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Selection: with tag european-union [50 articles] 


Biomass production, supply, uses and flows in the European Union - First results from an integrated assessment

Vol. 28993 EN (2018),


[Executive summary] This report illustrates part of the results from the first two years of JRC biomass study, carried out in the context of the mandate on the provision to EC services of data and analysis on biomass flow, supply and demand on a long-term basis. [\n] The JRC biomass study has a wide scope and is a long-term endeavour, not having a pre-defined duration. Here we refer to the results after the first two years, with a focus on the assessments of ...


Seventh national communication and third biennial report from the European Union under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) - Required under the UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol

(December 2017)


[Executive summary] [::Introduction] The European Union (EU) and its Member States, both jointly and individually, have engaged in domestic and international action on climate change for a number of years and this has resulted in significant emission reductions. The staff working documents accompanying this report constitute the EU’s seventh national communication as required under Article 12 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and Article 7 of the Kyoto Protocol, and its third biennial report as required under Decision 2/CP.17 of the ...


Plant health surveys for the EU territory: an analysis of data quality and methodologies and the resulting uncertainties for pest risk assessment (PERSEUS) CFP/EFSA/PLH/2010/01

EFSA Supporting Publications, Vol. 11, No. 10. (October 2014), 676E,


Plant health surveys are used to control the introduction, establishment and spread of economically injurious organisms within the EU and requirements are set out in statutory obligations. However, the methodologies used to conduct the surveys are not defined and therefore the quality of survey data is seen as a significant potential source of uncertainty. The project has examined ...


A wildfire risk management concept based on a social-ecological approach in the European Union: Fire Smart Territory

International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, Vol. 18 (September 2016), pp. 138-153,


The current wildfire policies in European Union countries have not solved the wildfire problem and probably will not be effective in the future, as all the initiatives focus on suppression and minimize the use of fire embedded in the Traditional Ecologic Knowledge of European communities. The traditional fire use as a tool for land management has been handled and almost criminalized by an urban-centric perspective and anti-fire bias. These policies are poorly adapted to, and cannot cope with, the complex nature ...


Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2016/873 of 1 June 2016 amending Regulation (EC) No 690/2008 recognising protected zones exposed to particular plant health risks in the Community

Official Journal of the European Union, Vol. 59, No. L 145. (June 2016), pp. 10-17
Keywords: agricultural-resources   anthonomus-grandis   bemisia-tabaci   cephalcia-lariciphila   ceratocystis-platani   cryphonectria-parasitica   curtobacterium-flaccumfaciens   daktulosphaira-vitifoliae   dendroctonus-micans   dryocosmus-kuriphilus   eli-identifier   erwinia-amylovora   european-commission   european-union   forest-pests   forest-resources   fungal-diseases   gilpinia-hercyniae   globodera-pallida   globodera-rostochiensis   glomerella-gossypii   gonipterus-scutellatus   gremmeniella-abietina   hypoxylon-mammatum   ips-amitinus   ips-cembrae   ips-duplicatus   ips-sexdentatus   ips-typographus   legislation   leptinotarsa-decemlineata   liriomyza-bryoniae   paysandisia-archon   plant-diseases   plant-pests   protection   rhynchophorus-ferrugineus   sternochetus-mangiferae   thaumetopoea-pityocampa   thaumetopoea-processionea   tree-diseases   xanthomonas-arboricola  


[Excerpt] [:Article 1] Amendment of Regulation (EC) No 690/2008 [\n] Annex I to Regulation (EC) No 690/2008 is replaced by the text set out in the Annex to this Regulation. [:Article 2] Entry into force and application [\n] This Regulation shall enter into force on the day following that of its publication in the Official Journal of the European Union. It shall apply from 1 May 2016. [\n] [...] ...


Commission Regulation (EC) No 690/2008 of 4 July 2008 recognising protected zones exposed to particular plant health risks in the Community (Recast)

Official Journal of the European Union, Vol. 51, No. L 193. (July 2008), pp. 1-6


[Excerpt] [:Article 1] The zones in the Community listed in Annex I are recognised as protected zones within the meaning of the first subparagraph of Article 2(1)(h) of Directive 2000/29/EC, in respect of the harmful organism(s) listed against their names in Annex I to this Regulation. [:Article 2] Directive 2001/32/EC, as amended by the acts listed in Annex II, Part A, is repealed, without prejudice to the obligations of the Member States relating to the time-limits for transposition into national law and application of the ...


Council Regulation (EEC) No 3528/86 of 17 November 1986 on the protection of the Community's forests against atmospheric pollution

Official Journal of the European Union, Vol. 29, No. L 326. (November 1986), pp. 2-4


[Excerpt] [...] [:Article 1] A Community scheme is hereby established to protect forests against atmospheric pollution, hereinafter referred to as 'scheme', in order to provide increased protection for forests in the Community and thereby contribute in particular to safeguarding the productive potential of agriculture. [:Article 2] [::1] The aim of the scheme shall be to help Member States to: [::] establish on the basis of common methods a periodic inventory of damage caused to forests, in particular by atmospheric pollution, [::] establish or extend, ...


INSPIRE data specification on geographical grid systems – Technical guidelines 3.1



[Excerpt] [:Interoperability of Spatial Data Sets and Services - General Executive Summary] The challenges regarding the lack of availability, quality, organisation, accessibility, and sharing of spatial information are common to a large number of policies and activities and are experienced across the various levels of public authority in Europe. In order to solve these problems it is necessary to take measures of coordination between the users and providers of spatial information. The Directive 2007/2/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council adopted on 14 March 2007 ...


GISCO - The Geographic Information System of the COmmission



[Excerpt] [What is GISCO?] Within Eurostat, GISCO is responsible for meeting the European Commission's geographical information needs at 3 levels: the European Union, its member countries, and its regions. [What does GISCO do?] In addition to creating statistical and other thematic maps, GISCO manages a database of geographical information, and provides related services to the Commission. Its database contains core geographical data covering the whole of Europe, such as administrative boundaries, and thematic geospatial information, such as population grid data. Some ...


LUCAS - Land use and land cover survey

In Statistics Explained (2016), 29057


The European Union (EU) is composed of a diverse range of landscapes: it is home to a wide variety of flora and fauna and includes some of the most and least densely populated areas of the world. This background article provides information on the Land Use/Cover Area frame Survey (LUCAS), a survey that provides harmonised and comparable statistics on land use and land cover across the whole of the EU’s territory - a toal area of just under 4.5 million square ...


Coordinate efforts on EU invasive species

Science, Vol. 353, No. 6303. (01 September 2016), pp. 998-998,


[Excerpt] An ambitious move by the European Union to eradicate, or at least contain, 37 invasive alien species across the region may fail if Member States do not coordinate their efforts. Despite calls for the establishment of a coordinating authority and the recognition of the cost-effectiveness of such a body, the European Parliament had little appetite to fund another centralized regulatory body. It thus elected to establish only a legal framework without a dedicated body or resources to oversee its ...


Development of probabilistic models for quantitative pathway analysis of plant pest introduction for the EU territory

EFSA Supporting Publications, Vol. 13, No. 8. (1 August 2016), pp. n/a-n/a,


This report demonstrates a probabilistic quantitative pathway analysis model that can be used in risk assessment for plant pest introduction into EU territory on a range of edible commodities (apples, oranges, stone fruits and wheat). Two types of model were developed: a general commodity model that simulates distribution of an imported infested/infected commodity to and within the EU from source countries by month; and a consignment model that simulates the movement and distribution of individual consignments from source countries to destinations in the EU. The general ...


Development of probabilistic models for quantitative pathway analysis of plant pests introduction for the EU territory

EFSA Supporting Publications, Vol. 12, No. 9. (1 September 2015), pp. n/a-n/a,


The aim of this report is to provide EFSA with probabilistic models for quantitative pathway analysis of plant pest introduction for the EU territory through non-edible plant products or plants. [\n] We first provide a conceptualization of two types of pathway models. The individual based PM simulates an individual consignment (or a population of such consignment) by describing the stochastic change in the state of the individual consignment over time and space. The flow-based PM, simulates the flow of infested product over ...


Study contract concerning moral rights in the context of the exploitation of works through digital technology - Final report

No. ETD/99/B5-3000/E°28. (200)


[Excerpt] According to the terms of Annexes III & IV of the contract n° ETD/99/B5-3000/E/28, the following parts of the study have been drafted : [::] analysis of the disparities in the legislation and case law of the several Member States concerning the protection of moral rights, in particular with respect to the specific characteristics of the digital exploitation of works [::] establishment of comparison tables describing the Member States’ applicable provisions in distinguishing between the several categories of works and the type of exploitation [::] analysis of ...


Commission staff working document - Document accompanying the Communication from the Commission to the Council, The European Parliament, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions - Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection - Impact assessment of the thematic strategy on soil protection

Commission Staff Working Document, Vol. 2006, No. SEC/2006/0620. (22 September 2006)


[Excerpt:Conclusions] Different Community policies contribute to soil protection, particularly environment (e.g. air and water) and agricultural (agri-environment and cross-compliance) policy. For instance, land management practices such as organic and integrated farming or extensive agricultural practices in mountain areas can maintain and enhance organic matter in the soil and prevent landslides respectively. [\n] Achieving the objectives of the Water Framework Directive will entail changes in practices in soil management and the protection of some soils, but only where soil degradation hinders water quality. It ...


Green paper on forest protection and information in the EU: preparing forests for climate change

COM Documents, Vol. 2010, No. COM/2010/0066 final. (1 March 2010)


[Excerpt: Introduction] The purpose of this Green Paper is to launch the debate on options for a European Union (EU) approach to forest protection and information in the framework of the EU Forest Action Plan, as announced by the Commission in the White Paper "Adapting to Climate Change: towards a European Framework for action"[1]. The Council conclusions of 25 June 2009 on this White Paper underlined that climate change has had and will have an impact, inter alia, on forests. As these ...


Commission staff working document - impact assessment, Part 1 accompanying the document: Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions - An EU strategy on adaptation to climate change

Commission Staff Working Document, Vol. 2013, No. SWD/2013/0132 final. (16 April 2013)


[Excerpt: Climate change and the need for adaptation] The increase in global surface temperature is the most obvious aspect of anthropogenic climate change. The average temperature for the European land area for the last decade (2002-2011) is 1.3°C above the preindustrial average, which makes the increase over Europe faster than the global average. Moreover, significant economic losses[6] and human fatalities associated with extreme weather events, such as heat waves, droughts and heavy precipitation, have been registered. [\n] Climate change will continue for ...


People in the EU - statistics on demographic changes

In Statistics Explained (2015), 41896


[Excerpt] This article is part of a set of statistical articles that are based on Eurostat’s flagship publication People in the EU: who are we and how do we live? (which also exists as a PDF publication); it presents a range of statistics that cover the characteristics of the demographic situation in the European Union (EU). [Main statistical findings] Statistics on the structure of the EU’s population and those measuring the change in the number of inhabitants have received growing attention from policymakers ...

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Mapping and assessing the condition of Europe's ecosystems: progress and challenges - EEA contribution to the implementation of the EU Biodiversity Strategy to 2020

No. 3/2016. (2016),


[Excerpt: Executive summary] We depend on healthy and resilient ecosystems to continue to deliver a range of essential services, such as food, water, clean air and recreation, into the future. However, our natural capital is being lost to or degraded by pressures such as pollution, climate change, overexploitation and urban development. The EU Biodiversity Strategy to 2020 therefore sets a target to maintain and enhance ecosystems and their services by establishing green infrastructures and restoring at least 15 % of degraded ecosystems by 2020. Mapping ecosystems and their condition is essential for measuring ...


  1. Adi Associates, 2014. Setting up of an Underwater Trail in the Marine Protected Area from Rdum Majjiesa to Rasir-Raheb. .
  2. Airoldi, L., Beck, M. W., 2007. Loss, status and trends for coastal marine habitats of Europe. Oceanography and Marine Biology, (45) 345–405.
  3. Armson, D., Stringer, P., Ennos, A. R., 2012. The effect of tree shade and grass on surface and globe temperatures in an urban area. Urban

An indicator framework for assessing ecosystem services in support of the EU Biodiversity Strategy to 2020

Ecosystem Services, Vol. 17 (February 2016), pp. 14-23,


[Highlights] [::] EU Member states have to map and assess ecosystems and their services (MAES). [::] We present the MAES conceptual model which links biodiversity to human wellbeing. [::] Typologies of ecosystems and their services ensure comparability across countries. [::] We present a list of indicators that can be used for national MAES assessments. [::] We critically discuss the data gaps and challenges of the MAES typologies. [Abstract] In the EU, the mapping and assessment of ecosystems and their services, abbreviated to MAES, is seen as a key ...

Visual summary


Sustainable development - Natural resources

In Statistics Explained (2015), 4395


This article provides an overview of statistical data on sustainable development in the area of natural resources. It is based on the set of sustainable development indicators the European Union (EU) agreed upon for monitoring its sustainable development strategy. This article is part of a set of statistical articles for monitoring sustainable development, which are based on the Eurostat publication 'Sustainable development in the European Union - 2015 monitoring report of the EU sustainable development strategy'. The report is published every ...

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Energy from renewable sources

In Statistics Explained (2015), 26960


This article presents a detailed statistical overview of the production and consumption of energy from renewable sources in the European Union (EU). It is based on data compiled in accordance with accounting rules set down in the Directive 2009/28/EC on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources. The statistical information presented in this article is coherent with statistical information reported under Regulation (EC) No 1099/2008 on energy statistics. [\n] Renewable energy in the EU has grown strongly in recent ...

Visual summary


Use of forest based biomass for bioenergy in EU-28

In Annual 20th International Scientific Conference Proceedings "Research for Rural Development", Vol. 2 (2014), pp. 7-13


Europe's future wood demand for energy is expected to increase by 10 million to 200 million m3 in the period 2010-2030. This will be supplied by both domestic sources (forests, industrial residues post-consumer wood waste), but also from sources outside Europe. The EU-28 predicts a near future (2020) gap between solid biomass supply and demand for renewable energy: 21.4 million tonnes of oil equivalents (MTOE). This is estimated via preliminary renewable energy action plans (NREAP's) per country. The EU-28 expects wood ...


Commission staff working document - Executive summary of the impact assessment accompanying the document Proposal for a regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on the prevention and management of the introduction and spread of invasive alien species

Commission Staff Working Document, Vol. 2013, No. SWD/2013/0322 final. (2013)


[Executive summary] [\n] [::1. Problem definition] There are two facets to the problem of IAS in Europe: 1) the ecological problem created by their entry, establishment and spread, 2) the policy failure caused by the fragmented and incoherent policy set up at EU and national levels that is allowing the ecological problem to grow. [\n] An ecological problem - Alien species are species that are transported as a result of human action outside of their natural range across ecological barriers. Scientific evidence shows that ...


Economic impacts of EU clean air policies assessed in a CGE framework

Environmental Science & Policy, Vol. 55 (January 2016), pp. 54-64,


This paper assesses the macroeconomic and sectoral impacts of the “Clean Air Policy Package” proposed by the European Commission in December 2013. The analysis incorporates both the expenditures necessary to implement the policy by 2030 and the resulting positive feedback effects on human health and crop production. A decomposition analysis identifies the important drivers of the macroeconomic impacts. We show that while expenditure on pollution abatement is a cost for the abating sectors, it also generates an increased demand for the ...


Forestry statistics in detail

In Statistics Explained (2015), 29576


This article is part of a set of statistical articles based on the Eurostat publication Agriculture, forestry and fishery statistics. It presents statistics on forestry and logging in the European Union (EU). [\n] The European Union (EU) accounts for approximately 5 % of the world’s forests and contrary to what is happening in many other parts of the world, the forested area of the EU is slowly increasing. Ecologically, the forests of the EU belong to many different bio-geographical regions and have ...

Visual summary


Forestry statistics

In Statistics Explained (2015), 1195


This article presents statistics on forestry and logging in the European Union (EU). In 2010, the EU-28 had approximately 179 million hectares of forests and other wooded land, corresponding to 41 % of its land area. The EU’s forests and other wooded land cover approximately the same proportion of land area as that used for agriculture. ...

Visual summary


The role of biomass and bioenergy in a future bioeconomy: Policies and facts

Environmental Development, Vol. 15 (July 2015), pp. 3-34,


[Highlights] [::] The EU has set the long-term goal to develop a low carbon economy by 2050. [::] Bioeconomy could play an important role in the low carbon economy. [::] The EU has a number of well-established traditional bio-based industries. [::] We estimated the EU current bio economy market at about € 2.4 billion. [::] Bioeconomy will depend on technology advance, cost and biomass availability. [Abstract] The European Commission has set a long-term goal to develop a competitive, resource efficient and low carbon economy by 2050. Bioeconomy is ...


European Parliament resolution on summer fires and the need to implement a global policy for fire prevention at Community level

Official Journal of the European Union, Vol. 34, No. C 267. (October 1991), 141


[Excerpt] The European Parliament, [...] 2. Calls on the Commission to adopt initial civil protection measures at Community level by coordinating air-support services and professional training for those involved in campaigns to combat forest fires; 3. Calls on the Commission and the Council to complete and improve existing regulations with additional budget appropriations, particularly in the area of fire-fighting resources, as follows: (a) aid to acquire fire-fighting equipment and promotion of measures for training, prevention and increasing public awareness, (b) the creation of a European vocational training centre specialized in ...


European Parliament legislative resolution embodying the opinion of the European Parliament on the proposal from the Commission to the Council for a regulation establishing a European Forestry Information and Communication System (EFICS)

Official Journal of the European Union, Vol. 32, No. C 158. (May 1989), 418

European Parliament resolution on the need to improve forest-fire protection

Official Journal of the European Union, Vol. 26, No. C 184. (June 1983), pp. 100-101


The European Parliament, A. Aware of the gravity and wide range of problems connected with forest fires; B. Recalling its resolutions of 15 October 1982 which drew attention to the need to continue and step up efforts with respect to prevention, reafforestation fire-fighting (»); and C. Reaffirming its desire to strengthen forthwith Community action to combat forest fires; D. Whereas the absence or inadequacy of fire-fighting resources has often jeopardized, or even nullified, efforts made in respect of prevention; 1. Warns the Commission and the Council of the urgent need ...


Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions. Innovating for Sustainable Growth: A Bioeconomy for Europe

No. COM(2012) 60 final. (2012)


[Excerpt] A bioeconomy strategy for Europe In order to cope with an increasing global population, rapid depletion of many resources, increasing environmental pressures and climate change, Europe needs to radically change its approach to production, consumption, processing, storage, recycling and disposal of biological resources. The Europe 2020 Strategy calls for a bioeconomy as a key element for smart and green growth in Europe. Advancements in bioeconomy research and innovation uptake will allow Europe to improve the management of its renewable biological ...


Council Directive 2000/29/EC of 8 May 2000 on protective measures against the introduction into the Community of organisms harmful to plants or plant products and against their spread within the Community

Official Journal of the European Union, Vol. 43, No. L 169. (May 2000), pp. 1-112


[:Article 1] 1. This Directive concerns protective measures against the introduction into the Member States from other Member States or third countries of organisms which are harmful to plants or plant products. [\n]It also concerns: [\n](a) with effect from 1 June 1993, protective measures against the spread of harmful organisms within the Community by means related to movements of plants, plant products and other related objects within a Member State; [\n](b) protective measures against the introduction of harmful organisms into the French ...


Data specification on natural risk zones - Technical guidelines

No. D2.8.III.12_v3.0. (2013)
edited by Florian Thomas


[Interoperability of Spatial Data Sets and Services - General Executive Summary] The challenges regarding the lack of availability, quality, organisation, accessibility, and sharing of spatial information are common to a large number of policies and activities and are experienced across the various levels of public authority in Europe. In order to solve these problems it is necessary to take measures of coordination between the users and providers of spatial information. The Directive 2007/2/EC of the Europe an Parliament and of the ...


(INRMM-MiD internal record) List of keywords of the INRMM meta-information database - part 12

(February 2014)
Keywords: endangered-species   endemic-species   endophtic-fungi   energy   energy-consumption   engineering   england   english   enological-parameters   ensemble   enso   enterolobium-cyclocarpum   entransy   entropy   environment-society-economy   environmental-factors   environmental-modelling   environmental-policy   environmental-predictors   envisat-asar   enzykl-holzgew-handb-atlas-dendrol   ephedra-distachya   epinotia-solandriana   epirrita-autumnata   epistemology   eppo   equador   equity   erica-arborea   erica-australis   erica-spp   erica-tetralix   erica-vagans   erodibility   erosion   erosivity   error-clustering   error-spatial-correlation   errors   erwinia-salicis   eryobotria-japonica   erythrina-abyssinica   erythrina-poeppigiana   erythrina-sandwicensis   erythrina-variegata   escarpment   esdac   essential-oils   estonia   ethics   eu-27   eucaliptus-camaldulensis   eucalyptus-citriodora   eucalyptus-coccifera   eucalyptus-diversicolor   eucalyptus-globulus   eucalyptus-gunii   eucalyptus-nitens   eucalyptus-regnans   eucalyptus-spp   euclystis-spp   eucryphia-cordifolia   eugenia-malaccensis   euonymus-europaea   euonymus-europaeus   euonymus-latifolia   euonymus-spp   euonymus-verrucosa   euproctis-chrysorrhoea   europe   europe-2020   european-black-poplar   european-commission   european-conifer   european-council   european-parliament   european-research-council   european-soil-data-centre   european-union   euterpe-oleracea   eutrophication   evaporation   evapotranspiration   even-aged-forest   evergreen   evolution   evolutionary-techniques   evolutionary-tools   evonymus-europaea   ex-situ-conservation   exotic-plants   expat   experimental-approach   experimental-mathematics   expert-judgement   expert-systems   extinction   inrmm-list-of-tags  


List of indexed keywords within the transdisciplinary set of domains which relate to the Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management (INRMM). In particular, the list of keywords maps the semantic tags in the INRMM Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD). [\n] The INRMM-MiD records providing this list are accessible by the special tag: inrmm-list-of-tags ( ). ...


Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions - A new EU forest strategy: for forests and the forest based sector

No. COM(2013) 659 final. (20 September 2013)


[Excerpt: Guiding principles] [::] Sustainable forest management and the multifunctional role of forests, delivering multiple goods and services in a balanced way and ensuring forest protection; [::] Resource efficiency, optimising the contribution of forests and the forest sector to rural development, growth and job creation. [::] Global forest responsibility, promoting sustainable production and consumption of forest products. [\n] Europe has a long tradition of sustainable forest management, which is reflected in the FOREST EUROPE principles applied by Member States’ policies and supported ...


Commission staff working document accompanying the document: Communication from the commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions - A new EU forest strategy: for forests and the forest-based sector

Commission Staff Working Document, Vol. 2013, No. SWD/2013/0342 final. (20 September 2013)


[Excerpt] European forests serve different aims such as social (contribution to rural development), economical (raw materials like sawn wood for construction purposes or furniture, pulpwood for cellulose, insulation, packaging, paper and source of renewable energy), environmental (e.g. protection against soil erosion, avalanche control, regulation of streams and rivers, CO2 capture) and societal (e.g. recreation, employment in rural areas). 2.1. State of the EU's forests The EU currently contains 5 % of the world's forests and EU forests have continuously expanded for ...


Commission staff working document - a blueprint for the EU forest-based industries (woodworking, furniture, pulp & paper manufacturing and converting, printing)

Commission Staff Working Document, Vol. 2013, No. SWD/2013/0343 final. (20 September 2013)


[Introduction] The EU Forest-based Industries - EU F-BI - are taken to include: the woodworking industries; the furniture industry; the pulp & paper manufacturing and converting industries, and the printing industry. Together, they represent about 7% of EU manufacturing GDP and nearly 3.5 million jobs. The EU F-BI thus form an important part of the EU’s manufacturing industry and their growth can help achieve the goals of the EU’s Industrial Policy , including the aspirational goal of raising manufacturing industries’ contribution ...


Climate impacts in Europe: an integrated economic assessment

In Impacts World 2013 - International Conference on Climate Change Effects (May 2013), pp. 87-96,


The JRC PESETA II study integrates the consequences of several separate climate change impacts into a macroeconomic CGE model. This enables comparison of the different impacts based on common metrics (household welfare and economic activity). The study uses a large set of climate model runs (twelve) and impact categories (agriculture, energy demand, river floods, sea-level rise, forest fires, transport infrastructure). The results show that there is a wide dispersion of impacts across EU regions, with strong geographical asymmetries, depending on the specific ...


  1. Brown,S., Nicholls, R.J., Vafeidis, A., Hinkel, J., Watkiss, P., 2011. The Impacts and Economic Costs of Sea Level Rise in Europe and the Costs and Benefits of Adaptation. Summary of Results from the EC RTD ClimateCost Project. In Watkiss, P., (Editor), 2011. The ClimateCost Project. Final Report. Volume 1: Europe. Published by the Stockholm Environment Institute, Sweden, 2011. ISBN 978-91-86125-35-6.
  2. Camia, A., Libertà, G., San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., 2012. Modelling impacts of climate change on forest

Wood: The fuel of the future

The Economist, No. Apr 6th, 2013. (2013)


Excerpt: Which source of renewable energy is most important to the European Union? Solar power, perhaps? (Europe has three-quarters of the world’s total installed capacity of solar photovoltaic energy.) Or wind? The answer is neither. By far the largest so-called renewable fuel used in Europe is wood. ...


Assessment of forest fire impacts and emissions in the European Union based on the European Forest Fire Information System

In Wildland Fires and Air Pollution, Vol. 8 (2008), pp. 197-208,


An analysis on the number of forest fires and burned area distribution as retrieved by the European Forest Fire Information System (EFFIS) database is presented. On average, from 2000 to 2005 about 95,000 fires occurred annually in 23 European countries, burning almost 600,000 ha of forest land every year. Of these about two-thirds or 65,000 fires occurred in 5 European Union (EU) Mediterranean countries (France, Greece, Italy, Portugal, and Spain) where on average half a million hectares of forest land were burned ...


Potential stocks and increments of woody biomass in the European Union under different management and climate scenarios

Carbon Balance and Management, Vol. 8, No. 1. (2013), 2,


[Background] Forests play an important role in the global carbon flow. They can store carbon and can also provide wood which can substitute other materials. In EU27 the standing biomass is steadily increasing. Increments and harvests seem to have reached a plateau between 2005 and 2010. One reason for reaching this plateau will be the circumstance that the forests are getting older. High ages have the advantage that they typical show high carbon concentration and the disadvantage that the increment rates are ...


EU-wide maps of growing stock and above-ground biomass in forests based on remote sensing and field measurements

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 260, No. 3. (30 June 2010), pp. 252-261,


The overall objective of this study was to combine national forest inventory data and remotely sensed data to produce pan-European maps on growing stock and above-ground woody biomass for the two species groups “broadleaves” and “conifers”. An automatic up-scaling approach making use of satellite remote sensing data and field measurement data was applied for EU-wide mapping of growing stock and above-ground biomass in forests. The approach is based on sampling and allows the direct combination of data with different measurement units ...


Speaking for Europe: languages in the European Union



The EU promotes the linguistic and cultural diversity of its peoples by supporting the teaching and learning of their languages. The EU's goal is to enable citizens to be fluent in two languages in addition to their native language. The EU institutions work with 23 official languages to ensure that all EU citizens have equal access to the policies and legislation of the European Union. This booklet looks turn at the different languages spoken in the EU, the many ways in ...


The need for management of nature conservation sites designated under Natura 2000

Journal of Applied Ecology, Vol. 35, No. 6. (1 December 1998), pp. 968-973,


The Natura 2000 Network will consist of sites designated by the Member States of the European Union, under the Habitats and Birds Directives. Many of these sites need an appropriate management to maintain a favourable conservation status; this will often be based on low-intensity agricultural practices. Out of the 198 listed habitat types of the Habitats Directive, 28 (14%) could be threatened by the abandonment of low-intensity agricultural practices. The paper gives a comparative outlook over some situations in Europe, after ...


Mountain areas in Europe: analysis of mountain areas in EU member states, acceding and other European countries

No. European Commission contract No 2002.CE.16.0.AT.136. (2004)


Introduction. The global importance of mountains is increasingly recognised, as shown by the inclusion of a specific chapter in ‘Agenda 21’ and the declaration of the year 2002 as the International Year of Mountains. Europe has many mountain ranges, occurring in almost all parts of the continent; most European countries have at least some mountains. These mountains are very diverse at every scale, in terms of climate, ecology, economy and other characteristics. European mountain landscapes are cultural landscapes reflecting long-term interactions ...


Diversified landscape structure in the EU Member States

No. KS-SF-11-021-EN-C. (2011)


The heterogeneity of land cover and the presence of linear features are two key elements characterising landscape structures. LUCAS survey 2009 figures show clear distinctions among EU countries and how varied the European territory is in many respects. Four main typologies of countries with a different degree of land cover diversity and landscape patterns can be identified: - Countries with a high diversity generally characterized by the significant presence of mountainous or hilly areas; - Largely homogeneous countries with a strong ...


Common Position (EC) No 20/2005 of 7 March 2005 adopted by the Council, acting in accordance with the procedure referred to in Article 251 of the Treaty establishing the European Community, with a view to adopting a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on the patentability of computer-implemented inventions

Official Journal of the European Union, Vol. 48, No. C 144E. (March 2005), pp. 9-15


I. INTRODUCTION 1. On 20 February 2002, the Commission submitted a proposal for a European Parliament and Council Directive on the patentability of computer-implemented inventions (1), based on Article 95 of the EC Treaty. 2. The Economic and Social Committee delivered its opinion on 19 September 2002 (2). 3. The European Parliament delivered its opinion at first reading on 24 September 2003 (3). 4. The Commission has not submitted an amended proposal. 5. The Council adopted its common position according to Article 251 of the EC Treaty on ...


European Parliament legislative resolution on the Council common position with a view to the adoption of a directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on the patentability of computer-implemented inventions (11979/1/2004 - C6-0058/2005 - 2002/0047(COD))

Official Journal of the European Union, Vol. 49, No. C 157E. (July 2006), pp. 265-265


P6_TA(2005)0275 Patentability of computer-implemented inventions ***II European Parliament legislative resolution on the Council common position with a view to the adoption of a directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on the patentability of computer-implemented inventions (11979/1/2004 — C6-0058/2005 — 2002/0047(COD)) (Codecision procedure: second reading) The European Parliament, - having regard to the Council common position (11979/1/2004 — C6-0058/2005), - having regard to its position at first reading [1] on the Commission proposal to Parliament and the Council (COM(2002)0092) [2], - having regard to Article 251(2) ...


Council Decision concerning the Specific Programme to be carried out by means of direct actions by the Joint Research Centre under the Seventh Framework Programme of the European Community for research, technological development and demonstration activities (2007 to 2013)

Official Journal of the European Union, Vol. 49, No. L 400. (December 2006), pp. 368-403


[...] Article 1. The Specific Programme related to the direct actions in research, technological development and demonstration to be carried out by the Joint Research Centre, hereinafter the "Specific Programme" is hereby adopted for the period from 1 January 2007 to 31 December 2013. Article 2. The Specific Programme shall establish the activities for the non-nuclear actions of the Joint Research Centre, providing customer driven scientific and technical support to the Community policy making process, ensuring support to the implementation and monitoring of ...

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