNU Affero General Public License Version 3 [::URL] http://www.gnu.org/licenses/agpl.html [Excerpt from the license text] The GNU Affero General Public License is a free, copyleft license for software and other kinds of works, specifically designed to ensure cooperation with the community in the case of network server software. [\n] The licenses for most software and other practical works are designed to take away your freedom to share and change the works. By contrast, our General Public Licenses are intended to guarantee your freedom ...

 

License: AGPLv3orlater

  
In Free Software Directory (2015), 7025

Abstract

[Excerpt] [::Name] GNU Affero General Public License Version 3 or later [::URL] http://www.gnu.org/licenses/agpl.html [Excerpt from the license text] The GNU Affero General Public License is a free, copyleft license for software and other kinds of works, specifically designed to ensure cooperation with the community in the case of network server software. [\n] The licenses for most software and other practical works are designed to take away your freedom to share and change the works. By contrast, our General Public Licenses are intended to guarantee your ...

 

License: AGPLv1

  
In Free Software Directory (2015), 8763

Abstract

[Excerpt] [::Name] Affero General Public License version 1 [::URL] http://www.affero.org/oagpl.html [Excerpt from the license text] Note: The GNU Affero General Public License version 3 has been released. It follows the same basic structure as this license, but it is based on version 3 of the GNU GPL, and you can combine modules released under GPLv3 and the GNU AGPLv3. If you were thinking about releasing your software under this license, we recommend you use the GNU AGPLv3 instead. [\n] Additionally, ...

 

License: GPLv1

  
In Free Software Directory (2015), 6986

Abstract

[Excerpt] [::Name] GPLv1 [::URL] http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl-1.0.html [Excerpt from the license text] [Preamble] The license agreements of most software companies try to keep users at the mercy of those companies. By contrast, our General Public License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free software--to make sure the software is free for all its users. The General Public License applies to the Free Software Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to using it. You can use it for your programs, too. [\n] When we speak ...

 

License: GPLv1orlater

  
In Free Software Directory (2015), 6946

Abstract

[Excerpt] [::Name] GPLv1orlater [::URL] http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl-1.0.html [Excerpt from the license text] [Preamble] The license agreements of most software companies try to keep users at the mercy of those companies. By contrast, our General Public License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free software--to make sure the software is free for all its users. The General Public License applies to the Free Software Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to using it. You can use it for your programs, too. [\n] When we speak ...

 

License: GPLv2

  
In Free Software Directory (2015), 6937

Abstract

[Excerpt] [::Name] GPLv2 [::URL] http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl-2.0.html [Excerpt from the license text] [Preamble] The licenses for most software are designed to take away your freedom to share and change it. By contrast, the GNU General Public License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free software--to make sure the software is free for all its users. This General Public License applies to most of the Free Software Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to using it. (Some other Free Software Foundation software ...

 

License: GPLv2orlater

  
In Free Software Directory (2015), 6940

Abstract

[Excerpt] [::Name] GPLv2 or later [::URL] http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl-2.0.html [Excerpt from the license text] [Preamble] The licenses for most software are designed to take away your freedom to share and change it. By contrast, the GNU General Public License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free software--to make sure the software is free for all its users. This General Public License applies to most of the Free Software Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to using it. (Some other Free ...

 

License: GPLv3

  
In Free Software Directory (2015), 6971

Abstract

[Excerpt] [::Name] GPLv3 [::URL] http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl-3.0.html [Excerpt from the license text] [Preamble] The GNU General Public License is a free, copyleft license for software and other kinds of works. [\n] The licenses for most software and other practical works are designed to take away your freedom to share and change the works. By contrast, the GNU General Public License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change all versions of a program--to make sure it remains free software for all its users. We, the Free Software ...

 

License: GPLv3orlater

  
In Free Software Directory (2015), 6953

Abstract

[Excerpt] [::Name] GPLv3 or later [::URL] http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl-3.0.html [Excerpt from the license text] [Preamble] The GNU General Public License is a free, copyleft license for software and other kinds of works. [\n] The licenses for most software and other practical works are designed to take away your freedom to share and change the works. By contrast, the GNU General Public License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change all versions of a program--to make sure it remains free software for all its users. We, ...

 

Espécies arbóreas indígenas em Portugal continental - Guia de utilização

  
(March 2016)

Abstract

[Excerpt: Introduction] A recuperação da vegetação natural portuguesa constitui um dos objetivos primordiais da política florestal desde os seus primórdios no séc. XIX, o que tem assegurado um papel dominante das espécies indígenas até aos dias de hoje. É assim que, segundo o 6.º Inventário Florestal Nacional, cerca de 70% da superfície arborizada é dominada por espécies indígenas (ou autóctones), que formam os tipos de povoamentos mais comuns no Continente. [\n] A diversificação da composição da floresta, quer ao nível regional, quer da ...

References

  1. Silva, J. S. (Ed.), 2007. Árvores e Florestas de Portugal. Lisboa: Público, Comunicação Social, SA, Fundação Luso-Americana para o Desenvolvimento e Liga para a Proteção da Natureza.
  2. Colaço, M. C. (Ed.), 2011. Floresta, Muito Mais que Árvores. Manual de Educação Ambiental para a Floresta. Lisboa: Autoridade Florestal Nacional. ISBN 978-972-8097-74-5 .
  3. Arthus-Bertrand, Y., 2011. Of Forests and Men. Paris: Éditions de La Martinière. ISBN 978-2-7324-4593-9 .
  4. Alves, A.
 

Updated source code for calculating fire danger indices in the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index System

  
Vol. NOR-X-424 (2015)

Abstract

This report presents updated versions of the FORTRAN 77 program originally published by the Canadian Forest Service in 1985 and used to calculate the Canadian forest fire weather indices from daily weather observations. The updated program is presented here in FORTRAN 95, C, C++, Python, Java and SAS/IML programming languages to meet the needs of various users. The updated versions are easier to understand and use than the original source code. The updated source codes were written in a modular programming style, consisting of a main program and ...

References

  1. Canadian Forestry Service. 1984. Tables for the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index System. (4th ed.) Environ. Can., Can. For. Serv., Ottawa, ON. For. Tech. Rep. 25. Also available at http://cfs.nrcan.gc.ca/pubwarehouse/pdfs/31168.pdf .
  2. Chapman, S. J. 2004. FORTRAN 90/95 for scientists and engineers. McGraw Hill Higher Education, Toronto, ON. Also available at http://www.mhhe.com/engcs/general/chapman/index.mhtml .
  3. De Groot, W.J.; Field, R.D.; Brady, M.A.; Roswintiarti, O.; Mohamad, M. 2006. Development of the
 

Exploring the biophysical option space for feeding the world without deforestation

  
Nature Communications, Vol. 7 (19 April 2016), 11382, https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms11382

Abstract

Safeguarding the world’s remaining forests is a high-priority goal. We assess the biophysical option space for feeding the world in 2050 in a hypothetical zero-deforestation world. We systematically combine realistic assumptions on future yields, agricultural areas, livestock feed and human diets. For each scenario, we determine whether the supply of crop products meets the demand and whether the grazing intensity stays within plausible limits. We find that many options exist to meet the global food supply in 2050 without deforestation, even ...

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European forest ecosystems - State and trends

  
Vol. 5/2016 (21 March 2016), https://doi.org/10.2800/964893

Abstract

[Executive summary] The importance of forests with regard to supporting human needs is considerable. [\n] Forests are rich in biodiversity and valuable for recreation, water regulation and soil protection. [\n] As well as for providing timber and other non-wood forest products, forests are important for mitigating climate change and for the renewable energy sector. [\n] Forest ecosystems are exposed to a range of environmental, economic and social pressures that challenge their sustainability. The forest sector is influenced by the unprecedented pressures arising from climate change and the growing demands of society on natural resources. ...

References

  1. Agenda 21, 2016. http://rod.eionet.europa.eu/instruments/573 , accessed 25 February 2016.
  2. Adams, M. A., 2013. Mega-fires, tipping points and ecosystem services: Managing forests and woodlands in an uncertain future. Forest Ecology and Management, 294, 250–261. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2012.11.039 .
  3. Aggestam, F., Weiss, G., 2011. An updated and further elaborated policy database and a tested prototype of policy analysis interface for ToSIA, EFI Technical Report 38, European Forest Institute, Joensuu.
 

Green paper on forest protection and information in the EU: preparing forests for climate change

  
COM Documents, Vol. 2010, No. COM/2010/0066 final. (1 March 2010)

Abstract

[Excerpt: Introduction] The purpose of this Green Paper is to launch the debate on options for a European Union (EU) approach to forest protection and information in the framework of the EU Forest Action Plan, as announced by the Commission in the White Paper "Adapting to Climate Change: towards a European Framework for action"[1]. The Council conclusions of 25 June 2009 on this White Paper underlined that climate change has had and will have an impact, inter alia, on forests. As these ...

 

Commission staff working document - impact assessment, Part 1 accompanying the document: Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions - An EU strategy on adaptation to climate change

  
Commission Staff Working Document, Vol. 2013, No. SWD/2013/0132 final. (16 April 2013)

Abstract

[Excerpt: Climate change and the need for adaptation] The increase in global surface temperature is the most obvious aspect of anthropogenic climate change. The average temperature for the European land area for the last decade (2002-2011) is 1.3°C above the preindustrial average, which makes the increase over Europe faster than the global average. Moreover, significant economic losses[6] and human fatalities associated with extreme weather events, such as heat waves, droughts and heavy precipitation, have been registered. [\n] Climate change will continue for ...

 

People in the EU - statistics on demographic changes

  
In Statistics Explained (2015), 41896

Abstract

[Excerpt] This article is part of a set of statistical articles that are based on Eurostat’s flagship publication People in the EU: who are we and how do we live? (which also exists as a PDF publication); it presents a range of statistics that cover the characteristics of the demographic situation in the European Union (EU). [Main statistical findings] Statistics on the structure of the EU’s population and those measuring the change in the number of inhabitants have received growing attention from policymakers ...

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The decadal state of the terrestrial carbon cycle: global retrievals of terrestrial carbon allocation, pools, and residence times

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, No. 5. (02 February 2016), pp. 1285-1290, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1515160113

Abstract

[Significance] Quantitative knowledge of terrestrial carbon pathways and processes is fundamental for understanding the biosphere’s response to a changing climate. Carbon allocation, stocks, and residence times together define the dynamic state of the terrestrial carbon cycle. These quantities are difficult to measure and remain poorly quantified on a global scale. Here, we retrieve global 1° × 1° carbon state and process variables by combining a carbon balance model with satellite observations of biomass and leaf area (where and when available) and global ...

Visual summary


  • Figure: http://www.pnas.org/content/113/5/1285/F4.large.jpg
  • Source: http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1515160113
  • Caption: Retrievals of C residence time (RT) in live biomass and dead organic C pools; residence times are retrieved at 1° × 1° using a Bayesian MDF approach (Fig. 1). Brown denotes ecosystems with high residence times for all C pools, green denotes ecosystems with long live biomass C residence times, and orange denotes ecosystems with low live
 

GNU Coding Standards

  
(2015)

Abstract

[Excerpt: About the GNU Coding Standards] The GNU Coding Standards were written by Richard Stallman and other GNU Project volunteers. Their purpose is to make the GNU system clean, consistent, and easy to install. This document can also be read as a guide to writing portable, robust and reliable programs. It focuses on programs written in C, but many of the rules and principles are useful even if you write in another programming language. The rules often state reasons for writing ...

 

Annotating the scholarly web

  
Nature, Vol. 528, No. 7580. (1 December 2015), pp. 153-154, https://doi.org/10.1038/528153a

Abstract

Scientific publishers are forging links with an organization that wants scientists to scribble comments over online research papers. [Excerpt] Would researchers scrawl notes, critiques and comments across online research papers if software made the annotation easy for them? Dan Whaley, founder of the non-profit organization Hypothes.is, certainly thinks so. [\n] Whaley's start-up company has built an open-source software platform for web annotations that allows users to highlight text or to comment on any web page or PDF file. And on 1 December, Hypothes.is announced ...

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