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Selection: with tag extreme-weather [47 articles] 


How much does weather control fire size and intensity in the Mediterranean region?

Annales Geophysicae, Vol. 33, No. 7. (30 July 2015), pp. 931-939,


This study investigates the synoptic conditions favorable to wildfires in the Mediterranean region, in terms of fire intensity and burnt area. As reported in the literature, Mediterranean large wildfires are associated with a blocking situation. However, this study shows the existence of two types of wildfires controlled by the blocking high intensity: (1) fast build-up of a weak blocking produces intense wildfires associated with strong winds which allow propagation over long distances; (2) longer build-up of strong blocking situation produces less ...


Size of wildfires in the Euro-Mediterranean region: observations and theoretical analysis

Natural Hazards and Earth System Science, Vol. 15, No. 6. (23 June 2015), pp. 1331-1341,


MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) satellite observations of fire size and ERA-Interim meteorological reanalysis are used to derive a relationship between burnt area and wind speed over the Mediterranean region and Eastern Europe. The largest wildfire size does not show a strong response with respect to wind speed in Eastern Europe. In the Mediterranean, as intuitively expected, the burnt area associated with the largest wildfires is an increasing function of wind speed for moderate temperature anomalies. In situations of severe heatwaves, ...


Daily synoptic conditions associated with large fire occurrence in Mediterranean France: evidence for a wind-driven fire regime

International Journal of Climatology, Vol. 37, No. 1. (January 2017), pp. 524-533,


Changes in wildfire activity in the Mediterranean area over recent decades increase the need for a better understanding of the fire–weather relationships and for the development of reliable models to improve fire danger prediction. This study analyses daily synoptic and local weather conditions associated with the occurrence of summer large fires (LFs) in Mediterranean France during recent decades (1973–2013). The links between large fire occurrence and synoptic conditions are analysed with composites of sea level pressure and winds at 925 hPa ...


Large wildland fires and extreme temperatures in Sardinia (Italy)

iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry, Vol. 7, No. 3. (02 June 2014), pp. 162-169,


Heat-wave events are commonly recognized as adverse impacts on agriculture, forests, and economic activities. Several studies showed that future climate changes in the western Mediterranean Basin will lead to an increase in extreme weather events, mainly in the summer season. For this reason, it is crucial to improve our knowledge and investigate the effects of extreme temperature events on wildland fire activity. This work analyses the relation between high temperature days (air temperature higher than 25°C at 850hPa) and large wildland ...


The exceptionally hot summer of 2007 in Athens, Greece — A typical summer in the future climate?

Global and Planetary Change, Vol. 67, No. 3-4. (June 2009), pp. 227-236,


Summer 2007 was abnormally warm for many areas of southeastern Europe, the Balkan peninsula and parts of Asia Minor with departures from the seasonal means exceeding 4 °C in some areas but also distinct periods of extremely hot weather. Greece experienced very likely the warmest summer of its instrumental history with record breaking temperatures being observed at a number of stations. The historical air temperature record of the National Observatory of Athens (NOA), extending back to the 19th century, was used in ...


Sensitivity and evaluation of current fire risk and future projections due to climate change: the case study of Greece

Natural Hazards and Earth System Science, Vol. 14, No. 1. (23 January 2014), pp. 143-153,


Current trends in the Mediterranean climate, and more specifically in Greece, indicate longer and more intense summer droughts that even extend out of season. In connection to this, the frequency of forest fire occurrence and intensity is on the rise. In the present study, the Canadian Fire Weather Index (FWI) is used in order to investigate the relationship between fire risk and meteorological conditions in Greece. FWI is a meteorologically based index designed in Canada and used worldwide, including the Mediterranean ...


Meteorological risk: extra-tropical cyclones, tropical cyclones and convective storms

In Science for disaster risk management 2017: knowing better and losing less, Vol. 28034 (2017), pp. 246-256


[Excerpt: Conclusions and key messages] [::Partnership] Collaboration between forecast providers and end users in real time is essential during DRM, since the interpretation of the available information, the uncertainty associated with it and how this changes as new information becomes available should be made in consultation with qualified meteorologists and National Meteorological Services in particular. Information sharing, particularly observational, impact and warning data across national boundaries in real time, is of key importance. Improvements in forecasts will in part be driven by the interaction between fundamental atmosphere and ocean science with operational forecasting, so continued collaboration between forecasting centres and universities and ...


  1. AIR Worldwide, 2015. Preparing for Europe's Winter Storm Season with a Look Back at Niklas and Kyrill. .
  2. Anderson, G., Klugmann, D., 2014. A European lightning density analysis using 5 years of ATDnet data. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences 14(4), 815-829.
  3. Antonescu, B., Schultz, D.M., Lomas, F., Kühne, T., 2016. Tornadoes in Europe: Synthesis of the observational datasets. Monthly Weather Review.
  4. Bauer, P., Thorpe,

A new kind of drought: US record low windiness in 2015

IEEE Earthzine, Vol. 9 (2016), 1412470


Widespread calming of the wind sapped U.S. wind energy power output in 2015, driven by the same weather patterns responsible for California’s severe drought. [Excerpt: Summary and conclusions] 2015 was a year of records: [::] It was the warmest year on record globally. [::] A highly anomalous ocean warming event in the northeast Pacific (NPM) strongly controlled the weather and climate over North America. [::] A high amplitude ridge of unparalleled strength and longevity over western North America dominated until April 2015. [::] Record low ...


Continued increase of extreme El Niño frequency long after 1.5 °C warming stabilization

Nature Climate Change, Vol. 7, No. 8. (24 July 2017), pp. 568-572,


The Paris Agreement aims to constrain global mean temperature (GMT) increases to 2 °C above pre-industrial levels, with an aspirational target of 1.5 °C. However, the pathway to these targets and the impacts of a 1.5 °C and 2 °C warming on extreme El Niño and La Niña events—which severely influence weather patterns, agriculture, ecosystems, public health and economies—is little known. Here, by analysing climate models participating in the Climate Model Intercomparison Project’s Phase 5 (CMIP5; ref. 17) under a most likely emission scenario, we ...


Legal threat exposes gaps in climate-change planning

Nature, Vol. 548, No. 7669. (29 August 2017), pp. 508-509,


Australian lawsuit highlights how difficult it is to turn global warming data into useful advice. [Excerpt] [...] Climate scientist Andy Pitman at the Centre of Excellence for Climate System Science in Sydney, Australia, says that researchers have been warning companies and governments for years about the need to invest in climate modelling and the related field of climate services, which provides forecasts and other information to public and private users. [...] To be useful, he says, the forecasts would need to be ...


Mechanisms of plant survival and mortality during drought: why do some plants survive while others succumb to drought?

New Phytologist, Vol. 178, No. 4. (1 June 2008), pp. 719-739,


Severe droughts have been associated with regional-scale forest mortality worldwide. Climate change is expected to exacerbate regional mortality events; however, prediction remains difficult because the physiological mechanisms underlying drought survival and mortality are poorly understood. We developed a hydraulically based theory considering carbon balance and insect resistance that allowed development and examination of hypotheses regarding survival and mortality. Multiple mechanisms may cause mortality during drought. A common mechanism for plants with isohydric regulation of water status results from avoidance of drought-induced ...


Trends in extreme weather and climate events: issues related to modeling extremes in projections of future climate change

Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Vol. 81, No. 3. (1 March 2000), pp. 427-436,<0427:tiewac>;2


Projections of statistical aspects of weather and climate extremes can be derived from climate models representing possible future climate states. Some of the recent models have reproduced results previously reported in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Second Assessment Report, such as a greater frequency of extreme warm days and lower frequency of extreme cold days associated with a warmer mean climate, a decrease in diurnal temperature range associated with higher nighttime temperatures, increased precipitation intensity, midcontinent summer drying, decreasing ...


Climate extremes: observations, modeling, and impacts

Science In Science, Vol. 289, No. 5487. (22 September 2000), pp. 2068-2074,


One of the major concerns with a potential change in climate is that an increase in extreme events will occur. Results of observational studies suggest that in many areas that have been analyzed, changes in total precipitation are amplified at the tails, and changes in some temperature extremes have been observed. Model output has been analyzed that shows changes in extreme events for future climates, such as increases in extreme high temperatures, decreases in extreme low temperatures, and increases in intense ...


Global risk of deadly heat

Nature Climate Change, Vol. 7, No. 7. (19 June 2017), pp. 501-506,


Climate change can increase the risk of conditions that exceed human thermoregulatory capacity. Although numerous studies report increased mortality associated with extreme heat events, quantifying the global risk of heat-related mortality remains challenging due to a lack of comparable data on heat-related deaths. Here we conducted a global analysis of documented lethal heat events to identify the climatic conditions associated with human death and then quantified the current and projected occurrence of such deadly climatic conditions worldwide. We reviewed papers published ...


Annex III: glossary

In Climate Change 2013: the physical science basis - Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2013), pp. 1447-1465


[Excerpt] This glossary defines some specific terms as the Lead Authors intend them to be interpreted in the context of this report. Red, italicized words indicate that the term is defined in the Glossary. [\n] [...] ...


Temperature extremes: effect on plant growth and development

Weather and Climate Extremes, Vol. 10, Part A (2015), pp. 4-10,


Temperature is a primary factor affecting the rate of plant development. Warmer temperatures expected with climate change and the potential for more extreme temperature events will impact plant productivity. Pollination is one of the most sensitive phenological stages to temperature extremes across all species and during this developmental stage temperature extremes would greatly affect production. Few adaptation strategies are available to cope with temperature extremes at this developmental stage other than to select for plants which shed pollen during the cooler ...


Landscape - wildfire interactions in southern Europe: Implications for landscape management

Journal of Environmental Management, Vol. 92, No. 10. (October 2011), pp. 2389-2402,


[Abstract] Every year approximately half a million hectares of land are burned by wildfires in southern Europe, causing large ecological and socio-economic impacts. Climate and land use changes in the last decades have increased fire risk and danger. In this paper we review the available scientific knowledge on the relationships between landscape and wildfires in the Mediterranean region, with a focus on its application for defining landscape management guidelines and policies that could be adopted in order to promote landscapes with ...


Climate Change 2007: the physical science basis - Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change



[Excerpt: Preface] This Working Group I contribution to the IPCC’s Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) provides a comprehensive assessment of the physical science of climate change and continues to broaden the view of that science, following on from previous Working Group I assessments. The results presented here are based on the extensive scientific literature that has become available since completion of the IPCC’s Third Assessment Report, together with expanded data sets, new analyses, and more sophisticated climate modelling capabilities. [\n] This report has been prepared in accordance with rules and procedures ...


Air pollution over European Russia and Ukraine under the hot summer conditions of 2010

Izvestiya, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics, Vol. 47, No. 6. (2011), pp. 699-707,


Variations in the concentrations of both primary (PM10, CO, and NOx) and secondary (ozone) pollutants in the atmosphere over the Moscow and Kirov regions, Kiev, and Crimea under the conditions of the anomalously hot summer of 2011 are given and analyzed. The concentrations of ozone, PM10, CO, and NOx in the atmosphere over the Moscow region exceeded their maximum permissible levels almost continuously from late July to late August 2010. The highest level of atmospheric pollution was observed on August 4–9, ...


Discussing the role of tropical and subtropical moisture sources in cold season extreme precipitation events in the Mediterranean region from a climate change perspective

Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, Vol. 16, No. 1. (27 January 2016), pp. 269-285,


This paper presents a review of a large number of research studies performed during the last few decades that focused on the investigation of cold season extreme precipitation events (EPEs) in the Mediterranean region (MR). The publications demonstrate the important role of anomalously intense transports of moist air from the tropical and subtropical Atlantic in the occurrence of EPEs in the MR. EPEs in the MR are directly or indirectly connected to narrow bands with a high concentration of moisture in ...


On the relationships between forest fires and weather conditions in Greece from long-term national observations (1894-2010)

International Journal of Wildland Fire, Vol. 22, No. 4. (2013), 493,


Historical fire records and meteorological observations, spanning more than 1 century (1894–2010), were gathered and assembled in a database, to provide long-term fire–weather associations. We investigated the relationships between forest fire activity and meteorological parameters and sought to find temporal patterns and trends in these historical records and to identify any linkages between meteorological parameters and fire occurrence in the eastern Mediterranean region. Trend analysis of the time series revealed a statistically significant increase in the number of fires and air ...


Atmospheric conditions associated with the exceptional fire season of 2003 in Portugal

International Journal of Climatology, Vol. 26, No. 13. (15 November 2006), pp. 1741-1757,


The summer of 2003 was characterised by exceptional warm weather in Europe, particularly during the first two weeks of August, when a devastating sequence of large fires was observed, reaching an amount of circa 450 000 ha, the largest figure ever recorded in Portugal in modern times. They were concentrated in two relatively confined regions of Portugal and a considerable proportion of burnt area was due to fires started on the 2nd and 3rd of August. [\n] It is shown that the ...


A review of the European summer heat wave of 2003

Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 40, No. 4. (9 March 2010), pp. 267-306,


This paper reviews the European summer heat wave of 2003, with special emphasis on the first half of August 2003, jointly with its significant societal and environmental impact across Western and Central Europe. We show the pattern of record-breaking temperature anomalies, discuss it in the context of the past, and address the role of the main contributing factors responsible for the occurrence and persistence of this event: blocking episodes, soil moisture deficit, and sea surface temperatures. We show that the anticyclonic ...


Characterizing extreme fire and weather events in the Boreal Shield ecozone of Ontario

Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, Vol. 133, No. 1-4. (November 2005), pp. 5-16,


Fire frequency is the most commonly used measure to characterize fire regimes for comparisons across geographical areas or time periods. Within the boreal forest region of the Boreal Shield ecozone of Ontario, fire frequency changes over time and across longitudinal gradients have been associated with drought frequency and large-scale climate processes. While providing evidence that fire regimes differ across areas of the Boreal Shield, fire frequency alone provides little insight into the potential for extreme fire events and the extreme fire ...


Meteorology: air particles boost rain extremes

Nature, Vol. 537, No. 7620. (14 September 2016), pp. 282-282,


[Excerpt] As the climate warms, tiny particles suspended in the atmosphere may have a greater effect than greenhouse gases on increasing the frequency of extreme rain and snowfall. [\n] Greenhouse gases and atmospheric aerosols both drive extreme precipitation, which is expected to increase with climate change. [...] ...


Sensitivity of precipitation extremes to radiative forcing of greenhouse gases and aerosols

Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 43, No. 18. (28 September 2016), pp. 9860-9868,


Greenhouse gases (GHGs) and aerosols are the two most important anthropogenic forcing agents in the 21st century. The expected declines of anthropogenic aerosols in the 21st century from present-day levels would cause an additional warming of the Earth's climate system, which would aggravate the climate extremes caused by GHG warming. We examine the increased rate of precipitation extremes with global mean surface warming in the 21st century caused by anthropogenic GHGs and aerosols, using an Earth system model ensemble simulation. Similar ...


Global forest area disturbance from fire, insect pests, diseases and severe weather events

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 352 (September 2015), pp. 78-88,


[Highlights] [::] Almost 67 Mha of forest land burned annually (2003–2012) mostly in South America. [::] A decreasing global trend of burned forest area. [::] An increasing trend in burned forest area for the boreal climatic domain. [::] Correlation between areas of burned forest and of partial canopy cover reduction. [::] In total, countries reported 142 Mha of forest area affected by other disturbances. [Abstract] Reliable global data on forest degradation and disturbances due to fire, insect pests, diseases and severe weather are important to understand ecosystem health ...


Tales of future weather

Nature Climate Change, Vol. 5, No. 2. (28 January 2015), pp. 107-113,


Society is vulnerable to extreme weather events and, by extension, to human impacts on future events. As climate changes weather patterns will change. The search is on for more effective methodologies to aid decision-makers both in mitigation to avoid climate change and in adaptation to changes. The traditional approach uses ensembles of climate model simulations, statistical bias correction, downscaling to the spatial and temporal scales relevant to decision-makers, and then translation into quantities of interest. The veracity of this approach cannot ...


Will a warmer world be stormier?

IEEE Earthzine, Vol. 4, No. 2. (2011), 291714


[Excerpt] Increases in carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases have almost certainly played a major role in the observed temperature increases of the 20th Century, according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report. Global climate model (GCM) projections suggest that continued 21st Century increases in greenhouse gases will further warm the climate by a few degrees. A temperature change this small may not seem very serious, since local weather can fluctuate by much more than this from ...


Technical note: comparing and ranking soil drought indices performance over Europe, through remote-sensing of vegetation

Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, Vol. 14, No. 2. (12 February 2010), pp. 271-277,


In the past years there have been many attempts to produce and improve global soil-moisture datasets and drought indices. However, comparing and validating these various datasets is not straightforward. Here, interannual variations in drought indices are compared to interannual changes in vegetation, as captured by NDVI. By comparing the correlations of the different indices with NDVI we evaluated which drought index describes most realistically the actual changes in vegetation. Strong correlation between NDVI and the drought indices were found in areas ...


Response of vegetation to the 2003 European drought was mitigated by height

Biogeosciences, Vol. 11, No. 11. (4 June 2014), pp. 2897-2908,


The effects on climate of land-cover change, predominantly from the conversion of forests to crops or grassland, are reasonably well understood for low and high latitudes but are largely unknown for temperate latitudes. The main reason for this gap in our knowledge is that there are compensating effects on the energy and water balance that are related to changes in land-surface albedo, soil evaporation and plant transpiration. We analyse how vegetation height affected the response of vegetation during the 2003 European ...


Extreme hydrometeorological events and climate change predictions in Europe

Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 518 (October 2014), pp. 206-224,


[Highlights] [::] Summer storms around the Mediterranean are affected by land-use changes. [::] Their loss leads to an accumulation mode of water vapour over the Western Basin. [::] Accumulated water vapour can feed Vb tracks and produce floods in Central Europe. [::] Greenhouse heating of water vapour increases Mediterranean Sea Surface Temperature. [::] Higher SST augments torrential rains on Mediterranean coasts and islands in autumn. [Abstract] Summer storms around the Mediterranean are affected by land-use changes. Their loss leads to an accumulation mode of water vapour over ...


Precipitation–vegetation coupling and its influence on erosion on the Loess Plateau, China

CATENA, Vol. 64, No. 1. (30 November 2005), pp. 103-116,


The relationships between precipitation, vegetation and erosion are important and are unsolved issues in the field of earth surface processes. Based on data from the Loess Plateau of China, some non-linear relationships between forest cover (Cf), mean annual rainfall erosivity (Re) and annual precipitation (Pm) have been found. A threshold has been identified at Pm = 450 mm, that is, when Pm is < 450 mm, Cf is low and basically does not vary with Pm; when Pm exceeds 450 mm, Cf increases rapidly. ...


L'érosivité des précipitations a Florennes - Révision de la carte des isohyétes et de la carte d'erosivite de la Belgique

Bulletin de la Société géographique de Liége, Vol. 15 (1979), pp. 77-99


Rain erosivity was calculated from rainfall recordings at Florennes (Southern Belgium). A new map of the mean annual precipitation in Belgium was plotter by computer. This map is based on 484 pluviometric recordings made at rain gauging stations in Belgium and its immediate surroundings. These mean annual precipitation data were used, in combination with all presently known erosivity values, to reexamine the rain erosivity map of Belgium. The accuracy and significance of the map was discussed. ...


Climatic trends, disturbances and short-term vegetation dynamics in a Mediterranean shrubland

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 147, No. 1. (June 2001), pp. 25-37,


Fire and erosion are two major disturbances affecting Mediterranean ecosystems. Both of them are closely related to climate. There is evidence of decreasing precipitation in the Mediterranean, particularly during summer. There are also indications of an increased variability in the rainfall distribution. Climatic changes, though show high heterogeneity at a local scale. Based on these observations, we have evaluated the following hypotheses for the Region of Valencia (East Spain). [::1] During the past three decades, climatic conditions have become more favourable ...


Climate Change 2013: the physical science basis - Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change



[Excerpt: Preface] The Working Group I contribution to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) provides a comprehensive assessment of the physical science basis of climate change. It builds upon the Working Group I contribution to the IPCC’s Fourth Assessment Report in 2007 and incorporates subsequent new findings from the Special Report on Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation, as well as from research published in the extensive ...


Large storm effects on total soil erosion

Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, Vol. 46, No. 1. (01 January 1991), pp. 75-78


Soil erosion measurements on small upland watersheds totaling 229 watershed-years show that most of the total erosion occurring over a long-term period of record comes from a few large storms. Nine 1-ha (2.5-acre) watersheds containing residual soils with silt loam surfaces on B and C slopes were farmed under a corn-wheat-meadow-meadow rotation with moldboard plowing, disking, and harrowing in April of the corn years for seedbed preparation and cultivation for weed control. After corn harvest, stalks were disked prior to winter ...


Contrasting responses of mean and extreme snowfall to climate change

Nature, Vol. 512, No. 7515. (27 August 2014), pp. 416-418,


Snowfall is an important element of the climate system, and one that is expected to change in a warming climate1, 2, 3, 4. Both mean snowfall and the intensity distribution of snowfall are important, with heavy snowfall events having particularly large economic and human impacts5, 6, 7. Simulations with climate models indicate that annual mean snowfall declines with warming in most regions but increases in regions with very low surface temperatures3, 4. The response of heavy snowfall events to a changing ...


Beyond climatological extremes - assessing how the odds of hydrometeorological extreme events in South-East Europe change in a warming climate

Climatic Change In Climatic Change, Vol. 125, No. 3-4. (2014), pp. 381-398,


With record breaking heat waves, dryness, and floods in several parts of the world in recent years the question arises whether and to what extent the hazard of hydrometeorological extreme weather events has changed, and if changes can be attributed to specific causes. The methodology of probabilistic event attribution allows to evaluate such potential changes in the occurence probabilities of particular types of extreme events. We show that such a probabilistic assessment not only provides information on changing hazards in hydrometerological ...


Preferential cooling of hot extremes from cropland albedo management

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 111, No. 27. (08 July 2014), pp. 9757-9761,


[Significance] The projected increase in warm extremes associated with climate change is a major concern for society and represents a threat to humans and ecosystems. This study shows that heat wave impacts could be attenuated locally by increasing surface albedo through crop residue management (no-till farming). This is due to an identified asymmetric impact of surface albedo change on summer temperature distribution resulting in a much stronger influence on hot extremes than on mean temperatures. This finding has important implications for ...


Regional vegetation die-off in response to global-change-type drought

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 102, No. 42. (10 October 2005), pp. 15144-15148,


Future drought is projected to occur under warmer temperature conditions as climate change progresses, referred to here as global-change-type drought, yet quantitative assessments of the triggers and potential extent of drought-induced vegetation die-off remain pivotal uncertainties in assessing climate-change impacts. Of particular concern is regional-scale mortality of overstory trees, which rapidly alters ecosystem type, associated ecosystem properties, and land surface conditions for decades. Here, we quantify regional-scale vegetation die-off across southwestern North American woodlands in 2002-2003 in response to drought and ...


The effects and consequences of very large explosive volcanic eruptions

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, Vol. 364, No. 1845. (15 August 2006), pp. 2073-2097,


Every now and again Earth experiences tremendous explosive volcanic eruptions, considerably bigger than the largest witnessed in historic times. Those yielding more than 450 km3 of magma have been called super-eruptions. The record of such eruptions is incomplete; the most recent known example occurred 26 000 years ago. It is more likely that the Earth will next experience a super-eruption than an impact from a large meteorite greater than 1 km in diameter. Depending on where the volcano is located, the effects will be ...


Mechanism behind mega-heatwaves pinpointed



Two recent record hot spells traced to feedback loop between dry soils and trapped air. [Excerpt] The 'mega-heatwaves' that parched Europe in 2003 and Russia in 2010 were exacerbated by a vicious feedback loop between soil and atmosphere, researchers report today in Nature Geoscience1. Drying ground added more heat into air close to Earth's surface, a process that repeated over time to produce record-breaking warmth that shrivelled crops, set forests ablaze and claimed tens of thousands of lives. Without the extraordinarily dry ...


In new report, IPCC gets more specific about warming risks

Science, Vol. 344, No. 6179. (4 April 2014), pp. 21-21,


The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's (IPCC's) 31 March report on climate impacts and adaptation echoes many of the concerns raised by the last edition, issued in 2007. It says that climate change is already affecting human communities, agriculture, and natural ecosystems—and impacts are likely to grow in the future. But the report breaks with the past in drawing on an emerging body of social science to identify eight major risks posed by climate change, and to inform an extensive discussion ...


(INRMM-MiD internal record) List of keywords of the INRMM meta-information database - part 13

(February 2014)
Keywords: extrapolation-error   extreme-events   extreme-weather   f-script   fabaceae   factor-analysis   fagus-crenata   fagus-engleriana   fagus-grandifolia   fagus-hayatae   fagus-japonica   fagus-longipetiolata   fagus-lucida   fagus-mexicana   fagus-moesiaca   fagus-multinervis   fagus-orientalis   fagus-silvatica   fagus-spp   fagus-sylvatica   fagus-taurica   faidherbia-albida   fallopia-spp   false-observations-propagation   false-positive   family-heritability   fao-ecozones   faostat   fapar   feather-moss   featured-publication   feedback   feedforward-networks   fennoscandia   fertile-islands   fertilization   ficus-altissima   ficus-aurea   ficus-benghalensis   ficus-carica   ficus-citrifolia   ficus-elastica   ficus-macrophylla   ficus-religiosa   field-measurements   filbert   financial-modelling   fine-roots   finland   fir-decline   fire   fire-ecology   fire-emissions   fire-fuel   fire-regimes   fire-season   fire-severity   fise   fish-resources   fitness   fitzroya-cupressoides   flagship-species   flammability   flash-flood   fleshy-fruit   flood-control   flood-frequency   flood-tolerance   flooding-tolerance   floodplain   floodplain-forest   floods   flora   floss   flow-accumulation   flowering-period   flowering-phenology   fluvial   fodder-tree   foliage   food-plant   food-security   food-web   forecast   forest-bioeconomy   forest-biomass   forest-classification   forest-communities   forest-conservation   forest-conversion   forest-damage   forest-degradation   forest-disturbance   forest-dynamics   forest-ecology   forest-ecosystem   forest-ecosystems   forest-edges   inrmm-list-of-tags   postfire-recovery  


List of indexed keywords within the transdisciplinary set of domains which relate to the Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management (INRMM). In particular, the list of keywords maps the semantic tags in the INRMM Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD). [\n] The INRMM-MiD records providing this list are accessible by the special tag: inrmm-list-of-tags ( ). ...


Scientist-versus-activist debates mislead the public

Nature, Vol. 506, No. 7489. (26 February 2014), pp. 409-409,


The UK floods show the need to address the risks of climate change, but news teams still insist on pitching experts against sceptics, says Simon L. Lewis. [Excerpt] The United Kingdom’s December–February rainfall was the highest since records began in 1910. Tracts of southern England have been flooded for weeks. The army has been deployed to build flood defences. Once again, climate change has floated to the top of the UK political agenda. Extreme weather tends to do that — a similar ...


Climate extremes and the carbon cycle

Nature, Vol. 500, No. 7462. (14 August 2013), pp. 287-295,


The terrestrial biosphere is a key component of the global carbon cycle and its carbon balance is strongly influenced by climate. Continuing environmental changes are thought to increase global terrestrial carbon uptake. But evidence is mounting that climate extremes such as droughts or storms can lead to a decrease in regional ecosystem carbon stocks and therefore have the potential to negate an expected increase in terrestrial carbon uptake. Here we explore the mechanisms and impacts of climate extremes on the terrestrial ...

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Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management - Meta-information Database.

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Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD).
This database integrates a dedicated meta-information database in CiteULike (the CiteULike INRMM Group) with the meta-information available in Google Scholar, CrossRef and DataCite. The Altmetric database with Article-Level Metrics is also harvested. Part of the provided semantic content (machine-readable) is made even human-readable thanks to the DCMI Dublin Core viewer. Digital preservation of the meta-information indexed within the INRMM-MiD publication records is implemented thanks to the Internet Archive.
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