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Selection: with tag europe [at least 200 articles] 

 

Distribution maps of forest tree species

  
In ICP Forests Projectlist (2015), 64

Abstract

[Excerpt: Project description] The European Commission, Joint Research Centre, hosts the European Forest Data Centre (EFDAC at http://efdac.jrc.ec.europa.eu ) of the Forest Information System for Europe (FISE). The EFDAC‐FISE platform is envisioned to transparently integrate information referring to forest resources in Europe, including taxa‐specific information. The exercise involves the integration of: [::1] a harmonized collection of reference maps describing the European‐wide distribution of forest tree species along with their habitat suitability (both current and under varying climate change scenarios); [::2] a detailed analysis of the implications that the uncertainties – ...

References

  1. de Rigo, D., Barredo, J. I., Busetto, L., Caudullo, G., San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., 2013. Continental-scale living forest biomass and carbon stock: a robust fuzzy ensemble of IPCC Tier 1 maps for Europe. IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology 413, 271-284. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-41151-9_26 , INRMM-MiD:12541209 .
  2. de Rigo, D., Caudullo, G., Busetto, L., San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., Mar. 2014. Supporting EFSA assessment of the EU environmental suitability for exotic forestry pests: final report. EFSA Supporting Publications 11 (3),
 

Forest condition in Europe: 2017 technical report of ICP Forests - Report under the UNECE Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP)

  

Abstract

[Summary] The International Co-operative Programme on Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests (ICP Forests) is one of the most diverse programmes within the Working Group on Effects (WGE) under the UNECE Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP). To provide a regular overview of the programme’s activities, the ICP Forests Programme Co-ordinating Centre (PCC) yearly publishes an ICP Forests Technical Report which summarises research highlights and provides an opportunity for all participating countries to report on their national ICP Forests activities. The PCC also invites ...

 

Mapping regional patterns of large forest fires in Wildland–Urban Interface areas in Europe

  
Journal of Environmental Management, Vol. 172 (May 2016), pp. 112-126, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2016.02.013

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] A European Wildland–Urban Interface (WUI) map was presented. [::] The European WUI areas have been correlated with occurrence of large burned surfaces. [::] Peri-urban areas and Mediterranean touristic areas show strong co-occurrence of WUI and fires. [::] Burned surface probabilities within 5000 m of the WUI areas are estimated to map fire risk. [Abstract] Over recent decades, Land Use and Cover Change (LUCC) trends in many regions of Europe have reconfigured the landscape structures around many urban areas. In these areas, the proximity to landscape ...

 

Impact of El Niño-Southern Oscillation on European climate

  
Reviews of Geophysics, Vol. 45, No. 3. (11 September 2007), pp. n/a-n/a, https://doi.org/10.1029/2006rg000199

Abstract

El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is arguably the most important global climate pattern. While the effects in the Pacific–North American sector and the tropical regions are relatively well understood, the impacts on the circulation in the North Atlantic–European sector are discussed more controversially. Studies from the past 10 years demonstrate that ENSO does affect European climate. However, some of the effects undergo a seasonal modulation or are nonlinear. The signal can be modified by other factors and might be nonstationary on multidecadal ...

 

The seasonal effects of ENSO on European precipitation: observational analysis

  
Journal of Climate, Vol. 27, No. 17. (13 September 2014), pp. 6423-6438, https://doi.org/10.1175/jcli-d-14-00008.1

Abstract

An analysis and characterization of seasonal changes in the atmospheric teleconnection between ENSO and western European precipitation, as well as atmospheric conditions over the North Atlantic and Europe, are presented. Significant ENSO-associated changes in precipitation are evident during the boreal spring and fall seasons, marginal during boreal summer, and absent during boreal winter. The spring and fall precipitation anomalies are accompanied by statistically significant ENSO-related changes in large-scale fields over the North Atlantic and Europe. These seasonal teleconnections appear to be ...

 

Agricultural policy can reduce wildfires

  
Science, Vol. 359, No. 6379. (01 March 2018), pp. 1001.1-1001, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aat1359

Abstract

[Excerpt] [...] Agriculture is an important driver of European wildfires. It is a major source of fire ignitions [...]. Additionally, farmland abandonment and policies promoting forestry increase fire hazard, as they lead to vegetation growth and fuel build-up in the landscape [...]. However, agriculture is also part of the solution. Agricultural areas, such as crops, orchards, and grasslands, are much less fire-prone, particularly if they include irrigated crops [...]. The European Union's Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is a powerful financial instrument ...

 

Pine Wilt Disease: a threat to European forestry

  
European Journal of Plant Pathology In European Journal of Plant Pathology, Vol. 133, No. 1. (24 December 2012), pp. 89-99, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10658-011-9924-x

Abstract

Bursaphelenchus xylophilus , the pinewood nematode (PWN) and causal agent of Pine Wilt Disease (PWD), was detected for the first time, in 1999, in Portugal, and in Europe. Despite the efforts of the Portuguese National Forestry and Quarantine Authorities, the disease has spread to new forest areas in the centre of mainland Portugal, in 2008, and to the island of Madeira, in 2009. More recently, two foci of PWD were reported from Spain. The free circulation of non-treated wood and wood ...

 

Pest categorisation of Bretziella fagacearum

  
EFSA Journal, Vol. 16, No. 2. (February 2018), e05185, https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2018.5185

Abstract

Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Plant Health (PLH) Panel performed a pest categorisation of Bretziella fagacearum, a well-defined and distinguishable fungal species of the family Ceratocystidaceae. The species was moved from the genus Ceratocystis to a new genus Bretziella following phylogenetic analysis of the species and its close relatives. The former species name Ceratocystis fagacearum is used in the Council Directive 2000/29/EC. The pathogen is regulated in Annex IAI as a harmful organism whose introduction into the ...

References

  1. Ambourn, A.K., Juzwik, J., Moon, R.D., 2005. Seasonal dispersal of the oak wilt fungus by Colopterus truncatus and Carpophilus sayi in Minnesota. Plant Disease 89, 1067–1076.
  2. Appel, D.N., 1995. The oak wilt enigma: perspectives from the Texas epidemic. Annual Review of Phytopathology 33, 103–118.
  3. Appel, D.N., Maggio, R.C., Nelson, E.L., Jeger, M.J., 1989. Measurement of expanding oak wilt centers in live oak. Phytopathology 79, 1318–1322.
  4. Baker, R., Candresse,
 

Wildfires

  
In Present and future probability of meteorological and hydrological hazards in Europe (2016), pp. 112-118

Abstract

[Excerpt: Introduction] Uncontrolled forest fires impact both natural and built-up environments as well as humans. The occurrence of a forest fire requires the same basic elements as any fire: heat, oxygen and fuel. Preceding and prevailing weather conditions are crucial for setting conditions susceptible to fire in a forest. Drought, high temperatures and pronounced evaporation dry off organic material in forests, i.e. the fuel. Strong wind during/after ignition substantially intensifies spreading of the fire and raises the likelihood of the surface ...

 

Forest fire danger extremes in Europe under climate change: variability and uncertainty

  
Keywords: adaptation   array-of-factors   biodiversity   biodiversity-impacts   burnt-area   climate-change   climate-extremes   communicating-uncertainty   data-transformation-modelling   data-uncertainty   downscaling   droughts   dynamic-system   ecosystem-resilience   emergent-property   euro-cordex   europe   extreme-events   extreme-weather   fire-damage   fire-danger-rating   fire-management   fire-weather-index   forest-fires   forest-management   forest-pests   forest-resources   free-scientific-software   geospatial   geospatial-semantic-array-programming   human-behaviour   humidity   ipcc-scenarios   mastrave-modelling-library   mitigation   modelling-uncertainty   no-analog-pattern   peseta-series   precipitation   rcp85   resilience   resilience-vs-resistance   review   robust-modelling   science-policy-interface   science-society-interface   scientific-communication   semantic-array-programming   spatial-pattern   species-richness   species-specific-effects   temperature   vegetation-changes   wildfires   wind  

Abstract

Forests cover over a third of the total land area of Europe. In recent years, large forest fires have repeatedly affected Europe, in particular the Mediterranean countries. Fire danger is influenced by weather in the short term, and by climate when considering longer time intervals. In this work, the emphasis is on the direct influence on fire danger of weather and climate. [\n] For climate analysis at the continental scale, a daily high-emission scenario (RCP 8.5) was considered up to the end ...

References

  1. de Rigo, D., Bosco, C., San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., Houston Durrant, T., Barredo, J. I., Strona, G., Caudullo, G., Di Leo, M., Boca, R., 2016. Forest resources in Europe: an integrated perspective on ecosystem services, disturbances and threats. In: San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., de Rigo, D., Caudullo, G., Houston Durrant, T., Mauri, A. (Eds.), European Atlas of Forest Tree Species. Publ. Off. EU, Luxembourg, pp. e015b50+. https://w3id.org/mtv/FISE-Comm/v01/e015b50 .
  2. Alberdi Asensio, I., Baycheva-Merger, T., Bouvet, A., Bozzano,
 

Pest categorisation of the Gonipterus scutellatus species complex

  
EFSA Journal, Vol. 16, No. 1. (January 2018), e05107, https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2018.5107

Abstract

The Panel on Plant health performed a pest categorisation of the Australian Eucalyptus snout-beetle Gonipterus scutellatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), for the EU. G. scutellatus should be referred as the G. scutellatus species complex because it includes several cryptic species. A complete nomenclature of the species present in the EU is still pending. It is a quarantine pest listed in Annex IIB of Council Directive 2000/29/EC. Protected zones are in place in Greece and Portugal (Azores). In the EU, it has been found ...

References

  1. Agarwal, M.I., Ren, Y., Newman, J., Learmonth, S., 2015. Ethyl formate: a potential disinfestation treatment for eucalyptus weevil (Gonipterus platensis) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in apples. Journal of Economic Entomology 108, 2566–2571. https://doi.org/10.1093/jee/tov242 .
  2. Álvarez Taboada, M.F., Lorenzo Cimadevila, H., Rodriguez Pérez, J.R., Pocos Martín, J., 2005. Workflow to improve the forest management of Eucalyptus globulus stands affected by Gonipterus scutellatus in Galicia (Spain) using remote sensing and GIS. 11 th SPIE International Symposium
 

Mediterranean habitat loss under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 climate change projections - Assessing impacts on the Natura 2000 protected area network

  
Vol. 28547 EN (2017), https://doi.org/10.2760/622174

Abstract

[Executive summary] This report describes the main findings of Task 10, Mediterranean habitat loss, of the Peseta III project (Climate Impacts and Adaptation in Europe, focusing on Extremes, Adaptation and the 2030s). Using an approach that integrates results from 11 sectors, the main objective of the Peseta III project is to make a consistent multi-sectorial assessment of the projected impacts of climate change in Europe. [\n] The Mediterranean region is one of the 36 global hotspots of biological diversity [1] and the most ...

 

Change impacts and adaptation in Europe, focusing on extremes and adaptation until the 2030s - PESETA-3 project, final sector report on Task 9: Droughts

  
Vol. 28990 EN (2017), https://doi.org/10.2760/282880

Abstract

[Executive summary] This document reports the results of the analyses performed within the framework of the PESETA3 project regarding the Task 9 - Droughts. The main objective of this task is to provide robust scientific-based information to stakeholders and decision makers on the possible impacts of future climate scenarios on the occurrence of drought events. [\n] This report is focused on the analysis of the variations of soil moisture on the European continent, as well as of a soil moisture-based drought severity indicator ...

 

Will drought events become more frequent and severe in Europe?

  
International Journal of Climatology (09 October 2017), https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.5291

Abstract

As a result of climate change in recent past and unsustainable land management, drought became one of the most impacting disasters and, with the projected global warming, it is expected to progressively cause more damages by the end of the 21st century. This study investigates changes in drought occurrence, frequency, and severity in Europe in the next decades. A combined indicator based on the predominance of the drought signal over normal/wet conditions has been used. The indicator, which combines the standardized ...

 

European Forest Types: toward an automated classification

  
Annals of Forest Science, Vol. 75, No. 1. (2018), pp. 1-14, https://doi.org/10.1007/s13595-017-0674-6

Abstract

[Key message] The outcome of the present study leads to the application of a spatially explicit rule-based expert system (RBES) algorithm aimed at automatically classifying forest areas according to the European Forest Types (EFT) system of nomenclature at pan-European scale level. With the RBES, the EFT system of nomenclature can be now easily implemented for objective, replicable, and automatic classification of field plots for forest inventories or spatial units (pixels or polygons) for thematic mapping. [Context] Forest Types classification systems are aimed at stratifying ...

 

Pest categorisation of Gilpinia hercyniae

  
EFSA Journal, Vol. 15, No. 12. (December 2017), e05108, https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2017.5108

Abstract

The Panel on Plant Health performed a pest categorisation of the Diprionid sawfly, Gilpinia hercyniae Hartig (Hymenoptera: Diprionidae), for the EU. G. hercyniae is a well-defined and distinguishable species, native to Europe but also present in North America, Japan, Mongolia, Korea and Pakistan, and recognised as a pest of spruce (Picea spp.). The pest is distributed in 19 Member States (MSs) of the EU. It is a quarantine pest listed in Annex IIB of Council Directive 2000/29/EC. Protected zones are in ...

References

  1. Adams, P.H.W., Entwistle, P.F., 1981. An annotated bibliography of Gilpinia hercyniae (Hartig), European spruce sawfly. Occasional Papers, Commonwealth Forestry Institute 11, 58 pp.
  2. Billany, D.J., Brown, R.M., 1977. The geographical distribution of Gilpinia hercyniae Hymenoptera: Diprionidae in the United Kingdom. Forestry 50, 155–160. https://doi.org/10.1093/forestry/50.2.155 .
  3. Bossard, M., Feranec, J., Otahel, J., 2000. CORINE land cover technical guide - Addendum 2000. Tech. Rep. 40, European Environment Agency. https://www.eea.europa.eu/ds_resolveuid/032TFUPGVR,
 

Pest categorisation of Davidsoniella virescens

  
EFSA Journal, Vol. 15, No. 12. (December 2017), e05104, https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2017.5104

Abstract

Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH) performed a pest categorisation of Davidsoniella virescens, a well-defined and distinguishable fungal species of the family Ceratocystidaceae. The species was moved from the genus Ceratocystis to the genus Davidsoniella following a revision of the family. The former species name Ceratocystis virescens is used in the Council Directive 2000/29/EC. The pathogen is regulated in Annex IIAI as a harmful organism whose introduction into the EU is banned on ...

References

  1. Bal, T.L., Richter, D.L., Storer, A.J., Jurgensen, M.F., 2013. The relationship of the sapstreak fungus, Ceratocystis virescens, to sugar maple dieback and decay in Northern Michigan. American Journal of Plant Sciences 4, 436–443.
  2. de Beer, Z.W., Duong, T.A., Barnes, I., Wingfield, B.D., Wingfield, M.J., 2014. Redefining Ceratocystis and allied genera. Studies in Mycology 79, 187–219. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.simyco.2014.10.001 .
  3. Bossard, M., Feranec, J., Otahel, J., 2000. CORINE land cover technical guide
 

Pest categorisation of Stegophora ulmea

  
EFSA Journal, Vol. 15, No. 12. (December 2017), e05105, https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2017.5105

Abstract

Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH) performed a pest categorisation of Stegophora ulmea, a well-defined and distinguishable fungal species of the family Sydowiellaceae. S. ulmea causes a tree disease known as black spot of elm (Ulmus spp.). The pathogen is reported from North America (native range) and Asia (Far-East Russia and China), but not from the EU. S. ulmea is regulated in Council Directive 2000/29/EC (Annex IIAI) as a harmful organism whose introduction ...

References

  1. Caudullo, G., de Rigo, D., 2016. Ulmus - elms in Europe: distribution, habitat, usage and threats. In: San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., de Rigo, D., Caudullo, G., Houston Durrant, T., Mauri, A. (eds.). European Atlas of Forest Tree Species. Publication Office of the European Union, Luxembourg, pp. e01bd40+.
  2. Baker, R., Candresse, T., Dormannsné Simon, E., Gilioli, G., Grégoire, J.-C., Jeger, M. J., Karadjova, O. E., Lövei, G., Makowski, D., Manceau, C., Navajas, M., Porta Puglia, A., Rafoss,
 

Pest categorisation of Cephalcia lariciphila

  
EFSA Journal, Vol. 15, No. 12. (December 2017), e05106, https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2017.5106

Abstract

The Panel on Plant health performed a pest categorisation of the larch web-spinning sawfly Cephalcia lariciphila (Hymenoptera: Pamphiliidae) for the EU. The insect has been reported in 11 EU Member States (MSs). It is a quarantine pest listed in Annex IIB of Council Directive 2000/29/EC. Protected zones are in place in Ireland and the UK (Northern Ireland, Isle of Man and Jersey). C. lariciphila can feed on all species of the genus Larix. There have been reported outbreaks in the Czech ...

References

  1. Battisti, A., 1994a. Effects of entomopathogenic nematodes on the spruce web-spinning sawfly Cephalcia arvensis Panzer and its parasitoids in the field. Biocontrol Science and Technology 4, 95–102.
  2. Battisti, A., 1994b. Voltinism and diapause in the spruce web-spinning sawfly Cephalcia arvensis. Entomologia experimentalis et applicata 70, 105–113.
  3. Bell, H., Wakefield, M., Macarthur, R., Stein, J., Collins, D., Hart, A., Roques, A., Augustin, S., Yart, A., Péré, C., Schrader, G., Wendt, C., Battisti,
 

An assessment of forest biomass maps in Europe using harmonized national statistics and inventory plots

  
Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 409 (February 2018), pp. 489-498, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2017.11.047

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] We assessed four biomass maps for Europe using harmonized biomass reference data. [::] The harmonized statistics were derived from ∼430,000 plots from 26 countries. [::] All maps overestimated at low biomass and underestimated at high biomass. [::] All maps had an overall negative bias (23–43 Mg ha−1 at national level). [::] The maps relative errors was 29–40% at national level and 63–72% at cell level. [Abstract] Maps of aboveground forest biomass based on different input data and modelling approaches have been recently produced for Europe, opening up the ...

 

World’s carbon emissions set to spike by 2% in 2017

  
Nature, Vol. 551, No. 7680. (13 November 2017), https://doi.org/10.1038/nature.2017.22995

Abstract

Increased coal use in China appears to be driving the first increase in global greenhouse-gas output since 2014. [Excerpt] [...] Humanity’s carbon emissions are likely to surge by 2% in 2017, driven mainly by increased coal consumption in China, scientists reported on 13 November. The unexpected rise would end a three-year period in which emissions have remained flat despite a growing global economy. [...] Several factors caused the world’s CO2 emissions to level out from 2014 to 2016, including an economic slowdown ...

 

Pest categorisation of Pseudocercospora pini-densiflorae

  
EFSA Journal, Vol. 15, No. 11. (November 2017), e05029, https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2017.5029

Abstract

Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Plant Health (PLH) Panel performed a pest categorisation of Pseudocercospora pini-densiflorae, a well-defined and distinguishable fungal species of the family Mycosphaerellaceae. The regulated harmful organism is the anamorph Cercoseptoria pini-densiflorae (synonym Cercospora pini-densiflorae) with the corresponding teleomorph Mycosphaerella gibsonii. P. pini-densiflorae causes a needle blight of Pinus spp. also known as Cercospora blight of pines or Cercospora needle blight. P. pini-densiflorae is reported from sub-Saharan Africa, Central and South America, Asia and ...

References

  1. Anon, 2015. PM 7/46 (3) Lecanosticta acicola (formerly Mycosphaerella dearnessii), Dothistroma septosporum (formerly Mycosphaerella pini) and Dothistroma pini. EPPO Bulletin 45, 163–182.
  2. Bossard, M., Feranec, J., Otahel, J., 2000. CORINE land cover technical guide - addendum 2000. Tech. Rep. 40, European Environment Agency. https://www.eea.europa.eu/ds_resolveuid/032TFUPGVR .
  3. Büttner, G., Kosztra, B., Maucha, G., Pataki, R., 2012. Implementation and achievements of CLC2006. Tech. rep., European Environment Agency. http://www.eea.europa.eu/ds_resolveuid/GQ4JECM8TB .
 

Pest categorisation of Gremmeniella abietina

  
EFSA Journal, Vol. 15, No. 11. (November 2017), e05030, https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2017.5030

Abstract

Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Plant Health (PLH) Panel performed a pest categorisation of Gremmeniella abietina, a well-defined species and distinguishable fungus of the family Godroniaceae. The species G. abietina includes several varieties, races and biotypes that are found in different geographical locations, on different hosts and that vary in aggressiveness. The pathogen causes diseases on Pinus species and other conifers such as Abies spp., Picea spp., Larix spp. and Pseudotsuga spp. known as Scleroderris canker in ...

References

  1. Ahlqvist, B., Karlman, M., Witzell, J., 1996. Gremmeniella-infected Pinus contorta as raw material in the production of kraft pulp. European Journal of Forest Pathology 26, 113–121.
  2. Anon, 2009. PM 7/92(1): Gremmeniella abietina. EPPO Bulletin 39, 310–317.
  3. Barbeito, I., Brücker, R., Rixen, C., Bebi, P., 2013. Snow fungi-induced mortality of Pinus cembra at the alpine treeline: evidence from plantations. Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research 45, 455–470.
  4. Bernhold, A., Witzell,
 

Pest categorisation of Ips cembrae

  
EFSA Journal, Vol. 15, No. 11. (October 2017), e05039, https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2017.5039

Abstract

The Panel on Plant Health performed a pest categorisation of the large larch bark beetle, Ips cembrae (Heer) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), for the EU. I. cembrae is a well-defined and distinguishable species, native to Europe and recognised mainly as a pest of larch (Larix spp.) and occasionally of pine (Pinus spp.) and spruce (Picea spp.). It is distributed in 16 Member States of the EU and listed in Annex IIB of Council Directive 2000/29/EC. Protected zones are in place in ...

References

  1. Balachowsky, A., 1949. Faune de France. 50 Coleoptères Scolytides. Lechevalier, Paris. 320 pp.
  2. Balogun, R.A., 1970. The life-history and habits of the larch bark beetle, Ips cembrae (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), in the North-East of Scotland. The Canadian Entomologist 102, 226–239.
  3. Bossard, M., Feranec, J., Otahel, J., 2000. CORINE land cover technical guide - Addendum 2000. Technical Report 40, European Environment Agency. https://www.eea.europa.eu/ds_resolveuid/032TFUPGVR , INRMM-MiD:13106045 .
  4. Bright, D.E.,
 

Pest categorisation of Ips duplicatus

  
EFSA Journal, Vol. 15, No. 10. (October 2017), e05040, https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2017.5040

Abstract

The Panel on Plant Health performed a pest categorisation of the double-spined bark beetle, Ips duplicatus (Sahlberg, 1836) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), for the EU. I. duplicatus is a well-defined and distinguishable species, native to Europe and attacking mainly spruce (Picea spp.) but also observed on pine (Pinus spp.) and larch (Larix spp.). It is distributed in 15 EU Member States and is locally spreading in some of them. I. duplicatus is listed in Annex IIB of Council Directive 2000/29/EC. Protected zones ...

References

  1. Bakke, A., 1975. Aggregation pheromone in the bark beetle Ips duplicatus. Norwegian Journal of Entomology 22(1), 67–70.
  2. Balachowsky, A., 1949. Faune de France. 50. Coleoptères Scolytides. Lechevalier, Paris, 320 pp.
  3. Bossard, M., Feranec, J., Otahel, J., 2000. CORINE land cover technical guide - Addendum 2000. Tech. Rep. 40, European Environment Agency. https://www.eea.europa.eu/ds_resolveuid/032TFUPGVR , INRMM-MiD:13106045 .
  4. Bright, D.E., Skidmore, R.E., 2002. A catalogue of Scolytidae and Platypodidae
 

Pest categorisation of Ips amitinus

  
EFSA Journal, Vol. 15, No. 10. (October 2017), e05038, https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2017.5038

Abstract

The Panel on Plant Health performed a pest categorisation of the small spruce bark beetle, Ips amitinus (Eichhoff) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), for the EU. I. amitinus is a well-defined and distinguishable species, native to Europe and attacking mainly spruce (Picea spp.) and pine (Pinus spp.) and sporadically fir (Abies spp.) and larch (Larix spp.). It is distributed in 16 EU Member States and is locally spreading in some. The pest is listed in Annex IIB of Council Directive 2000/29/EC. Protected zones ...

References

  1. Bakke, A., 1968. Ecological studies on bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) associated with Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in Norway with particular reference to the influence of temperature. Meddelelser fra det Norske Skogsforsoksvesen 21, 441–602.
  2. Balachowsky, A., 1949. Faune de France. 50. Coleoptères Scolytides. Lechevalier, Paris. 320 pp.
  3. Bossard, M., Feranec, J., Otahel, J., 2000. CORINE land cover technical guide - Addendum 2000. Tech. Rep. 40, European Environment Agency. https://www.eea.europa.eu/ds_resolveuid/032TFUPGVR
 

Pest categorisation of Ips sexdentatus

  
EFSA Journal, Vol. 15, No. 11. (November 2017), e04999, https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2017.4999

Abstract

The Panel on Plant Health performed a pest categorisation of the six-toothed bark beetle, Ips sexdentatus (Börner) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), for the EU. I. sexdentatus is a well-defined and distinguishable species, native to Eurasia and recognised mainly as a pest of pine (Pinus spp., in the pest's whole range) and spruce (mainly Picea orientalis in Turkey and Georgia). It also might occasionally attack Larix spp. and Abies spp. It is distributed throughout the EU (24 Member States). It is a protected ...

References

  1. Agbaba, S.N., Celepirovic, N., 2008. Health condition of the forest vegetation on the island of Veliki Brijun, National Park Brijuni, Croatia. Radovi Sumarskog Fakulteta Univerziteta u Sarajevu 38, 35–45.
  2. Arefin, V.S., 1983. A method of estimating Ips sexdentatus Coleoptera Ipidae density of egg production. Lesovedenie 1, 56–59.
  3. Bakke, A., 1968. Ecological studies on bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) associated with Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in Norway with particular reference to the
 

Trees and shrubs as invasive alien species - 2013 update of the global database

  
Diversity and Distributions, Vol. 19, No. 8. (August 2013), pp. 1093-1094, https://doi.org/10.1111/ddi.12075

Abstract

The global database of invasive trees and shrubs (Richardson & Rejmánek, 2011; Diversity Distrib. 17, 788-809) has been updated, resulting in a total of 751 species (434 trees and 317 shrubs) from 90 families. Ten originally listed species were deleted (synonyms, inconclusive identification, etc.) and 139 additional invasive species (86 trees and 53 shrubs) are now included in the database. For many species, new records on their adventive distributions are added. The updated database also includes the native ranges for all ...

 

Bridging national and reference definitions for harmonizing forest statistics

  
Forest Science (June 2012), pp. 214-223, https://doi.org/10.5849/forsci.10-067

Abstract

Harmonization is the process of making information and estimates comparable across administrative borders. The degree to which harmonization succeeds depends on many factors, including the conciseness of the definitions, the availability and quality of data, and the methods used to convert an estimate according to a local definition to an estimate according to the reference definition. Harmonization requires the availability and use of common reference definitions and methods for converting from estimates based on national definitions to estimates based on reference ...

 

Comparison of methods used in European National Forest Inventories for the estimation of volume increment: towards harmonisation

  
Annals of Forest Science, Vol. 73, No. 4. (2016), pp. 807-821, https://doi.org/10.1007/s13595-016-0554-5

Abstract

[Key message] The increment estimation methods of European NFIs were explored by means of 12 essential NFI features. The results indicate various differences among NFIs within the commonly acknowledged methodological frame. The perspectives for harmonisation at the European level are promising. [Context] The estimation of increment is implemented differently in European National Forest Inventories (NFIs) due to different historical origins of NFIs and sampling designs and field assessments accommodated to country-specific conditions. The aspired harmonisation of increment estimation requires a comparison and an analysis ...

 

Forest fires in Europe, Middle East and North Africa 2016

  

Abstract

[Excerpt: Foreword] Forests, agricultural land and natural areas continue to burn, both within and outside Europe. Lives of European citizens are lost and endangered. By early September 2017, wildfires have already burnt nearly 700 000 ha of land in the EU; hence this season will most likely be remembered as one of the most devastating wildfire seasons in Europe since records began. Moreover, sadly this year’s fires have taken a huge toll of lives in Southern Europe. Extreme weather conditions such ...

 

Forest structures across Europe

  
Geoscience Data Journal, Vol. 4, No. 1. (June 2017), pp. 17-28, https://doi.org/10.1002/gdj3.45

Abstract

Pan-European gridded datasets derived from a single methodology to inform researchers, policy makers and conservationists on the state of forest structures would improve our ability to study forests independent of political boundaries and along various gradients. Although National Forest Inventory (NFI) data provide information on the characteristics of forests, including carbon content, volume, height, and age, such spatial data is not available across Europe. Before this study, remotely sensed data covering all of Europe had not been utilized to produce multiple ...

 

Influence of tree species on continental differences in boreal fires and climate feedbacks

  
Nature Geoscience, Vol. 8, No. 3. (2 February 2015), pp. 228-234, https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo2352

Abstract

Wildfires are common in boreal forests around the globe and strongly influence ecosystem processes. However, North American forests support more high-intensity crown fires than Eurasia, where lower-intensity surface fires are common. These two types of fire can result in different net effects on climate as a consequence of their contrasting impacts on terrestrial albedo and carbon stocks. Here we use remote-sensing imagery, climate reanalysis data and forest inventories to evaluate differences in boreal fire dynamics between North America and Eurasia and ...

 

Pest categorisation of Ips typographus

  
EFSA Journal, Vol. 15, No. 7. (July 2017), 4881, https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2017.4881

Abstract

The Panel on Plant Health performed a pest categorisation of the eight-toothed spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), for the EU. I. typographus is a well-defined and distinguishable species, recognised mainly as a pest of spruce (Picea spp.) in Eurasia. It also attacks other conifers such as Abies spp., Larix spp., Pinus spp. and Pseudotsuga menziesii. Native to Eurasia, I. typographus has spread from the native range of spruce to new areas in Eurasia where spruce has been ...

References

  1. Anderbrant, O., 1990. Gallery construction and oviposition of the bark beetle Ips typographus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) at different breeding densities. Ecological Entomology 15, 1–8.
  2. Bakke, A., 1970. Evidence of a population aggregating pheromone in Ips typographus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Contributions from Boyce Thompson Institute 24, 309–310.
  3. Bakke, A., 1976. Spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus: pheromone production and field response to synthetic pheromones. Naturwissenschaften 63, 92–92.
  4. Bakke, A., 1989. The recent
 

Pest categorisation of Dendroctonus micans

  
EFSA Journal, Vol. 15, No. 7. (July 2017), 4880, https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2017.4880

Abstract

The Panel on Plant Health performed a pest categorisation of the great spruce bark beetle, Dendroctonus micans (Kugelann), (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), for the EU. D. micans is a well-defined and distinguishable species, recognised mainly as a pest of spruce (Picea spp.) and pine (Pinus spp.) in Eurasia. Attacks on other conifers (Abies spp., Larix decidua, Pseudotsuga menziesii) are also reported. Supposedly originating from north-eastern Eurasia, D. micans has spread westward and is now distributed throughout the EU (22 Member States). It ...

References

  1. Akinci, H.A., Ozcan, G.E., Eroglu, M., 2009. Impacts of site effects on losses of oriental spruce during Dendroctonus micans (Kug.) outbreaks in Turkey. African Journal of Biotechnology 8, 3934–3939. https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ajb/article/view/62085 .
  2. Balachowsky, A., 1949. Faune de France. 50. Coleoptères Scolytides. Lechevalier, Paris, 320 pp.
  3. Bergmiller, F., 1903. Dendroctonus micans und Rhizophagus grandis. Zentralblatt für das gesamte Forstwesen, 29, 252–256.
  4. Bevan, D., King, C.J., 1983. Dendroctonus micans
 

The European Fire Database: technical specifications and data submission

  
Vol. 26546 (2014), https://doi.org/10.2788/2175

Abstract

The European Fire Database is an important component of the European Forest Fire Information System (EFFIS), the EC focal point of information on forest fires established by the Joint Research Centre (JRC) and the Directorate General for Environment to provide up to date and harmonized information on forest fires in Europe. As of 2014 EFFIS is part of the Forest Information System for Europe (FISE), following the new EU Forest Strategy adopted in 2013. The Fire Database is the largest repository ...

 

Tree diversity reduces pest damage in mature forests across Europe

  
Biology Letters, Vol. 12, No. 4. (27 April 2016), 20151037, https://doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2015.1037

Abstract

Forest pest damage is expected to increase with global change. Tree diversity could mitigate this impact, but unambiguous demonstration of the diversity–resistance relationship is lacking in semi-natural mature forests. We used a network of 208 forest plots sampled along two orthogonal gradients of increasing tree species richness and latitudes to assess total tree defoliation in Europe. We found a positive relationship between tree species richness and resistance to insect herbivores: overall damage to broadleaved species significantly decreased with the number of ...

 

Assessing European wild fire vulnerability

  
Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 14 (April 2012), 9452

Abstract

Wild fire vulnerability is a measure of potential socio-economic damage caused by a fire in a specific area. As such it is an important component of long-term fire risk management, helping policy-makers take informed decisions about adequate expenditures for fire prevention and suppression, and to target those regions at highest risk. This paper presents a first approach to assess wild fire vulnerability at the European level. A conservative approach was chosen that assesses the cost of restoring the previous land cover after a potential fire. Based on the CORINE ...

 

Archetypical patterns and trajectories of land systems in Europe

  
Regional Environmental Change (2015), pp. 1-18, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10113-015-0907-x

Abstract

Assessments of land-system change have dominantly focused on conversions among broad land-use categories, whereas intensity changes within these categories have received less attention. Considering that both modes of land change typically result in diverse patterns and trajectories of land-system change, there is a need to develop approaches to reduce this complexity. Using Europe as a case study, we applied a clustering approach based on self-organising maps and 12 land-use indicators to map (1) land-system archetypes for the year 2006, defined as ...

 

Countering European brain drain

  
Science, Vol. 356, No. 6339. (19 May 2017), pp. 695-696, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aan3920

Abstract

[Excerpt] [...] Mobile European researchers who went to the United States were significantly more likely to report strong positive career effects than their mobile peers who moved within the European Union (EU) (up to twice as high) [...] In search of a possible “elite” brain drain from Europe, we examined return rates for a sample of Europeans pursuing Ph.D. degrees in economics in the United States (3). Those better students who received Ph.D. degrees from top U.S. institutes are more likely ...

 

A dataset of forest biomass structure for Eurasia

  
Scientific Data, Vol. 4 (16 May 2017), 170070, https://doi.org/10.1038/sdata.2017.70

Abstract

The most comprehensive dataset of in situ destructive sampling measurements of forest biomass in Eurasia have been compiled from a combination of experiments undertaken by the authors and from scientific publications. Biomass is reported as four components: live trees (stem, bark, branches, foliage, roots); understory (above- and below ground); green forest floor (above- and below ground); and coarse woody debris (snags, logs, dead branches of living trees and dead roots), consisting of 10,351 unique records of sample plots and 9,613 sample ...

 

Chorological maps for the main European woody species

  
Data in Brief, Vol. 12 (June 2017), pp. 662-666, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2017.05.007

Abstract

A novel chorological data compilation for the main European tree and shrub species is presented. This dataset was produced by combining numerous and heterogeneous data collected from 20th century atlas monographs providing complete species distribution maps, and from more recent national to regional atlases, occurrence geodatabases and scientific literature. The dataset is composed of numerous species distribution maps available in geographical information system (GIS) format, created by compiling, evaluating and synthesizing data of all collected sources. The geometry of the individual ...

 

Citizen science application - Invasive Alien Species in Europe

  

Abstract

The JRC, within the framework of MYGEOSS initiative devoted to citizen science, has developed an application for Apple and Android smartphone devices called “Invasive Alien Species Europe”, which allows users to report the presence of the 37 species currently listed as Invasive Alien Species (IAS) of Union concern (EU Regulation 1143/2014) on the European territory. User friendly factsheets and pictures guide the user towards the species likely to have been observed. Once validated, data will be fed into the European Alien ...

 

Critical review and meta-analysis of ambient particulate matter source apportionment using receptor models in Europe

  
Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 69 (April 2013), pp. 94-108, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2012.11.009

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] Receptor models evolve towards tools with refined uncertainty treatment. [::] Positive Matrix Factorization and Chemical Mass Balance are the most used models. [::] Gas-to-particle conversion is the main PM mass and particulate organic carbon source. [::] To abate exceedances, secondary inorganic and traffic are the main sources to target. [::] More long term speciated PM datasets would foster source identification studies. [Abstract] A review was conducted of the published literature on source apportionment of ambient particulate matter (PM) in Europe using receptor ...

 

Network analysis reveals why Xylella fastidiosa will persist in Europe

  
Scientific Reports, Vol. 7, No. 1. (6 March 2017), https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-00077-z

Abstract

The insect vector borne bacterium Xylella fastidiosa was first detected in olive trees in Southern Italy in 2013, and identified as the main culprit behind the ‘olive quick decline syndrome’. Since then, the disease has spread rapidly through Italy’s main olive oil producing region. The epidemiology of the outbreak is largely unstudied, with the list of X. fastidiosa hosts and vectors in Europe likely incomplete, and the role humans play in dispersal unknown. These knowledge gaps have led to management strategies ...

 

Robust modelling of the impacts of climate change on the habitat suitability of forest tree species

  
Keywords: abies-alba   array-of-factors   artificial-neural-networks   bioclimatic-predictors   change-factor   climate-change   data-uncertainty   diversity   environmental-modelling   europe   extrapolation-uncertainty   featured-publication   forest-resources   free-scientific-knowledge   free-scientific-software   free-software   fuzzy   gdal   genetic-diversity   geospatial   geospatial-semantic-array-programming   gnu-bash   gnu-linux   gnu-octave   habitat-suitability   integration-techniques   mastrave-modelling-library   maximum-habitat-suitability   modelling-uncertainty   multiplicity   peseta-series   python   regional-climate-models   relative-distance-similarity   robust-modelling   semantic-array-programming   semantic-constraints   semantics   spatial-disaggregation   sres-a1b   supervised-training   unsupervised-training  

Abstract

[::] In Europe, forests play a strategic multifunctional role, serving economic, social and environmental purposes. However, their complex interaction with climate change is not yet well understood. [::] The JRC PESETA project series proposes a consistent multi-sectoral assessment of the impacts of climate change in Europe. [::] Within the PESETA II project, a robust methodology is introduced for modelling the habitat suitability of forest tree species (2071-2100 time horizon). [::] Abies alba (the silver fir) is selected as case study: a main European tree ...

References

  1. European Commission, 2013. Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions - A new EU forest strategy: for forests and the forest based sector. No. COM(2013) 659 final. Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=celex:52013DC0659 , INRMM-MiD:12642065 .
  2. European Commission, 2013. Commission staff working document accompanying the document: Communication from the commission to
 

Modeling the impacts of climate change on forest fire danger in Europe: sectorial results of the PESETA II Project

  

Abstract

This constitutes a sectorial analysis of the PESETA II project of the European Commission Joint Research Center in the area of wildfires. [\n] Wildfires are a serious threat to European forests, and climate is the most important driving factor affecting wildfire potential over time (Flannigan et al., 2000). Wildfires are an environmental, economic and social problem particularly in the southern European countries, where wildfires regularly burn thousands of hectares of forests and other lands. Changes in wildfire regimes may have strong impacts on natural resources and ecosystems stability, ...

 

Mapping wood production in European forests

  
Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 357 (December 2015), pp. 228-238, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2015.08.007

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] We constructed high-resolution wood production maps for Europe. [::] Productivity, tree species and ruggedness affect wood production patterns. [::] Using these factors improves disaggregation of wood production statistics. [Abstract] Wood production is an important forest use, impacting a range of other ecosystem services. However, information on the spatial patterns in wood production is limited and often available only for larger administrative units. In this study, we developed high-resolution wood production maps for European forests. We collected wood production statistics for 29 European countries from ...

 

Post-normal institutional identities: quality assurance, reflexivity and ethos of care

  

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] Given the current crises of legitimacy and quality in mainstream science, institutions that produce and govern science and those that provide scientific advice to policy need to change their modus operandis; we advocate for an ethos of care. [::] Post-normal science and other frameworks of scientific knowledge production may inspire trustfulness in institutions that provide scientific advice to policy. [::] In Europe, the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission has the necessary scaffolding to advise policy in view of public interest, ...

 

Meteorological droughts in Europe: events and impacts - Past trends and future projections

  

Abstract

[Excerpt: Executive Summary] Observational records from 1950 onwards and climate projections for the 21st century provide evidence that droughts are a recurrent climate feature in large parts of Europe, especially in the Mediterranean, but also in western, south-eastern and central Europe. Trends over the past 60 years show an increasing frequency, duration and intensity of droughts in these regions, while a negative trend has been observed in north-eastern Europe. With a changing climate, this tendency is likely to be reinforced during the 21st century, affecting a wide range of ...

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