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Selection: with tag evolution [39 articles] 

 

Fire as an evolutionary pressure shaping plant traits

  
Trends in Plant Science, Vol. 16, No. 8. (August 2011), pp. 406-411, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tplants.2011.04.002

Abstract

Traits, such as resprouting, serotiny and germination by heat and smoke, are adaptive in fire-prone environments. However, plants are not adapted to fire per se but to fire regimes. Species can be threatened when humans alter the regime, often by increasing or decreasing fire frequency. Fire-adaptive traits are potentially the result of different evolutionary pathways. Distinguishing between traits that are adaptations originating in response to fire or exaptations originating in response to other factors might not always be possible. However, fire ...

 

Competition theory, evolution, and the concept of an ecological niche

  
Acta Biotheoretica, Vol. 31, No. 3. (1982), pp. 165-179, https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01857239

Abstract

This article examines some of the main tenets of competition theory in light of the theory of evolution and the concept of an ecological niche. The principle of competitive exclusion and the related assumption that communities exist at competitive equilibrium - fundamental parts of many competition theories and models - may be violated if non-equilibrium conditions exist in natural communities or are incorporated into competition models. Furthermore, these two basic tenets of competition theory are not compatible with the theory of ...

 

Multispecies coalescent delimits structure, not species

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 114, No. 7. (14 February 2017), pp. 1607-1612, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1607921114

Abstract

[Significance] Despite its widespread application to the species delimitation problem, our study demonstrates that what the multispecies coalescent actually delimits is structure. The current implementations of species delimitation under the multispecies coalescent do not provide any way for distinguishing between structure due to population-level processes and that due to species boundaries. The overinflation of species due to the misidentification of general genetic structure for species boundaries has profound implications for our understanding of the generation and dynamics of biodiversity, because any ecological ...

 

Connecting models, data, and concepts to understand fragmentation's ecosystem-wide effects

  
Ecography, Vol. 40, No. 1. (January 2017), pp. 1-8, https://doi.org/10.1111/ecog.02974

Abstract

[Excerpt: Conclusions] The body of experimental and theoretical work that has accumulated on the problem of habitat fragmentation has slowly matured over the years, and this Special Issue highlights this growth. Yet, it also provides a springboard to the new frontiers in fragmentation research. These areas include in particular the interplay between evolutionary and metacommunity dynamics with fragments, and this interface should be the subject of inquiry that integrates theory, experiment, and observation with resources at hand. New large-scale, experimental research should ...

 

Global urban signatures of phenotypic change in animal and plant populations

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (03 January 2017), 201606034, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1606034114

Abstract

[Significance] Ecoevolutionary feedbacks on contemporary timescales were hypothesized over half a century ago, but only recently has evidence begun to emerge. The role that human activity plays in such dynamics is still unclear. Through a metaanalysis of >1,600 phenotypic changes in species across regions and ecosystem types, we examine the evidence that the rate of phenotypic change has an urban signature. Our findings indicate greater phenotypic change in urbanizing systems compared with natural and nonurban anthropogenic systems. By explicitly linking urban development ...

 

System crash as dynamics of complex networks

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, No. 42. (18 October 2016), pp. 11726-11731, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1612094113

Abstract

[Significance] System crash, as an essential part of system evolution, sometimes happens in peculiar manners: Weakened systems may survive for a surprisingly long time before suddenly meeting their final ends, whereas seemingly unbeatable giants may drastically crash to virtual nonexistence. We propose a model that describes system crash as a consequence of some relatively simple local information-based individual behaviors: Individuals leave networks according to some most straightforward assessment of current and future benefits/risks. Of note, such a simple rule may enable a ...

 

The natural selection of bad science

  
Open Science, Vol. 3, No. 9. (01 September 2016), 160384, https://doi.org/10.1098/rsos.160384

Abstract

Poor research design and data analysis encourage false-positive findings. Such poor methods persist despite perennial calls for improvement, suggesting that they result from something more than just misunderstanding. The persistence of poor methods results partly from incentives that favour them, leading to the natural selection of bad science. This dynamic requires no conscious strategizing—no deliberate cheating nor loafing—by scientists, only that publication is a principal factor for career advancement. Some normative methods of analysis have almost certainly been selected to further ...

 

Evolution: why some groups have more species

  
Nature, Vol. 537, No. 7620. (14 September 2016), pp. 282-282, https://doi.org/10.1038/537282c

Abstract

[Excerpt] [...] Across the tree of life, some groups have many more species than others. To find out why, Joshua Scholl and John Wiens at the University of Arizona in Tucson collated published data on the number of species and their phylogenetic relationships in each group of living organisms. Contrary to some hypotheses, older groups did not have more species than young groups. Instead, the authors found that the balance of speciation and extinction over time, known as the diversification rate, determined ...

 

Diversification rates and species richness across the Tree of Life

  
Proceedings of the Royal Society B, Vol. 283, No. 1838. (14 September 2016), 20161334, https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2016.1334

Abstract

Species richness varies dramatically among clades across the Tree of Life, by over a million-fold in some cases (e.g. placozoans versus arthropods). Two major explanations for differences in richness among clades are the clade-age hypothesis (i.e. species-rich clades are older) and the diversification-rate hypothesis (i.e. species-rich clades diversify more rapidly, where diversification rate is the net balance of speciation and extinction over time). Here, we examine patterns of variation in diversification rates across the Tree of Life. We address how rates ...

 

Social semantics: altruism, cooperation, mutualism, strong reciprocity and group selection

  
Journal of Evolutionary Biology, Vol. 20, No. 2. (1 March 2007), pp. 415-432, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1420-9101.2006.01258.x

Abstract

From an evolutionary perspective, social behaviours are those which have fitness consequences for both the individual that performs the behaviour, and another individual. Over the last 43 years, a huge theoretical and empirical literature has developed on this topic. However, progress is often hindered by poor communication between scientists, with different people using the same term to mean different things, or different terms to mean the same thing. This can obscure what is biologically important, and what is not. The potential for ...

 

Repression of competition and the evolution of cooperation

  
Evolution, Vol. 57, No. 4. (April 2003), pp. 693-705, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0014-3820.2003.tb00283.x

Abstract

Repression of competition within groups joins kin selection as the second major force in the history of life shaping the evolution of cooperation. When opportunities for competition against neighbors are limited within groups, individuals can increase their own success only by enhancing the efficiency and productivity of their group. Thus, characters that repress competition within groups promote cooperation and enhance group success. Leigh first expressed this idea in the context of fair meiosis, in which each chromosome has an equal chance ...

 

Extraordinary intelligence and the care of infants

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, No. 25. (21 June 2016), pp. 6874-6879, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1506752113

Abstract

[Significance] One mystery of human evolution is why our cognition differs qualitatively from our closest evolutionary relatives. Here we show how natural selection for large brains may lead to premature newborns, which themselves require more intelligence to raise, and thus may select for even larger brains. As we show, these dynamics can be self-reinforcing and lead to runaway selection for extremely high intelligence and helpless newborns. We test a prediction of this account: the helplessness of a primate’s newborns should strongly predict ...

 

Seven shortfalls that beset large-scale knowledge of biodiversity

  
Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, Vol. 46, No. 1. (2015), pp. 523-549, https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-ecolsys-112414-054400

Abstract

Ecologists and evolutionary biologists are increasingly using big-data approaches to tackle questions at large spatial, taxonomic, and temporal scales. However, despite recent efforts to gather two centuries of biodiversity inventories into comprehensive databases, many crucial research questions remain unanswered. Here, we update the concept of knowledge shortfalls and review the tradeoffs between generality and uncertainty. We present seven key shortfalls of current biodiversity data. Four previously proposed shortfalls pinpoint knowledge gaps for species taxonomy (Linnean), distribution (Wallacean), abundance (Prestonian), and evolutionary ...

 

Science 101: building the foundations for real understanding

  
Science, Vol. 330, No. 6012. (02 December 2010), pp. 1764-1765, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1186994

Abstract

It's not just about evolution anymore. Growing anti-science sentiment in the United States now infuses public discourse on conservation, vaccination, distribution of research funds, and climate change (1). Low rates of scientific literacy (2) exacerbate the problem. Although the public recognizes its indebtedness to the products of scientific knowledge, few understand much about the nature of that knowledge or the processes that generated it (3). Without a basic understanding of how science works, the public is vulnerable to antiscience propaganda, which ...

 

Studying evolving software ecosystems based on ecological models

  
In Evolving Software Systems (2014), pp. 297-326, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-45398-4_10

Abstract

Research on software evolution is very active, but evolutionary principles, models and theories that properly explain why and how software systems evolve over time are still lacking. Similarly, more empirical research is needed to understand how different software projects co-exist and co-evolve, and how contributors collaborate within their encompassing software ecosystem. In this chapter, we explore the differences and analogies between natural ecosystems and biological evolution on the one hand, and software ecosystems and software evolution on the other hand. The aim is to learn from research in ...

 

Traditional agroforestry systems and their evolution in Greece

  
In Agroforestry in Europe, Vol. 6 (2009), pp. 89-109, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-8272-6_5

Abstract

Agroforestry systems are a traditional land use practice in Greece. They are widely distributed all over the country and constitute important elements of the rural landscape. They include all three types of systems: silvoarable involving trees and crops grown on arable land, silvopastoral involving trees and pasture/animals grown on forest and arable land and agrosilvopastoral involving trees, crops and grazing animals grown on arable land. Trees may be forest species or cultivated trees grown for fruits, naturally regenerating or planted, evergreen ...

 

Evolution of Plants

  
(2014)
Keywords: evolution   plants  

Abstract

Plants first colonized the land over 430 million years ago, having evolved from some of the most primitive forms of life. Since then, plants have played a major role in supplying the atmospheric oxygen we all need to survive. But how did plants evolve, how has their distribution and diversity been affected by changes in climate over millions of years - and how can these processes be studied? The Evolution of Plants blends evidence from the fossil record and data from ...

 

Toward a trophic theory of species diversity

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 112, No. 37. (15 September 2015), pp. 11415-11422, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1501070112
Keywords: biodiversity   diversity   ecology   evolution  

Abstract

Efforts to understand the ecological regulation of species diversity via bottom-up approaches have failed to yield a consensus theory. Theories based on the alternative of top-down regulation have fared better. Paine’s discovery of keystone predation demonstrated that the regulation of diversity via top-down forcing could be simple, strong, and direct, yet ecologists have persistently failed to perceive generality in Paine’s result. Removing top predators destabilizes many systems and drives transitions to radically distinct alternative states. These transitions typically involve community reorganization ...

 

Rational design of antibiotic treatment plans: a treatment strategy for managing evolution and reversing resistance

  
PLOS ONE, Vol. 10, No. 5. (2015), e0122283, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0122283

Abstract

The development of reliable methods for restoring susceptibility after antibiotic resistance arises has proven elusive. A greater understanding of the relationship between antibiotic administration and the evolution of resistance is key to overcoming this challenge. Here we present a data-driven mathematical approach for developing antibiotic treatment plans that can reverse the evolution of antibiotic resistance determinants. We have generated adaptive landscapes for 16 genotypes of the TEM β-lactamase that vary from the wild type genotype “TEM-1” through all combinations of four ...

 

Evolutionary ecology of mast-seeding in temperate and tropical oaks (Quercus spp.)

  
Plant Ecology, Vol. 107-108, No. 1. (1 June 1993), pp. 133-147, https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00052217

Abstract

Mast-seeding is the synchronous production of large seed crops within a population or community of species every two or more years. This paper addresses three non-mutually exclusive hypotheses explaining the evolution of mast-seeding in temperate tree species, especially the genus Quercus: (1) mast-seeding is a consequence of mast-flowering which evolves to increased pollination efficiency in mast-flowering years; (2) mast-seeding has evolved as an anti-predator adaptation by which large seed crops during mast years satiate the seed predators and allow survival of ...

 

Anatomical and chemical defenses of conifer bark against bark beetles and other pests

  
New Phytologist, Vol. 167, No. 2. (03 May 2005), pp. 353-376, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2005.01436.x

Abstract

[Summary] Conifers are long-lived organisms, and part of their success is due to their potent defense mechanisms. This review focuses on bark defenses, a front line against organisms trying to reach the nutrient-rich phloem. A major breach of the bark can lead to tree death, as evidenced by the millions of trees killed every year by specialized bark-invading insects. Different defense strategies have arisen in conifer lineages, but the general strategy is one of overlapping constitutive mechanical and chemical defenses overlaid ...

 

Anthropocene: the human age

  
Nature, Vol. 519, No. 7542. (11 March 2015), pp. 144-147, https://doi.org/10.1038/519144a

Abstract

Momentum is building to establish a new geological epoch that recognizes humanity's impact on the planet. But there is fierce debate behind the scenes. [Excerpt] [...] Through mining activities alone, humans move more sediment than all the world's rivers combined. Homo sapiens has also warmed the planet, raised sea levels, eroded the ozone layer and acidified the oceans. [\n] Given the magnitude of these changes, many researchers propose that the Anthropocene represents a new division of geological time. The concept has gained traction, ...

References

  1. Walker, M., Johnsen, S., Rasmussen, S. O., Popp, T., Steffensen, J.-P., Gibbard, P., Hoek, W., Lowe, J., Andrews, J., Björck, S., Cwynar, L. C., Hughen, K., Kershaw, P., Kromer, B., Litt, T., Lowe, D. J., Nakagawa, T., Newnham, R., Schwander, J., 2009. Formal definition and dating of the GSSP (global stratotype section and point) for the base of the holocene using the greenland NGRIP ice core, and selected auxiliary records. Journal of Quaternary Science 24 (1), 3-17.
 

Phylogeny of Juniperus using nrDNA and four cpDNA regions

  
Phytologia, Vol. 95(2) (May 2013), pp. 179-187

Abstract

The Phylogeny of Juniperus is presented based on nrDNA (ITS), petN-psbM, trnS-trnG, trnD-trnT, trnL-trnF sequencing (4411 bp) utilizing all currently recognized species. The major clades of the phylogenetic tree were congruent with the previously published phylogenetic tree of Mao et al. (2010) that had a subset of taxa of the current study. The lone species with serrate leaves in the eastern hemisphere, J. phoenicea, was found to be in a clade quite separated from the serrate junipers of North America. Juniperus ...

 

Trees and Forests: A Colour Guide: Biology, Pathology, Propagation, Silviculture, Surgery, Biomes, Ecology, Conservation

  
Reference Reviews, Vol. 25, No. 7. (15 January 2010), pp. 44-45, https://doi.org/10.1108/09504121111168712

Abstract

Trees are one of the dominant features of our existence on earth and play a fundamental role in the environment. This book gives the reader an overview and understanding of trees. Subject areas covered include ecology and conservation, tree anatomy and evolution, pathology, silviculture, propagation, and surgery. The different chapters cover trees from various world habitats, from northern boreal and montane coniferous forests to tropical and subtropical rainforests. The book is fully illustrated throughout with the highest quality color photos and ...

 

Evolution and entropy in the organization of urban street patterns

  
Annals of GIS, Vol. 19, No. 1. (8 February 2013), pp. 1-16, https://doi.org/10.1080/19475683.2012.758175

Abstract

The street patterns of cities are the result of long-term evolution and interaction between various internal, social and economic, and external, environmental and landscape, processes and factors. In this article, we use entropy as a measure of dispersion to study the effects of landscapes on the evolution and associated street patterns of two cities: Dundee in Eastern Scotland and Khorramabad in Western Iran, cities which have strong similarities in terms of the size of their street systems and populations but considerable ...

 

Evolutionary tipping points in the capacity to adapt to environmental change

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 112, No. 1. (06 January 2015), pp. 184-189, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1408589111

Abstract

[Significance] Environmental variation is becoming more frequent and unpredictable as a consequence of climate change, yet we currently lack the tools to evaluate the extent to which organisms may adapt to this phenomenon. Here we develop a model that explores these issues and use it to study how changes in the timescale and predictability of environmental variation may ultimately affect population viability. Our model indicates that, although populations can often cope with fairly large changes in these environmental parameters, on occasion they ...

Visual summary

  • Figure:65%: http://www.pnas.org/content/112/1/184/F2.large.jpg
  • Source: http://www.pnas.org/content/112/1/184/F2.expansion.html
  • Caption: Evolutionary response to environmental variation under different levels of predictability (P) and relative timescale of environmental variation (R). At each parameter combination in A, the 100 mean population reaction norms that evolved at generation 50,000 in different replicate simulations are depicted [...] with environmental cues on the x axis and the resulting insulation phenotypes on the
 

Collapse of cooperation in evolving games

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 111, No. 49. (9 December 2014), pp. 17558-17563, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1408618111

Abstract

[Significance] This study offers a new perspective on an age-old question: When does cooperation emerge in populations? Two-player games used to study this question produce an array of counterintuitive results. And yet a consensus has emerged that, in an evolving population, cooperation tends to triumph over cheating––through reciprocity and generosity. But, what happens when players can influence not only their tendencies to cooperate, but also the rewards they reap for cooperation? We analyze coevolution of strategies and payoffs and find that, ...

 

Acceleration of evolutionary spread by long-range dispersal

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 111, No. 46. (18 November 2014), pp. E4911-E4919, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1404663111

Abstract

[Significance] Pathogens, invasive species, rumors, or innovations spread much more quickly around the world nowadays than in previous centuries. The speedup is caused by more frequent long-range dispersal, for example via air traffic. These jumps are crucial because they can generate satellite “outbreaks” at many distant locations, thus rapidly increasing the total rate of spread. We present a simple intuitive argument that captures the resulting spreading patterns. We show that even rare long-range jumps can transform the spread of simple epidemics ...

References

  1. Ruiz GM, et al. (2000) Global spread of microorganisms by ships. Nature 408(6808):49–50.
  2. Suarez AV, Holway DA, Case TJ (2001) Patterns of spread in biological invasions dominated by long-distance jump dispersal: Insights from argentine ants. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98:1095–1100.
  3. Brockmann D, Hufnagel L, Geisel T (2006) The scaling laws of human travel. Nature 439:462–465.
  4. Gonzalez M, Hidalgo C, Barabási A (2008) Understanding individual human mobility patterns.
 

The influence of phylogenetic relatedness on species interactions among freshwater green algae in a mesocosm experiment

  
Journal of Ecology, Vol. 102, No. 5. (September 2014), pp. 1288-1299, https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2745.12271

Abstract

1. A long-standing hypothesis in ecology and evolutionary biology is that closely related species are more ecologically similar to each other and therefore compete more strongly than distant relatives do. A recent hypothesis posits that evolutionary relatedness may also explain the prevalence of mutualisms, with facilitative interactions being more common among distantly related species. Despite the importance of these hypotheses for understanding the structure and function of ecological communities, experimental tests to determine how evolutionary relatedness influences competition ...

 

Evolutionary history and the strength of species interactions: testing the phylogenetic limiting similarity hypothesis

  
Ecology, Vol. 95, No. 5. (May 2014), pp. 1407-1417, https://doi.org/10.1890/13-0986.1

Abstract

A longstanding concept in community ecology is that closely related species compete more strongly than distant relatives. Ecologists have invoked this “limiting similarity hypothesis” to explain patterns in the structure and function of biological communities and to inform conservation, restoration, and invasive-species management. However, few studies have empirically tested the validity of the limiting similarity hypothesis. Here we report the results of a laboratory microcosm experiment in which we used a model system of 23 common, co-occurring North American freshwater green ...

 

The evolutionary origin of human hyper-cooperation

  
Nature Communications, Vol. 5 (27 August 2014), 4747, https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms5747

Abstract

Proactive, that is, unsolicited, prosociality is a key component of our hyper-cooperation, which in turn has enabled the emergence of various uniquely human traits, including complex cognition, morality and cumulative culture and technology. However, the evolutionary foundation of the human prosocial sentiment remains poorly understood, largely because primate data from numerous, often incommensurable testing paradigms do not provide an adequate basis for formal tests of the various functional hypotheses. We therefore present the results of standardized prosociality experiments in 24 groups ...

 

Managing complex adaptive systems - A co-evolutionary perspective on natural resource management

  
Ecological Economics, Vol. 63, No. 1. (15 June 2007), pp. 9-21, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2006.12.014

Abstract

The overexploitation of natural resources and the increasing number of social conflicts following from their unsustainable use point to a wide gap between the objectives of sustainability and current resource management practices. One of the reasons for the difficulties to close this gap is that for evolving complex systems like natural and socio-economic systems, sustainability cannot be a static objective. Instead sustainable development is an open evolutionary process of improving the management of social-ecological systems, through better understanding and knowledge. Therefore, ...

 

The Evolution of Project Inter-dependencies in a Software Ecosystem: The Case of Apache

  
In Software Maintenance (ICSM), 2013 29th IEEE International Conference on (2013), pp. 280-289, https://doi.org/10.1109/icsm.2013.39

Abstract

Software ecosystems consist of multiple software projects, often interrelated each other by means of dependency relations. When one project undergoes changes, other projects may decide to upgrade the dependency. For example, a project could use a new version of another project because the latter has been enhanced or subject to some bug-fixing activities. This paper reports an exploratory study aimed at observing the evolution of the Java subset of the Apache ecosystem, consisting of 147 projects, for a period of 14 ...

 

(INRMM-MiD internal record) List of keywords of the INRMM meta-information database - part 12

  
(February 2014)
Keywords: endangered-species   endemic-species   endophtic-fungi   energy   energy-consumption   engineering   england   english   enological-parameters   ensemble   enso   enterolobium-cyclocarpum   entransy   entropy   environment-society-economy   environmental-factors   environmental-modelling   environmental-policy   environmental-predictors   envisat-asar   enzykl-holzgew-handb-atlas-dendrol   ephedra-distachya   epinotia-solandriana   epirrita-autumnata   epistemology   eppo   equador   equity   erica-arborea   erica-australis   erica-spp   erica-tetralix   erica-vagans   erodibility   erosion   erosivity   error-clustering   error-spatial-correlation   errors   erwinia-salicis   eryobotria-japonica   erythrina-abyssinica   erythrina-poeppigiana   erythrina-sandwicensis   erythrina-variegata   escarpment   esdac   essential-oils   estonia   ethics   eu-27   eucaliptus-camaldulensis   eucalyptus-citriodora   eucalyptus-coccifera   eucalyptus-diversicolor   eucalyptus-globulus   eucalyptus-gunii   eucalyptus-nitens   eucalyptus-regnans   eucalyptus-spp   euclystis-spp   eucryphia-cordifolia   eugenia-malaccensis   euonymus-europaea   euonymus-europaeus   euonymus-latifolia   euonymus-spp   euonymus-verrucosa   euproctis-chrysorrhoea   europe   europe-2020   european-black-poplar   european-commission   european-conifer   european-council   european-parliament   european-research-council   european-soil-data-centre   european-union   euterpe-oleracea   eutrophication   evaporation   evapotranspiration   even-aged-forest   evergreen   evolution   evolutionary-techniques   evolutionary-tools   evonymus-europaea   ex-situ-conservation   exotic-plants   expat   experimental-approach   experimental-mathematics   expert-judgement   expert-systems   extinction   inrmm-list-of-tags  

Abstract

List of indexed keywords within the transdisciplinary set of domains which relate to the Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management (INRMM). In particular, the list of keywords maps the semantic tags in the INRMM Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD). [\n] The INRMM-MiD records providing this list are accessible by the special tag: inrmm-list-of-tags ( http://mfkp.org/INRMM/tag/inrmm-list-of-tags ). ...

 

On Tropical Forests and Their Pests

  
Science, Vol. 343, No. 6166. (03 January 2014), pp. 35-36, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1248110

Abstract

Biologists have long been intrigued by the diversity of tropical forests, where 1 hectare may hold more than 650 tree species—more than in all of Canada and the continental United States. Ecological theory suggests that if species are too similar in their resource use, one will out-compete the others; hence, neighboring species must exploit different niches if they are to coexist. However, given that plants in one hectare of rainforest experience very similar physical environments, ecologists have struggled to demonstrate sufficient ...

 

Evidence for soft bounds in Ubuntu package sizes and mammalian body masses

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 110, No. 52. (24 December 2013), pp. 21054-21058, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1311124110

Abstract

[Significance] Not unlike a big city, a large software project grows in a complex way, involving many developers and even more users, but a predictive framework to understand these temporal patterns is lacking. We focus on software size and analyze the changes of the Ubuntu open source operating system, finding two quantitative laws. First, growth is driven by changes in scale rather than by addition–subtraction; second, evolution toward larger sizes between two consecutive releases is limited by bounds that depend on ...

 

Trends in computer science research

  
Communications of the ACM, Vol. 56, No. 10. (October 2013), pp. 74-83, https://doi.org/10.1145/2500892

Abstract

Keywords in the ACM Digital Library and IEEE Xplore digital library and in NSF grants anticipate future CS research. ...

 

The evolution of error: error management, cognitive constraints, and adaptive decision-making biases

  
Trends in Ecology & Evolution, Vol. 28, No. 8. (August 2013), pp. 474-481, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2013.05.014

Abstract

Counterintuitively, biases can improve decision making. Numerous studies have identified biases as an effective way to manage errors. Given cognitive and evolutionary constraints, psychological biases can be adaptive. EMT has a wide scope of application for modern challenges. Counterintuitively, biases in behavior or cognition can improve decision making. Under conditions of uncertainty and asymmetric costs of ‘false-positive’ and ‘false-negative’ errors, biases can lead to mistakes in one direction but – in so doing – steer us away from more costly mistakes ...

 

On the origin of planetary-scale tipping points

  
Trends in Ecology & Evolution, Vol. 28, No. 7. (1 July 2013), pp. 380-382, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2013.06.001

Abstract

Tipping points are recognised in many systems, including ecosystems and elements of the climate system. But can the biosphere as a whole tip and, if so, how? Past global tipping points were rare and occurred in the coupled planetary-scale dynamics of the Earth system, not in the local-scale dynamics of its weakly interacting component ecosystems. Yet, evolutionary innovations have triggered past global transformations, suggesting that tipping point theory needs to go beyond bifurcations and networks to include evolution. ...

This page of the database may be cited as:
Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management - Meta-information Database. http://mfkp.org/INRMM/tag/evolution

Publication metadata

Bibtex, RIS, RSS/XML feed, Json, Dublin Core

Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD).
This database integrates a dedicated meta-information database in CiteULike (the CiteULike INRMM Group) with the meta-information available in Google Scholar, CrossRef and DataCite. The Altmetric database with Article-Level Metrics is also harvested. Part of the provided semantic content (machine-readable) is made even human-readable thanks to the DCMI Dublin Core viewer. Digital preservation of the meta-information indexed within the INRMM-MiD publication records is implemented thanks to the Internet Archive.
The library of INRMM related pubblications may be quickly accessed with the following links.
Search within the whole INRMM meta-information database:
Search only within the INRMM-MiD publication records:
Full-text and abstracts of the publications indexed by the INRMM meta-information database are copyrighted by the respective publishers/authors. They are subject to all applicable copyright protection. The conditions of use of each indexed publication is defined by its copyright owner. Please, be aware that the indexed meta-information entirely relies on voluntary work and constitutes a quite incomplete and not homogeneous work-in-progress.
INRMM-MiD was experimentally established by the Maieutike Research Initiative in 2008 and then improved with the help of several volunteers (with a major technical upgrade in 2011). This new integrated interface is operational since 2014.