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Selection: with tag europe [at least 200 articles] 

 

An assessment of forest biomass maps in Europe using harmonized national statistics and inventory plots

  
Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 409 (February 2018), pp. 489-498, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2017.11.047

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] We assessed four biomass maps for Europe using harmonized biomass reference data. [::] The harmonized statistics were derived from ∼430,000 plots from 26 countries. [::] All maps overestimated at low biomass and underestimated at high biomass. [::] All maps had an overall negative bias (23–43 Mg ha−1 at national level). [::] The maps relative errors was 29–40% at national level and 63–72% at cell level. [Abstract] Maps of aboveground forest biomass based on different input data and modelling approaches have been recently produced for Europe, opening up the ...

 

World’s carbon emissions set to spike by 2% in 2017

  
Nature, Vol. 551, No. 7680. (13 November 2017), https://doi.org/10.1038/nature.2017.22995

Abstract

Increased coal use in China appears to be driving the first increase in global greenhouse-gas output since 2014. [Excerpt] [...] Humanity’s carbon emissions are likely to surge by 2% in 2017, driven mainly by increased coal consumption in China, scientists reported on 13 November. The unexpected rise would end a three-year period in which emissions have remained flat despite a growing global economy. [...] Several factors caused the world’s CO2 emissions to level out from 2014 to 2016, including an economic slowdown ...

 

Pest categorisation of Pseudocercospora pini-densiflorae

  
EFSA Journal, Vol. 15, No. 11. (November 2017), e05029, https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2017.5029

Abstract

Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Plant Health (PLH) Panel performed a pest categorisation of Pseudocercospora pini-densiflorae, a well-defined and distinguishable fungal species of the family Mycosphaerellaceae. The regulated harmful organism is the anamorph Cercoseptoria pini-densiflorae (synonym Cercospora pini-densiflorae) with the corresponding teleomorph Mycosphaerella gibsonii. P. pini-densiflorae causes a needle blight of Pinus spp. also known as Cercospora blight of pines or Cercospora needle blight. P. pini-densiflorae is reported from sub-Saharan Africa, Central and South America, Asia and ...

References

  1. Anon, 2015. PM 7/46 (3) Lecanosticta acicola (formerly Mycosphaerella dearnessii), Dothistroma septosporum (formerly Mycosphaerella pini) and Dothistroma pini. EPPO Bulletin 45, 163–182.
  2. Bossard, M., Feranec, J., Otahel, J., 2000. CORINE land cover technical guide - addendum 2000. Tech. Rep. 40, European Environment Agency. https://www.eea.europa.eu/ds_resolveuid/032TFUPGVR .
  3. Büttner, G., Kosztra, B., Maucha, G., Pataki, R., 2012. Implementation and achievements of CLC2006. Tech. rep., European Environment Agency. http://www.eea.europa.eu/ds_resolveuid/GQ4JECM8TB .
 

Pest categorisation of Gremmeniella abietina

  
EFSA Journal, Vol. 15, No. 11. (November 2017), e05030, https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2017.5030

Abstract

Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Plant Health (PLH) Panel performed a pest categorisation of Gremmeniella abietina, a well-defined species and distinguishable fungus of the family Godroniaceae. The species G. abietina includes several varieties, races and biotypes that are found in different geographical locations, on different hosts and that vary in aggressiveness. The pathogen causes diseases on Pinus species and other conifers such as Abies spp., Picea spp., Larix spp. and Pseudotsuga spp. known as Scleroderris canker in ...

References

  1. Ahlqvist, B., Karlman, M., Witzell, J., 1996. Gremmeniella-infected Pinus contorta as raw material in the production of kraft pulp. European Journal of Forest Pathology 26, 113–121.
  2. Anon, 2009. PM 7/92(1): Gremmeniella abietina. EPPO Bulletin 39, 310–317.
  3. Barbeito, I., Brücker, R., Rixen, C., Bebi, P., 2013. Snow fungi-induced mortality of Pinus cembra at the alpine treeline: evidence from plantations. Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research 45, 455–470.
  4. Bernhold, A., Witzell,
 

Pest categorisation of Ips cembrae

  
EFSA Journal, Vol. 15, No. 11. (October 2017), e05039, https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2017.5039

Abstract

The Panel on Plant Health performed a pest categorisation of the large larch bark beetle, Ips cembrae (Heer) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), for the EU. I. cembrae is a well-defined and distinguishable species, native to Europe and recognised mainly as a pest of larch (Larix spp.) and occasionally of pine (Pinus spp.) and spruce (Picea spp.). It is distributed in 16 Member States of the EU and listed in Annex IIB of Council Directive 2000/29/EC. Protected zones are in place in ...

References

  1. Balachowsky, A., 1949. Faune de France. 50 Coleoptères Scolytides. Lechevalier, Paris. 320 pp.
  2. Balogun, R.A., 1970. The life-history and habits of the larch bark beetle, Ips cembrae (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), in the North-East of Scotland. The Canadian Entomologist 102, 226–239.
  3. Bossard, M., Feranec, J., Otahel, J., 2000. CORINE land cover technical guide - Addendum 2000. Technical Report 40, European Environment Agency. https://www.eea.europa.eu/ds_resolveuid/032TFUPGVR , INRMM-MiD:13106045 .
  4. Bright, D.E.,
 

Pest categorisation of Ips duplicatus

  
EFSA Journal, Vol. 15, No. 10. (October 2017), e05040, https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2017.5040

Abstract

The Panel on Plant Health performed a pest categorisation of the double-spined bark beetle, Ips duplicatus (Sahlberg, 1836) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), for the EU. I. duplicatus is a well-defined and distinguishable species, native to Europe and attacking mainly spruce (Picea spp.) but also observed on pine (Pinus spp.) and larch (Larix spp.). It is distributed in 15 EU Member States and is locally spreading in some of them. I. duplicatus is listed in Annex IIB of Council Directive 2000/29/EC. Protected zones ...

References

  1. Bakke, A., 1975. Aggregation pheromone in the bark beetle Ips duplicatus. Norwegian Journal of Entomology 22(1), 67–70.
  2. Balachowsky, A., 1949. Faune de France. 50. Coleoptères Scolytides. Lechevalier, Paris, 320 pp.
  3. Bossard, M., Feranec, J., Otahel, J., 2000. CORINE land cover technical guide - Addendum 2000. Tech. Rep. 40, European Environment Agency. https://www.eea.europa.eu/ds_resolveuid/032TFUPGVR , INRMM-MiD:13106045 .
  4. Bright, D.E., Skidmore, R.E., 2002. A catalogue of Scolytidae and Platypodidae
 

Pest categorisation of Ips amitinus

  
EFSA Journal, Vol. 15, No. 10. (October 2017), e05038, https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2017.5038

Abstract

The Panel on Plant Health performed a pest categorisation of the small spruce bark beetle, Ips amitinus (Eichhoff) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), for the EU. I. amitinus is a well-defined and distinguishable species, native to Europe and attacking mainly spruce (Picea spp.) and pine (Pinus spp.) and sporadically fir (Abies spp.) and larch (Larix spp.). It is distributed in 16 EU Member States and is locally spreading in some. The pest is listed in Annex IIB of Council Directive 2000/29/EC. Protected zones ...

References

  1. Bakke, A., 1968. Ecological studies on bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) associated with Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in Norway with particular reference to the influence of temperature. Meddelelser fra det Norske Skogsforsoksvesen 21, 441–602.
  2. Balachowsky, A., 1949. Faune de France. 50. Coleoptères Scolytides. Lechevalier, Paris. 320 pp.
  3. Bossard, M., Feranec, J., Otahel, J., 2000. CORINE land cover technical guide - Addendum 2000. Tech. Rep. 40, European Environment Agency. https://www.eea.europa.eu/ds_resolveuid/032TFUPGVR
 

Pest categorisation of Ips sexdentatus

  
EFSA Journal, Vol. 15, No. 11. (November 2017), e04999, https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2017.4999

Abstract

The Panel on Plant Health performed a pest categorisation of the six-toothed bark beetle, Ips sexdentatus (Börner) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), for the EU. I. sexdentatus is a well-defined and distinguishable species, native to Eurasia and recognised mainly as a pest of pine (Pinus spp., in the pest's whole range) and spruce (mainly Picea orientalis in Turkey and Georgia). It also might occasionally attack Larix spp. and Abies spp. It is distributed throughout the EU (24 Member States). It is a protected ...

References

  1. Agbaba, S.N., Celepirovic, N., 2008. Health condition of the forest vegetation on the island of Veliki Brijun, National Park Brijuni, Croatia. Radovi Sumarskog Fakulteta Univerziteta u Sarajevu 38, 35–45.
  2. Arefin, V.S., 1983. A method of estimating Ips sexdentatus Coleoptera Ipidae density of egg production. Lesovedenie 1, 56–59.
  3. Bakke, A., 1968. Ecological studies on bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) associated with Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in Norway with particular reference to the
 

Trees and shrubs as invasive alien species - 2013 update of the global database

  
Diversity and Distributions, Vol. 19, No. 8. (August 2013), pp. 1093-1094, https://doi.org/10.1111/ddi.12075

Abstract

The global database of invasive trees and shrubs (Richardson & Rejmánek, 2011; Diversity Distrib. 17, 788-809) has been updated, resulting in a total of 751 species (434 trees and 317 shrubs) from 90 families. Ten originally listed species were deleted (synonyms, inconclusive identification, etc.) and 139 additional invasive species (86 trees and 53 shrubs) are now included in the database. For many species, new records on their adventive distributions are added. The updated database also includes the native ranges for all ...

 

Bridging national and reference definitions for harmonizing forest statistics

  
Forest Science (June 2012), pp. 214-223, https://doi.org/10.5849/forsci.10-067

Abstract

Harmonization is the process of making information and estimates comparable across administrative borders. The degree to which harmonization succeeds depends on many factors, including the conciseness of the definitions, the availability and quality of data, and the methods used to convert an estimate according to a local definition to an estimate according to the reference definition. Harmonization requires the availability and use of common reference definitions and methods for converting from estimates based on national definitions to estimates based on reference ...

 

Comparison of methods used in European National Forest Inventories for the estimation of volume increment: towards harmonisation

  
Annals of Forest Science, Vol. 73, No. 4. (2016), pp. 807-821, https://doi.org/10.1007/s13595-016-0554-5

Abstract

[Key message] The increment estimation methods of European NFIs were explored by means of 12 essential NFI features. The results indicate various differences among NFIs within the commonly acknowledged methodological frame. The perspectives for harmonisation at the European level are promising. [Context] The estimation of increment is implemented differently in European National Forest Inventories (NFIs) due to different historical origins of NFIs and sampling designs and field assessments accommodated to country-specific conditions. The aspired harmonisation of increment estimation requires a comparison and an analysis ...

 

Forest fires in Europe, Middle East and North Africa 2016

  

Abstract

[Excerpt: Foreword] Forests, agricultural land and natural areas continue to burn, both within and outside Europe. Lives of European citizens are lost and endangered. By early September 2017, wildfires have already burnt nearly 700 000 ha of land in the EU; hence this season will most likely be remembered as one of the most devastating wildfire seasons in Europe since records began. Moreover, sadly this year’s fires have taken a huge toll of lives in Southern Europe. Extreme weather conditions such ...

 

Forest structures across Europe

  
Geoscience Data Journal, Vol. 4, No. 1. (June 2017), pp. 17-28, https://doi.org/10.1002/gdj3.45

Abstract

Pan-European gridded datasets derived from a single methodology to inform researchers, policy makers and conservationists on the state of forest structures would improve our ability to study forests independent of political boundaries and along various gradients. Although National Forest Inventory (NFI) data provide information on the characteristics of forests, including carbon content, volume, height, and age, such spatial data is not available across Europe. Before this study, remotely sensed data covering all of Europe had not been utilized to produce multiple ...

 

Influence of tree species on continental differences in boreal fires and climate feedbacks

  
Nature Geoscience, Vol. 8, No. 3. (2 February 2015), pp. 228-234, https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo2352

Abstract

Wildfires are common in boreal forests around the globe and strongly influence ecosystem processes. However, North American forests support more high-intensity crown fires than Eurasia, where lower-intensity surface fires are common. These two types of fire can result in different net effects on climate as a consequence of their contrasting impacts on terrestrial albedo and carbon stocks. Here we use remote-sensing imagery, climate reanalysis data and forest inventories to evaluate differences in boreal fire dynamics between North America and Eurasia and ...

 

Pest categorisation of Ips typographus

  
EFSA Journal, Vol. 15, No. 7. (July 2017), 4881, https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2017.4881

Abstract

The Panel on Plant Health performed a pest categorisation of the eight-toothed spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), for the EU. I. typographus is a well-defined and distinguishable species, recognised mainly as a pest of spruce (Picea spp.) in Eurasia. It also attacks other conifers such as Abies spp., Larix spp., Pinus spp. and Pseudotsuga menziesii. Native to Eurasia, I. typographus has spread from the native range of spruce to new areas in Eurasia where spruce has been ...

References

  1. Anderbrant, O., 1990. Gallery construction and oviposition of the bark beetle Ips typographus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) at different breeding densities. Ecological Entomology 15, 1–8.
  2. Bakke, A., 1970. Evidence of a population aggregating pheromone in Ips typographus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Contributions from Boyce Thompson Institute 24, 309–310.
  3. Bakke, A., 1976. Spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus: pheromone production and field response to synthetic pheromones. Naturwissenschaften 63, 92–92.
  4. Bakke, A., 1989. The recent
 

Pest categorisation of Dendroctonus micans

  
EFSA Journal, Vol. 15, No. 7. (July 2017), 4880, https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2017.4880

Abstract

The Panel on Plant Health performed a pest categorisation of the great spruce bark beetle, Dendroctonus micans (Kugelann), (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), for the EU. D. micans is a well-defined and distinguishable species, recognised mainly as a pest of spruce (Picea spp.) and pine (Pinus spp.) in Eurasia. Attacks on other conifers (Abies spp., Larix decidua, Pseudotsuga menziesii) are also reported. Supposedly originating from north-eastern Eurasia, D. micans has spread westward and is now distributed throughout the EU (22 Member States). It ...

References

  1. Akinci, H.A., Ozcan, G.E., Eroglu, M., 2009. Impacts of site effects on losses of oriental spruce during Dendroctonus micans (Kug.) outbreaks in Turkey. African Journal of Biotechnology 8, 3934–3939. https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ajb/article/view/62085 .
  2. Balachowsky, A., 1949. Faune de France. 50. Coleoptères Scolytides. Lechevalier, Paris, 320 pp.
  3. Bergmiller, F., 1903. Dendroctonus micans und Rhizophagus grandis. Zentralblatt für das gesamte Forstwesen, 29, 252–256.
  4. Bevan, D., King, C.J., 1983. Dendroctonus micans
 

The European Fire Database: technical specifications and data submission

  
Vol. 26546 (2014), https://doi.org/10.2788/2175

Abstract

The European Fire Database is an important component of the European Forest Fire Information System (EFFIS), the EC focal point of information on forest fires established by the Joint Research Centre (JRC) and the Directorate General for Environment to provide up to date and harmonized information on forest fires in Europe. As of 2014 EFFIS is part of the Forest Information System for Europe (FISE), following the new EU Forest Strategy adopted in 2013. The Fire Database is the largest repository ...

 

Tree diversity reduces pest damage in mature forests across Europe

  
Biology Letters, Vol. 12, No. 4. (27 April 2016), 20151037, https://doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2015.1037

Abstract

Forest pest damage is expected to increase with global change. Tree diversity could mitigate this impact, but unambiguous demonstration of the diversity–resistance relationship is lacking in semi-natural mature forests. We used a network of 208 forest plots sampled along two orthogonal gradients of increasing tree species richness and latitudes to assess total tree defoliation in Europe. We found a positive relationship between tree species richness and resistance to insect herbivores: overall damage to broadleaved species significantly decreased with the number of ...

 

Assessing European wild fire vulnerability

  
Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 14 (April 2012), 9452

Abstract

Wild fire vulnerability is a measure of potential socio-economic damage caused by a fire in a specific area. As such it is an important component of long-term fire risk management, helping policy-makers take informed decisions about adequate expenditures for fire prevention and suppression, and to target those regions at highest risk. This paper presents a first approach to assess wild fire vulnerability at the European level. A conservative approach was chosen that assesses the cost of restoring the previous land cover after a potential fire. Based on the CORINE ...

 

Archetypical patterns and trajectories of land systems in Europe

  
Regional Environmental Change (2015), pp. 1-18, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10113-015-0907-x

Abstract

Assessments of land-system change have dominantly focused on conversions among broad land-use categories, whereas intensity changes within these categories have received less attention. Considering that both modes of land change typically result in diverse patterns and trajectories of land-system change, there is a need to develop approaches to reduce this complexity. Using Europe as a case study, we applied a clustering approach based on self-organising maps and 12 land-use indicators to map (1) land-system archetypes for the year 2006, defined as ...

 

Countering European brain drain

  
Science, Vol. 356, No. 6339. (19 May 2017), pp. 695-696, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aan3920

Abstract

[Excerpt] [...] Mobile European researchers who went to the United States were significantly more likely to report strong positive career effects than their mobile peers who moved within the European Union (EU) (up to twice as high) [...] In search of a possible “elite” brain drain from Europe, we examined return rates for a sample of Europeans pursuing Ph.D. degrees in economics in the United States (3). Those better students who received Ph.D. degrees from top U.S. institutes are more likely ...

 

A dataset of forest biomass structure for Eurasia

  
Scientific Data, Vol. 4 (16 May 2017), 170070, https://doi.org/10.1038/sdata.2017.70

Abstract

The most comprehensive dataset of in situ destructive sampling measurements of forest biomass in Eurasia have been compiled from a combination of experiments undertaken by the authors and from scientific publications. Biomass is reported as four components: live trees (stem, bark, branches, foliage, roots); understory (above- and below ground); green forest floor (above- and below ground); and coarse woody debris (snags, logs, dead branches of living trees and dead roots), consisting of 10,351 unique records of sample plots and 9,613 sample ...

 

Chorological maps for the main European woody species

  
Data in Brief, Vol. 12 (June 2017), pp. 662-666, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2017.05.007

Abstract

A novel chorological data compilation for the main European tree and shrub species is presented. This dataset was produced by combining numerous and heterogeneous data collected from 20th century atlas monographs providing complete species distribution maps, and from more recent national to regional atlases, occurrence geodatabases and scientific literature. The dataset is composed of numerous species distribution maps available in geographical information system (GIS) format, created by compiling, evaluating and synthesizing data of all collected sources. The geometry of the individual ...

 

Citizen science application - Invasive Alien Species in Europe

  

Abstract

The JRC, within the framework of MYGEOSS initiative devoted to citizen science, has developed an application for Apple and Android smartphone devices called “Invasive Alien Species Europe”, which allows users to report the presence of the 37 species currently listed as Invasive Alien Species (IAS) of Union concern (EU Regulation 1143/2014) on the European territory. User friendly factsheets and pictures guide the user towards the species likely to have been observed. Once validated, data will be fed into the European Alien ...

 

Critical review and meta-analysis of ambient particulate matter source apportionment using receptor models in Europe

  
Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 69 (April 2013), pp. 94-108, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2012.11.009

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] Receptor models evolve towards tools with refined uncertainty treatment. [::] Positive Matrix Factorization and Chemical Mass Balance are the most used models. [::] Gas-to-particle conversion is the main PM mass and particulate organic carbon source. [::] To abate exceedances, secondary inorganic and traffic are the main sources to target. [::] More long term speciated PM datasets would foster source identification studies. [Abstract] A review was conducted of the published literature on source apportionment of ambient particulate matter (PM) in Europe using receptor ...

 

Network analysis reveals why Xylella fastidiosa will persist in Europe

  
Scientific Reports, Vol. 7, No. 1. (6 March 2017), https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-00077-z

Abstract

The insect vector borne bacterium Xylella fastidiosa was first detected in olive trees in Southern Italy in 2013, and identified as the main culprit behind the ‘olive quick decline syndrome’. Since then, the disease has spread rapidly through Italy’s main olive oil producing region. The epidemiology of the outbreak is largely unstudied, with the list of X. fastidiosa hosts and vectors in Europe likely incomplete, and the role humans play in dispersal unknown. These knowledge gaps have led to management strategies ...

 

Robust modelling of the impacts of climate change on the habitat suitability of forest tree species

  
Keywords: abies-alba   array-of-factors   artificial-neural-networks   bioclimatic-predictors   change-factor   climate-change   data-uncertainty   diversity   environmental-modelling   europe   extrapolation-uncertainty   featured-publication   forest-resources   free-scientific-knowledge   free-scientific-software   free-software   fuzzy   gdal   genetic-diversity   geospatial   geospatial-semantic-array-programming   gnu-bash   gnu-linux   gnu-octave   habitat-suitability   integration-techniques   mastrave-modelling-library   maximum-habitat-suitability   modelling-uncertainty   multiplicity   peseta-series   python   regional-climate-models   relative-distance-similarity   robust-modelling   semantic-array-programming   semantic-constraints   semantics   spatial-disaggregation   sres-a1b   supervised-training   unsupervised-training  

Abstract

[::] In Europe, forests play a strategic multifunctional role, serving economic, social and environmental purposes. However, their complex interaction with climate change is not yet well understood. [::] The JRC PESETA project series proposes a consistent multi-sectoral assessment of the impacts of climate change in Europe. [::] Within the PESETA II project, a robust methodology is introduced for modelling the habitat suitability of forest tree species (2071-2100 time horizon). [::] Abies alba (the silver fir) is selected as case study: a main European tree ...

References

  1. European Commission, 2013. Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions - A new EU forest strategy: for forests and the forest based sector. No. COM(2013) 659 final. Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=celex:52013DC0659 , INRMM-MiD:12642065 .
  2. European Commission, 2013. Commission staff working document accompanying the document: Communication from the commission to
 

Modeling the impacts of climate change on forest fire danger in Europe: sectorial results of the PESETA II Project

  

Abstract

This constitutes a sectorial analysis of the PESETA II project of the European Commission Joint Research Center in the area of wildfires. [\n] Wildfires are a serious threat to European forests, and climate is the most important driving factor affecting wildfire potential over time (Flannigan et al., 2000). Wildfires are an environmental, economic and social problem particularly in the southern European countries, where wildfires regularly burn thousands of hectares of forests and other lands. Changes in wildfire regimes may have strong impacts on natural resources and ecosystems stability, ...

 

Mapping wood production in European forests

  
Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 357 (December 2015), pp. 228-238, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2015.08.007

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] We constructed high-resolution wood production maps for Europe. [::] Productivity, tree species and ruggedness affect wood production patterns. [::] Using these factors improves disaggregation of wood production statistics. [Abstract] Wood production is an important forest use, impacting a range of other ecosystem services. However, information on the spatial patterns in wood production is limited and often available only for larger administrative units. In this study, we developed high-resolution wood production maps for European forests. We collected wood production statistics for 29 European countries from ...

 

Post-normal institutional identities: quality assurance, reflexivity and ethos of care

  

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] Given the current crises of legitimacy and quality in mainstream science, institutions that produce and govern science and those that provide scientific advice to policy need to change their modus operandis; we advocate for an ethos of care. [::] Post-normal science and other frameworks of scientific knowledge production may inspire trustfulness in institutions that provide scientific advice to policy. [::] In Europe, the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission has the necessary scaffolding to advise policy in view of public interest, ...

 

Meteorological droughts in Europe: events and impacts - Past trends and future projections

  

Abstract

[Excerpt: Executive Summary] Observational records from 1950 onwards and climate projections for the 21st century provide evidence that droughts are a recurrent climate feature in large parts of Europe, especially in the Mediterranean, but also in western, south-eastern and central Europe. Trends over the past 60 years show an increasing frequency, duration and intensity of droughts in these regions, while a negative trend has been observed in north-eastern Europe. With a changing climate, this tendency is likely to be reinforced during the 21st century, affecting a wide range of ...

 

Implementation and achievements of CLC2006

  
(2012)
edited by Markus Erhard
Keywords: clc   corroboration   europe   land-cover   validation  

Abstract

[Excerpt: Executive Summary] Strategic discussions among EEA member countries and the main EU institutions responsible for environmental policy, reporting and assessment have underlined an increasing need for quantitative information on the state of the environment based on timely, quality-assured data, concerning in particular land cover and land use. Based on these requirements EEA has been collaborating since 2006 with the European Commission and the European Space Agency on the implementation of a fast track service on land monitoring as part of the implementation of GMES. [\n] CORINE Land Cover ...

 

Deadly new wheat disease threatens Europe’s crops

  
Nature, Vol. 542, No. 7640. (2 February 2017), pp. 145-146, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature.2017.21424

Abstract

Researchers caution that stem rust may have returned to world’s largest wheat-producing region. [Excerpt] [...] Last year, the stem rust destroyed tens of thousands of hectares of crops in Sicily. What’s particularly troubling, the researchers say, is that GRRC (Global Rust Reference Center) tests suggest the pathogen can infect dozens of laboratory-grown strains of wheat, including hardy varieties that are usually highly resistant to disease. The team is now studying whether commercial crops are just as susceptible. [\n] Adding further concern, the centres ...

 

Mediterranean habitat loss under future climate conditions: assessing impacts on the Natura 2000 protected area network

  
Applied Geography, Vol. 75 (2016), pp. 83-92, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeog.2016.08.003

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] The Mediterranean climate domain is projected to loss 11–25% of its current extent. [::] Projected losses of the Mediterranean climate are due to shifts of the arid domain. [::] The Mediterranean domain is projected to shift by 53–121% of its current size. [::] These changes are projected to affect 15–23% of the Mediterranean Natura 2000 sites. [Abstract] The Mediterranean basin is a global hotspot of biological diversity and the most rich biodiversity region in Europe. Nevertheless, climate-driven habitat loss is one of the most serious ...

 

Distinct effects of climate warming on populations of silver fir (Abies alba) across Europe

  
Journal of Biogeography, Vol. 42, No. 6. (June 2015), pp. 1150-1162, https://doi.org/10.1111/jbi.12512

Abstract

[Aim] Climate change is expected to modify growth trends of forests around the world. However, this modification may vary in strength and intensity across a species' biogeographical range. Here, we study European populations of silver fir (Abies alba) across its southern distribution limits in Spain, Italy and Romania. We hypothesized that growth trends of silver fir will differ across its distribution range, with a marked decline in growth in drought-prone regions near the species' southernmost biogeographical limits. [Location] Europe (Spain, Italy, Romania). [Methods] We collected tree-ring ...

 

Terrestrial ecosystems, soil and forests

  
In Climate change, impacts and vulnerability in Europe 2016 - An indicator-based report, Vol. 1/2017 (January 2017), pp. 153-182, https://doi.org/10.2800/534806

Abstract

[Excerpt: Key messages] [::] Observed climate change has had many impacts on terrestrial ecosystems, such as changes in soil conditions, advances in phenological stages, altitudinal and latitudinal migration of plant and animal species (generally northwards and upwards), and changes in species interactions and species composition in communities, including local extinctions. [::] The relative importance of climate change as a major driver of biodiversity and ecosystem change is projected to increase further in the future. In addition to climate change, human efforts to mitigate and adapt to ...

References

  1. Alkemade, R., Bakkenes, M., Eickhout, B., 2011. Towards a general relationship between climate change and biodiversity: An example for plant species in Europe. Regional Environmental Change 11, 143–150. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10113-010-0161-1 .
  2. Allen, C. D., Macalady, A. K., Chenchouni, H., Bachelet, D., McDowell, N., Vennetier, M., Kitzberger, T., Rigling, A., Breshears, D. D., Hogg, E. H. (Ted), Gonzalez, P., Fensham, R., Zhang, Z., Castro, J., Demidova, N., Lim, J.-H., Allard, G., Running, S. W., Semerci, A.,
 

Executive summary

  
In Climate change, impacts and vulnerability in Europe 2016 - An indicator-based report, Vol. 1/2017 (January 2017), pp. 12-30, https://doi.org/10.2800/534806

Abstract

[Excerpt: Key messages] [::] All of the key findings from the 2012 European Environment Agency (EEA) report on climate change, impacts and vulnerability in Europe are still valid. [::] Climate change is continuing globally and in Europe. Land and sea temperatures are increasing; precipitation patterns are changing, generally making wet regions in Europe wetter, particularly in winter, and dry regions drier, particularly in summer; sea ice extent, glacier volume and snow cover are decreasing; sea levels are rising; and climate-related extremes such as heat waves, heavy precipitation ...

References

  1. Ciscar, J.-C., Feyen, L., Soria, A., Lavalle, C., Raes, F., Perry, M., Nemry, F., Demirel, H., Rozsai, M., Dosio, A., Donatelli, M., Srivastava, A. K., Fumagalli, D., Niemeyer, S., Shrestha, S., Ciaian, P., Himics, M., Van Doorslaer, B., Barrios, S., Ibáñez, N., Forzieri, G., Rojas, R., Bianchi, A., Dowling, P., Camia, A., Libertà, G., San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., de Rigo, D., Caudullo, G., Barredo, J. I., Paci, D., Pycroft, J., Saveyn, B., Van Regemorter, D., Revesz, T., Vandyck, T.,
 

Climate change, impacts and vulnerability in Europe 2016 - An indicator-based report

  
Vol. 1/2017 (January 2017), https://doi.org/10.2800/534806

Abstract

[Excerpt: Executive summary] Key messages [::] All of the key findings from the 2012 European Environment Agency (EEA) report on climate change, impacts and vulnerability in Europe are still valid. [::] Climate change is continuing globally and in Europe. Land and sea temperatures are increasing; precipitation patterns are changing, generally making wet regions in Europe wetter, particularly in winter, and dry regions drier, particularly in summer; sea ice extent, glacier volume and snow cover are decreasing; sea levels are rising; and climate-related extremes such as heat waves, heavy ...

 

European soil database - Distribution version v2.0

  
(2004)

Abstract

[Excerpt] The information on this CD-ROM relates to the European Soil Database (distribution version v2.0) and consists of the following components: [::] An introduction to the European Soil Database explaining the essentials of its 4 components: [::1] the Soil Geographical Database of Eurasia at scale 1:1,000,000 (SGDBE) [::2] the Pedotransfer Rules Database (PTRDB) [::3] the Soil Profile Analytical Database of Europa (SPADBE) [::4] the Database of Hydraulic Properties of European Soils (HYPRES) [::] A collection of maps, which allows the user to view the soil attribute data [::] ...

 

An approach towards an estimate of the impact of forest management and climate change on the European forest sector carbon budget: Germany as a case study

  
Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 162, No. 1. (June 2002), pp. 87-103, https://doi.org/10.1016/s0378-1127(02)00052-x

Abstract

The increasing concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and the consequent warming of the Earth’s surface presents a threat to the environment and economic development. This paper discusses how regional level impacts of transient climate change on forest growth are assessed with process-based models and how these responses are then scaled up to country and European level using national forest inventory data in combination with the European forest information scenario (EFISCEN) model. Stem wood volume and increment in the EFISCEN ...

 

Observational evidence for cloud cover enhancement over western European forests

  
Nature Communications, Vol. 8 (11 January 2017), 14065, https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms14065

Abstract

Forests impact regional hydrology and climate directly by regulating water and heat fluxes. Indirect effects through cloud formation and precipitation can be important in facilitating continental-scale moisture recycling but are poorly understood at regional scales. In particular, the impact of temperate forest on clouds is largely unknown. Here we provide observational evidence for a strong increase in cloud cover over large forest regions in western Europe based on analysis of 10 years of 15 min resolution data from geostationary satellites. In addition, ...

Visual summary

 

Potential impact of climatic change on the distribution of forest herbs in Europe

  
Ecography, Vol. 27, No. 3. (June 2004), pp. 366-380, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0906-7590.2004.03823.x

Abstract

The aim of this study is to evaluate the possible consequences of climate change on a representative sample of forest herbs in Europe. A fuzzy climatic envelope was used to predict the location of suitable climatic conditions under two climatic change scenarios. Expected consequences in terms of lost and gained range size and shift in distribution for 26 forest herbs were estimated. These results were combined in an Index of Predicted Range Change for each species. Finally, the effects of habitat ...

 

ENSEMBLES: Climate Change and its Impacts - Summary of research and results from the ENSEMBLES project

  
(2009)

Abstract

The climate projections generated in ENSEMBLES describe the world and Europe experiencing tangible, measurable climate change. As the century progresses the projected climate moves increasingly farther away from its current state, so that by 2100 the climate of Europe will be very different from today. Even under a mitigation scenario, the climate of Europe during the next few decades is still calculated to depart significantly from that of the present. [\n] ENSEMBLES results show how the impacts resulting from these climate changes, including changes in climate mean, ...

 

Would climate change drive species out of reserves? An assessment of existing reserve-selection methods

  
Global Change Biology, Vol. 10, No. 9. (September 2004), pp. 1618-1626, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2004.00828.x

Abstract

Concern for climate change has not yet been integrated in protocols for reserve selection. However if climate changes as projected, there is a possibility that current reserve-selection methods might provide solutions that are inadequate to ensure species' long-term persistence within reserves. We assessed, for the first time, the ability of existing reserve-selection methods to secure species in a climate-change context. Six methods using a different combination of criteria (representation, suitability and reserve clustering) are compared. The assessment is carried out using ...

 

Abies Miller

  
In Flora Europaea, Volume 1: Psilotaceae to Platanaceae (1993), pp. 37-38

Abstract

Published in five volumes, Flora Europaea is the definitive account of the flowering plants, ferns and fern-allies of Europe, covering all plants growing in the wild, including many naturalized species and all widely cultivated crop species. It provides full keys and concise descriptions of families, genera, species and subspecies, together with bibliographic details for accepted species, summaries of geographical distribution, chromosome numbers and habitat information. This new edition of Volume 1 brings the treatment of the first 79 families up to ...

 

Europe's biodiversity avoids fatal setback

  
Science, Vol. 355, No. 6321. (13 January 2017), pp. 140-140, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aam6200

Abstract

[Excerpt] [...] The 1979 Birds Directive and 1992 Habitats Directive have proven instrumental for European nature conservation, contributing to the improved conservation status of many species. Today, more than 1500 species are protected under the Directives, and 18% of the European Union's land area and 6% of its oceans form part of the Natura 2000 network of protected areas. For these species and sites, the Directives impose legally binding, enforceable obligations on EU member states, as well as limits on potentially ...

 

Generalized allometric volume and biomass equations for some tree species in Europe

  
In European Journal of Forest Research, Vol. 126, No. 2. (2007), pp. 157-166, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10342-007-0168-4

Abstract

Since biomass is one of the key variables in ecosystem studies, widespread effort has aimed to facilitating its estimation. Numerous stand-specific volume and biomass equations are available, but these cannot be used for scaling up biomass to the regional level where several age-classes and structural types of stands coexist. Therefore simplified generalized volume and biomass equations are needed. In the present study, generalized biomass and volume regression equations were developed for the main tree species in Europe. These equations were based ...

 

I-Ispra: framework contract for the provision of forest data and services in support to the European Forest Data Centre

  
Supplement to the Official Journal of the European Union (November 2008)

Abstract

[Excerpt] [...] This service aims to broaden the knowledge base of the JRC's European Forest Data Centre (EFDAC) that was established to supply European Union decision-makers with policy-relevant forest data and information as specified in COM(2006) 302. To this end the tender is targeting the support of the activities of the EFDAC through providing the European Commission with forest-related data and information from a local to European scale and related services, such as reports, studies, workshops and conferences. [...] ...

 

The common NFI database

  
In National forest inventories: contributions to forest biodiversity assessments, Vol. 20 (2011), pp. 99-119, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-0482-4_4

Abstract

To test bridging techniques for the harmonized estimation of forest biodiversity indicators for each of the selected essential features a common database was constructed and populated with raw NFI data provided by some of the COST Action E43 participating countries. The database was structured with five tables in a relational database: one table for descriptive plot data, one for tree level data, one for deadwood pieces, one for shrub data and one for ground vegetation. The database was populated with data ...

 

Harmonization tests

  
In National forest inventories: contributions to forest biodiversity assessments, Vol. 20 (2011), pp. 121-190, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-0482-4_5

Abstract

Chapter 5 reports the results of testing the proposed procedures for harmonizing estimates of indicators for six of the seven essential features of forest biodiversity. Twenty indicators were tested using data from the common database.In general, positive results were obtained for forest categories, forest structure, forest age, deadwood, and naturalness; the results were less positive for ground vegetation because of the considerable differences in definitions and data acquisition methods. Of importance is, that the test focused on assessing harmonization procedures rather ...

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