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Selection: with tag europe [at least 200 articles] 

 

Pest categorisation of Guignardia laricina

  
EFSA Journal, Vol. 16, No. 6. (June 2018), e05303, https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2018.5303

Abstract

Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Plant Health performed a pest categorisation of Guignardia laricina, a well‐defined and distinguishable fungal species of the family Phyllostictaceae. The pathogen is regulated in Council Directive 2000/29/EC (Annex IAI) as a harmful organism whose introduction into the EU is banned. G. laricina is native to East Asia and causes a shoot blight disease of Larix spp. Major hosts of G. laricina are European larch (Larix decidua) and two North American ...

 

Pest categorisation of Sphaerulina musiva

  
EFSA Journal, Vol. 16, No. 4. (April 2018), e05247, https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2018.5247

Abstract

Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Plant Health Panel performed a pest categorisation of Sphaerulina musiva, a well‐defined and distinguishable fungal species of the family Mycosphaerellaceae. Following a recent phylogenetic analysis of the genus Septoria and other closely related genera, a new name (S. musiva) was introduced for the species. The former species name Mycosphaerella populorum is used in the Council Directive 2000/29/EC. The pathogen is regulated in Annex IAI as a harmful organism whose introduction into the ...

 

Pest categorisation of Melampsora medusae

  
EFSA Journal, Vol. 16, No. 7. (July 2018), e05354, https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2018.5354

Abstract

Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Plant Health Panel performed a pest categorisation of Melampsora medusae, a well‐defined and distinguishable fungal species of the family Melampsoraceae. The pathogen is regulated in Annex IAI of Council Directive 2000/29/EC as a harmful organism whose introduction into the EU is banned. M. medusae is a heteroecious rust fungus with Populus spp. as primary telial hosts and various conifers (Larix, Pinus, Pseudotsuga, Abies, Picea and Tsuga spp.) as secondary aecial hosts. M. ...

 

Pest categorisation of Mycodiella laricis‐leptolepidis

  
EFSA Journal, Vol. 16, No. 4. (April 2018), e05246, https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2018.5246

Abstract

Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH) performed a pest categorisation of Mycodiella laricis‐leptolepidis, a well‐defined and distinguishable fungal species of the family Mycosphaerellaceae. The former species name Mycosphaerella laricis‐leptolepis is used in the Council Directive 2000/29/EC. The pathogen is regulated in Annex IAI as a harmful organism whose introduction into the EU is banned. M. laricis‐leptolepidis is native to East Asia and causes a disease known as needle cast of Japanese larch (Larix ...

 

A proposal for a scalable and semantically interoperable family of indices of taxa richness

  
In Database and classification system of different types of Public Goods and Ecosystem Services in relation to farming/forestry systems - PEGASUS Deliverable 2.2 (2016), pp. 79-86

Abstract

[Excerpt] [\n] [...] In this study, we introduce a novel estimate of richness of forest tree genera, based on a harmonised dimensionless family of indices at the continental scale. Each index ranges from 0 (null richness) up to 1 (maximum potential richness) and estimates the richness of tree genera under the assumption of a uniform sampling effort, explicitlydeclared. [\n] Given a category of relevant taxa (here represented by the forest tree taxa for which harmonised pan-European information is available), the family of indicesis designed to cover with variable ...

 

Database and classification system of different types of Public Goods and Ecosystem Services in relation to farming/forestry systems - PEGASUS Deliverable 2.2

  
(2016)

Abstract

[Excerpt: Executive summary] The deliverable represents a step further towards the integrated analysis of agriculture and forestry management and ESS/PG delivery. It contains a schematic review of available information (indicators, proxies) to map ESS/PG that characterise the provision of Environmentally and Socially Beneficial Outcomes as identified in the Pegasus project. Only those ESS/PG that can be mapped through geo-spatial layers are listed. Each ESS/PG is described in detail and critically analysed, in particular with reference to its capacity to capture information ...

 

Report from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament on the implementation of the Forest Focus scheme according to Regulation (EC) No 2152/2003 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 17 November 2003 concerning monitoring of forests and environmental interactions in the Community (Forest Focus) SEC(2008) 30

  
No. COM(2008) 006 final. (22 January 2008)

Abstract

[Excerpt] [\n] [...] [Introduction and scope] This report responds to the reporting requirements of Article 19 of Regulation 2152/2003. This regulation established a Community scheme (hereinafter referred to as 'Forest Focus') for broad based harmonised and comprehensive long-term monitoring of the condition of forests for a period of 4 years from 1 January 2003 to 31 December 2006. [\n] This regulation was repealed by Regulation (EC) No 614/2007 of the European Parliament and of the Council concerning the Financial Instrument for the Environment (LIFE+). As ...

 

Intensive monitoring of forest ecosystems in Europe: 1 - Objectives, set-up and evaluation strategy

  
Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 174, No. 1-3. (February 2003), pp. 77-95, https://doi.org/10.1016/s0378-1127(02)00029-4
Keywords: data   ecosystem   europe   fimci   forest-resources   monitoring  

Abstract

In order to contribute to a better understanding of the impact of air pollution and other environmental factors on forest ecosystems, a Pan-European Programme for Intensive and Continuous Monitoring of Forest Ecosystems has been implemented in 1994. Results of the Programme must contribute to a European wide overview of impacts of air pollution and the further development of its control strategies, being described in air pollution protocols. Objectives of the Intensive Monitoring Programme related to air pollution are the assessment of: ...

 

FutMon Scientific Report - Further development and implementation of an EU-level forest monitoring system (FutMon)

  
(2013)
edited by Martin Lorenz

Abstract

[Excerpt: Conclusion] The implementation of the LIFE project “FutMon” by a consortium of 38 partners in 22 EU-Member States shows that the responsible Ministries and research centres in Europe are highly motivated to carry out forest monitoring based on a harmonized pan-European system which was further developed to comply with latest information needs of environment politics. Results of the further development are [::] A revised large-scale (Level I) forest monitoring involving an increased number of plots of national forest inventories (NFIs) and contributions to the NFI harmonisation; [::] ...

 

Wilderness register and indicator for Europe

  
(October 2013)

Abstract

[Excerpt] [Executive summary] The main aim of the contract was to increase data availability on wilderness in Europe. The Guidelines on management of wilderness and wild areas in Natura 2000 (DG Environment, in prep.) described the benefits of wilderness management within the framework of the EU Biodiversity strategy, analysed the pressures affecting wilderness areas and provided guidelines on their management and protection, largely based on best practice examples of wilderness and wild areas throughout Europe. However, an overview of remaining areas of wilderness and wildlands at the European ...

 

Council Regulation (EC) No 2012/2002 of 11 November 2002 establishing the European Union Solidarity Fund

  
Official Journal of the European Union, Vol. 45, No. L 311. (14 November 2002), pp. 3-8

Abstract

[Excerpt] [...] [:Article 1] A European Union Solidarity Fund, hereinafter referred to as "the Fund", is hereby established to enable the Community to respond in a rapid, efficient and flexible manner to emergency situations under the terms of this Regulation. [Article 2] [::1] At the request of a Member State or country involved in accession negotiations with the European Union, hereinafter referred to as "beneficiary State", assistance from the Fund may be mainly mobilised when a major natural disaster with serious repercussions on living conditions, the ...

 

Commission Regulation (EC) No 804/94 of 11 April 1994 laying down certain detailed rules for the application of Council Regulation (EEC) No 2158/92 as regards forest-fire information systems

  
Official Journal of the European Union, Vol. 37, No. L 93. (12 April 1994), pp. 11-15

Abstract

[Excerpt] [\n] [...] [Article 1] [::1] Member States shall collect a set of information on forest fires enabling them to meet the objectives laid down in Article 5 (2) of Regulation (EEC) No 2158/92. [::2] The set of information shall contain at least a number of standard items, comparable at Community level, hereinafter called the 'minimum common core of information on forest fires', as set out in Annex I. [::3] The collection of such a set of information may be confined to high and medium-risk areas ...

 

Regulation (EU) No 377/2014 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 3 April 2014 establishing the Copernicus Programme and repealing Regulation (EU) No 911/2010 Text with EEA relevance

  
Official Journal of the European Union, Vol. 57, No. L 122. (24 April 2014), pp. 44-66

Abstract

[Excerpt] [\n] [...] [:Article 1: Subject matter] This Regulation establishes Copernicus, the Union Earth observation and monitoring programme, (Copernicus), and lays down the rules for its implementation. [:Article 2: Scope] 1. Copernicus is a civil, user driven programme under civil control, building on the existing national and European capacities, as well as ensuring continuity with the activities achieved under the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security. [\n] 2. Copernicus consists of the following components: [::(a)] a service component ensuring delivery of information in the following ...

 

Regulation (EC) No 178/2002 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 28 January 2002 laying down the general principles and requirements of food law, establishing the European Food Safety Authority and laying down procedures in matters of food safety

  
Official Journal of the European Union, Vol. 45, No. L 31. (1 February 2002), pp. 1-24

Abstract

[Excerpt] [\n] [...] [Aim and scope] [::1] This Regulation provides the basis for the assurance of a high level of protection of human health and consumers' interest in relation to food, taking into account in particular the diversity in the supply of food including traditional products, whilst ensuring the effective functioning of the internal market. It establishes common principles and responsibilities, the means to provide a strong science base, efficient organisational arrangements and procedures to underpin decision-making in matters of food and feed safety. [::2] ...

 

Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions - An EU Strategy on adaptation to climate change

  
No. COM(2013) 216 final. (16 April 2013)

Abstract

[Excerpt] [\n] [...] [Introduction: dealing with a changing climate] The consequences of climate change are increasingly being felt in Europe and worldwide. The average global temperature, currently around 0.8°C above pre-industrial levels, continues to rise[1]. Some natural processes are being altered, precipitation patterns are changing, glaciers are melting, sea levels are rising. [\n] To avoid the most serious risks of climate change and in particular large-scale irreversible impacts, global warming must be limited to below 2ºC above pre-industrial level. Climate change mitigation must therefore remain ...

 

Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council and the Committee of the Regions - Strengthening EU Disaster Management: rescEU Solidarity with Responsibility Solidarity with Responsibility

  
No. COM(2017) 773 final. (23 November 2017)

Abstract

[Excerpt] [\n] [...] [Introduction] Europe is increasingly facing the dramatic impacts of intense and unpredictable extreme weather events and earthquakes with ensuing loss of life, destruction of property and cultural heritage. This has had a tragic cost on lives and livelihoods. The nations of Europe decided to build the European Union (EU) to promote their common good and to face adversities together, each becoming stronger through unity and solidarity. A Europe that protects is one that has the means to respond in a decisive ...

 

Proposal for a DECISION OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL amending Decision No 1313/2013/EU on a Union Civil Protection Mechanism

  
No. COM(2017) 772 final. (23 November 2017)

Abstract

[Excerpt] [\n] [...] [Reasons for and objectives of the proposal] The proposal is intended to introduce some targeted changes to Council Decision No 1313/2013/EU (‘the Decision’) on a Union Civil Protection Mechanism (‘Union Mechanism’), under which the European Union supports, coordinates and supplements the action of Member States in the field of civil protection to prevent, prepare for and respond to natural and man-made disasters within and outside the Union. Building on the principles of solidarity and shared responsibility, the overall objective of ...

 

Wildfire science is at a loss for comprehensive data

  
Nature, Vol. 560, No. 7716. (31 July 2018), pp. 7-7, https://doi.org/10.1038/d41586-018-05840-4

Abstract

An international monitoring initiative is crucial for understanding wildfires and reducing their damage, says David Bowman. [Excerpt] [...] we can say little for certain about trends in wildfires worldwide. Data are too scant to say conclusively whether fires are becoming more destructive. If humans are to live sustainably on flammable landscapes, we need a global system for collecting data on fires to gain a coherent picture and assess strategies. [...] Yet the strong links between humans and flammable landscapes make fire a ...

 

Impacts of inter-annual wind and solar variations on the European power system

  

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] The impact of weather patterns on power system increases with decarbonization [::] Europe's CO2 output and generation cost variability could increase 5-fold by 2030 [::] Several metrics can be reasonably approximated from the level VRE penetration [::] The most representative single years for renewable generation are 1989 and 2012 [Context & Scale] Wind and solar power have been driving the decarbonization of Europe's electricity over the last decade. Increasing our reliance on weather-dependent resources makes it imperative that planning of electricity systems becomes cognizant of ...

 

Species-specific, pan-European diameter increment models based on data of 2.3 million trees

  
Forest Ecosystems, Vol. 5, No. 1. (3 April 2018), https://doi.org/10.1186/s40663-018-0133-3

Abstract

[Background] Over the last decades, many forest simulators have been developed for the forests of individual European countries. The underlying growth models are usually based on national datasets of varying size, obtained from National Forest Inventories or from long-term research plots. Many of these models include country- and location-specific predictors, such as site quality indices that may aggregate climate, soil properties and topography effects. Consequently, it is not sensible to compare such models among countries, and it is often impossible to apply ...

 

A procedure to obtain a refined European land use/cover map

  
Journal of Land Use Science, Vol. 8, No. 3. (September 2013), pp. 255-283, https://doi.org/10.1080/1747423x.2012.667450

Abstract

Available land use/cover maps differ in their spatial extent and in their thematic, spatial, and temporal resolutions. Due to the costs of producing such maps, there is usually a trade-off between spatial extent and resolution. The only European-wide, consistent, and multi-temporal land use/cover dataset available is the CORINE Land Cover (CLC) map. Despite the value and usefulness of CLC, its minimum mapping unit (MMU) of 25 hectares considerably limits its applications at large scales of analysis. Our objective was to improve ...

 

Medium-range, monthly, and seasonal prediction for Europe and the use of forecast information

  
Journal of Climate, Vol. 19, No. 23. (December 2006), pp. 6025-6046, https://doi.org/10.1175/jcli3944.1

Abstract

Operational probabilistic (ensemble) forecasts made at ECMWF during the European summer heat wave of 2003 indicate significant skill on medium (3–10 day) and monthly (10–30 day) time scales. A more general “unified” analysis of many medium-range, monthly, and seasonal forecasts confirms a high degree of probabilistic forecast skill for European temperatures over the first month. The unified analysis also identifies seasonal predictability for Europe, which is not yet realized in seasonal forecasts. Interestingly, the initial atmospheric state appears to be important ...

 

A new European settlement map from optical remotely sensed data

  
IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, Vol. 9, No. 5. (May 2016), pp. 1978-1992, https://doi.org/10.1109/jstars.2015.2485662

Abstract

An application of a general methodology for processing very high-resolution imagery to produce a European Settlement Map (ESM) in support of policy-makers is presented. The process mapped around 10 million km2 of the European continent. The input image data are satellite SPOT-5/6 pan-sharpened multispectral images of 2.5- and 1.5-m spatial resolution, respectively. This is the first time that remote sensing technology demonstrates capability to produce a continental information layer using 2.5-m input images. Moreover, it is the highest resolution continental map ...

 

Compact or spread? A quantitative spatial model of urban areas in Europe since 1990

  
PLOS ONE, Vol. 13, No. 2. (28 February 2018), e0192326, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0192326

Abstract

Changes in urban residential density represent an important issue in terms of land consumption, the conservation of ecosystems, air quality and related human health problems, as well as the consequential challenges for urban and regional planning. It is the decline of residential densities, in particular, that has often been used as the very definition of sprawl, describing a phenomenon that has been extensively studied in the United States and in Western Europe. Whilst these studies provide valuable insights into urbanization processes, ...

 

Distribution maps of forest tree species

  
In ICP Forests Projectlist (2015), 64

Abstract

[Excerpt: Project description] The European Commission, Joint Research Centre, hosts the European Forest Data Centre (EFDAC at http://efdac.jrc.ec.europa.eu ) of the Forest Information System for Europe (FISE). The EFDAC‐FISE platform is envisioned to transparently integrate information referring to forest resources in Europe, including taxa‐specific information. The exercise involves the integration of: [::1] a harmonized collection of reference maps describing the European‐wide distribution of forest tree species along with their habitat suitability (both current and under varying climate change scenarios); [::2] a detailed analysis of the implications that the uncertainties – ...

References

  1. de Rigo, D., Barredo, J. I., Busetto, L., Caudullo, G., San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., 2013. Continental-scale living forest biomass and carbon stock: a robust fuzzy ensemble of IPCC Tier 1 maps for Europe. IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology 413, 271-284. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-41151-9_26 , INRMM-MiD:12541209 .
  2. de Rigo, D., Caudullo, G., Busetto, L., San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., Mar. 2014. Supporting EFSA assessment of the EU environmental suitability for exotic forestry pests: final report. EFSA Supporting Publications 11 (3),
 

Forest condition in Europe: 2017 technical report of ICP Forests - Report under the UNECE Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP)

  

Abstract

[Summary] The International Co-operative Programme on Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests (ICP Forests) is one of the most diverse programmes within the Working Group on Effects (WGE) under the UNECE Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP). To provide a regular overview of the programme’s activities, the ICP Forests Programme Co-ordinating Centre (PCC) yearly publishes an ICP Forests Technical Report which summarises research highlights and provides an opportunity for all participating countries to report on their national ICP Forests activities. The PCC also invites ...

 

Mapping regional patterns of large forest fires in Wildland–Urban Interface areas in Europe

  
Journal of Environmental Management, Vol. 172 (May 2016), pp. 112-126, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2016.02.013

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] A European Wildland–Urban Interface (WUI) map was presented. [::] The European WUI areas have been correlated with occurrence of large burned surfaces. [::] Peri-urban areas and Mediterranean touristic areas show strong co-occurrence of WUI and fires. [::] Burned surface probabilities within 5000 m of the WUI areas are estimated to map fire risk. [Abstract] Over recent decades, Land Use and Cover Change (LUCC) trends in many regions of Europe have reconfigured the landscape structures around many urban areas. In these areas, the proximity to landscape ...

 

Impact of El Niño-Southern Oscillation on European climate

  
Reviews of Geophysics, Vol. 45, No. 3. (11 September 2007), pp. n/a-n/a, https://doi.org/10.1029/2006rg000199

Abstract

El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is arguably the most important global climate pattern. While the effects in the Pacific–North American sector and the tropical regions are relatively well understood, the impacts on the circulation in the North Atlantic–European sector are discussed more controversially. Studies from the past 10 years demonstrate that ENSO does affect European climate. However, some of the effects undergo a seasonal modulation or are nonlinear. The signal can be modified by other factors and might be nonstationary on multidecadal ...

 

The seasonal effects of ENSO on European precipitation: observational analysis

  
Journal of Climate, Vol. 27, No. 17. (13 September 2014), pp. 6423-6438, https://doi.org/10.1175/jcli-d-14-00008.1

Abstract

An analysis and characterization of seasonal changes in the atmospheric teleconnection between ENSO and western European precipitation, as well as atmospheric conditions over the North Atlantic and Europe, are presented. Significant ENSO-associated changes in precipitation are evident during the boreal spring and fall seasons, marginal during boreal summer, and absent during boreal winter. The spring and fall precipitation anomalies are accompanied by statistically significant ENSO-related changes in large-scale fields over the North Atlantic and Europe. These seasonal teleconnections appear to be ...

 

Agricultural policy can reduce wildfires

  
Science, Vol. 359, No. 6379. (01 March 2018), pp. 1001.1-1001, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aat1359

Abstract

[Excerpt] [...] Agriculture is an important driver of European wildfires. It is a major source of fire ignitions [...]. Additionally, farmland abandonment and policies promoting forestry increase fire hazard, as they lead to vegetation growth and fuel build-up in the landscape [...]. However, agriculture is also part of the solution. Agricultural areas, such as crops, orchards, and grasslands, are much less fire-prone, particularly if they include irrigated crops [...]. The European Union's Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is a powerful financial instrument ...

 

Pine Wilt Disease: a threat to European forestry

  
European Journal of Plant Pathology In European Journal of Plant Pathology, Vol. 133, No. 1. (24 December 2012), pp. 89-99, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10658-011-9924-x

Abstract

Bursaphelenchus xylophilus , the pinewood nematode (PWN) and causal agent of Pine Wilt Disease (PWD), was detected for the first time, in 1999, in Portugal, and in Europe. Despite the efforts of the Portuguese National Forestry and Quarantine Authorities, the disease has spread to new forest areas in the centre of mainland Portugal, in 2008, and to the island of Madeira, in 2009. More recently, two foci of PWD were reported from Spain. The free circulation of non-treated wood and wood ...

 

Pest categorisation of Bretziella fagacearum

  
EFSA Journal, Vol. 16, No. 2. (February 2018), e05185, https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2018.5185

Abstract

Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Plant Health (PLH) Panel performed a pest categorisation of Bretziella fagacearum, a well-defined and distinguishable fungal species of the family Ceratocystidaceae. The species was moved from the genus Ceratocystis to a new genus Bretziella following phylogenetic analysis of the species and its close relatives. The former species name Ceratocystis fagacearum is used in the Council Directive 2000/29/EC. The pathogen is regulated in Annex IAI as a harmful organism whose introduction into the ...

References

  1. Ambourn, A.K., Juzwik, J., Moon, R.D., 2005. Seasonal dispersal of the oak wilt fungus by Colopterus truncatus and Carpophilus sayi in Minnesota. Plant Disease 89, 1067–1076.
  2. Appel, D.N., 1995. The oak wilt enigma: perspectives from the Texas epidemic. Annual Review of Phytopathology 33, 103–118.
  3. Appel, D.N., Maggio, R.C., Nelson, E.L., Jeger, M.J., 1989. Measurement of expanding oak wilt centers in live oak. Phytopathology 79, 1318–1322.
  4. Baker, R., Candresse,
 

Wildfires

  
In Present and future probability of meteorological and hydrological hazards in Europe (2016), pp. 112-118

Abstract

[Excerpt: Introduction] Uncontrolled forest fires impact both natural and built-up environments as well as humans. The occurrence of a forest fire requires the same basic elements as any fire: heat, oxygen and fuel. Preceding and prevailing weather conditions are crucial for setting conditions susceptible to fire in a forest. Drought, high temperatures and pronounced evaporation dry off organic material in forests, i.e. the fuel. Strong wind during/after ignition substantially intensifies spreading of the fire and raises the likelihood of the surface ...

 

Forest fire danger extremes in Europe under climate change: variability and uncertainty

  
Keywords: adaptation   array-of-factors   biodiversity   biodiversity-impacts   burnt-area   climate-change   climate-extremes   communicating-uncertainty   data-transformation-modelling   data-uncertainty   downscaling   droughts   dynamic-system   ecosystem-resilience   emergent-property   euro-cordex   europe   extreme-events   extreme-weather   fire-damage   fire-danger-rating   fire-management   fire-weather-index   forest-fires   forest-management   forest-pests   forest-resources   free-scientific-software   geospatial   geospatial-semantic-array-programming   human-behaviour   humidity   ipcc-scenarios   mastrave-modelling-library   mitigation   modelling-uncertainty   no-analog-pattern   peseta-series   precipitation   rcp85   resilience   resilience-vs-resistance   review   robust-modelling   science-policy-interface   science-society-interface   scientific-communication   semantic-array-programming   spatial-pattern   species-richness   species-specific-effects   temperature   vegetation-changes   wildfires   wind  

Abstract

Forests cover over a third of the total land area of Europe. In recent years, large forest fires have repeatedly affected Europe, in particular the Mediterranean countries. Fire danger is influenced by weather in the short term, and by climate when considering longer time intervals. In this work, the emphasis is on the direct influence on fire danger of weather and climate. [\n] For climate analysis at the continental scale, a daily high-emission scenario (RCP 8.5) was considered up to the end ...

References

  1. de Rigo, D., Bosco, C., San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., Houston Durrant, T., Barredo, J. I., Strona, G., Caudullo, G., Di Leo, M., Boca, R., 2016. Forest resources in Europe: an integrated perspective on ecosystem services, disturbances and threats. In: San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., de Rigo, D., Caudullo, G., Houston Durrant, T., Mauri, A. (Eds.), European Atlas of Forest Tree Species. Publ. Off. EU, Luxembourg, pp. e015b50+. https://w3id.org/mtv/FISE-Comm/v01/e015b50 .
  2. Alberdi Asensio, I., Baycheva-Merger, T., Bouvet, A., Bozzano,
 

Pest categorisation of the Gonipterus scutellatus species complex

  
EFSA Journal, Vol. 16, No. 1. (January 2018), e05107, https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2018.5107

Abstract

The Panel on Plant health performed a pest categorisation of the Australian Eucalyptus snout-beetle Gonipterus scutellatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), for the EU. G. scutellatus should be referred as the G. scutellatus species complex because it includes several cryptic species. A complete nomenclature of the species present in the EU is still pending. It is a quarantine pest listed in Annex IIB of Council Directive 2000/29/EC. Protected zones are in place in Greece and Portugal (Azores). In the EU, it has been found ...

References

  1. Agarwal, M.I., Ren, Y., Newman, J., Learmonth, S., 2015. Ethyl formate: a potential disinfestation treatment for eucalyptus weevil (Gonipterus platensis) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in apples. Journal of Economic Entomology 108, 2566–2571. https://doi.org/10.1093/jee/tov242 .
  2. Álvarez Taboada, M.F., Lorenzo Cimadevila, H., Rodriguez Pérez, J.R., Pocos Martín, J., 2005. Workflow to improve the forest management of Eucalyptus globulus stands affected by Gonipterus scutellatus in Galicia (Spain) using remote sensing and GIS. 11 th SPIE International Symposium
 

Mediterranean habitat loss under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 climate change projections - Assessing impacts on the Natura 2000 protected area network

  
Vol. 28547 EN (2017), https://doi.org/10.2760/622174

Abstract

[Executive summary] This report describes the main findings of Task 10, Mediterranean habitat loss, of the Peseta III project (Climate Impacts and Adaptation in Europe, focusing on Extremes, Adaptation and the 2030s). Using an approach that integrates results from 11 sectors, the main objective of the Peseta III project is to make a consistent multi-sectorial assessment of the projected impacts of climate change in Europe. [\n] The Mediterranean region is one of the 36 global hotspots of biological diversity [1] and the most ...

 

Change impacts and adaptation in Europe, focusing on extremes and adaptation until the 2030s - PESETA-3 project, final sector report on Task 9: Droughts

  
Vol. 28990 EN (2017), https://doi.org/10.2760/282880

Abstract

[Executive summary] This document reports the results of the analyses performed within the framework of the PESETA3 project regarding the Task 9 - Droughts. The main objective of this task is to provide robust scientific-based information to stakeholders and decision makers on the possible impacts of future climate scenarios on the occurrence of drought events. [\n] This report is focused on the analysis of the variations of soil moisture on the European continent, as well as of a soil moisture-based drought severity indicator ...

 

Will drought events become more frequent and severe in Europe?

  
International Journal of Climatology (09 October 2017), https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.5291

Abstract

As a result of climate change in recent past and unsustainable land management, drought became one of the most impacting disasters and, with the projected global warming, it is expected to progressively cause more damages by the end of the 21st century. This study investigates changes in drought occurrence, frequency, and severity in Europe in the next decades. A combined indicator based on the predominance of the drought signal over normal/wet conditions has been used. The indicator, which combines the standardized ...

 

European Forest Types: toward an automated classification

  
Annals of Forest Science, Vol. 75, No. 1. (2018), pp. 1-14, https://doi.org/10.1007/s13595-017-0674-6

Abstract

[Key message] The outcome of the present study leads to the application of a spatially explicit rule-based expert system (RBES) algorithm aimed at automatically classifying forest areas according to the European Forest Types (EFT) system of nomenclature at pan-European scale level. With the RBES, the EFT system of nomenclature can be now easily implemented for objective, replicable, and automatic classification of field plots for forest inventories or spatial units (pixels or polygons) for thematic mapping. [Context] Forest Types classification systems are aimed at stratifying ...

 

Pest categorisation of Gilpinia hercyniae

  
EFSA Journal, Vol. 15, No. 12. (December 2017), e05108, https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2017.5108

Abstract

The Panel on Plant Health performed a pest categorisation of the Diprionid sawfly, Gilpinia hercyniae Hartig (Hymenoptera: Diprionidae), for the EU. G. hercyniae is a well-defined and distinguishable species, native to Europe but also present in North America, Japan, Mongolia, Korea and Pakistan, and recognised as a pest of spruce (Picea spp.). The pest is distributed in 19 Member States (MSs) of the EU. It is a quarantine pest listed in Annex IIB of Council Directive 2000/29/EC. Protected zones are in ...

References

  1. Adams, P.H.W., Entwistle, P.F., 1981. An annotated bibliography of Gilpinia hercyniae (Hartig), European spruce sawfly. Occasional Papers, Commonwealth Forestry Institute 11, 58 pp.
  2. Billany, D.J., Brown, R.M., 1977. The geographical distribution of Gilpinia hercyniae Hymenoptera: Diprionidae in the United Kingdom. Forestry 50, 155–160. https://doi.org/10.1093/forestry/50.2.155 .
  3. Bossard, M., Feranec, J., Otahel, J., 2000. CORINE land cover technical guide - Addendum 2000. Tech. Rep. 40, European Environment Agency. https://www.eea.europa.eu/ds_resolveuid/032TFUPGVR,
 

Pest categorisation of Davidsoniella virescens

  
EFSA Journal, Vol. 15, No. 12. (December 2017), e05104, https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2017.5104

Abstract

Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH) performed a pest categorisation of Davidsoniella virescens, a well-defined and distinguishable fungal species of the family Ceratocystidaceae. The species was moved from the genus Ceratocystis to the genus Davidsoniella following a revision of the family. The former species name Ceratocystis virescens is used in the Council Directive 2000/29/EC. The pathogen is regulated in Annex IIAI as a harmful organism whose introduction into the EU is banned on ...

References

  1. Bal, T.L., Richter, D.L., Storer, A.J., Jurgensen, M.F., 2013. The relationship of the sapstreak fungus, Ceratocystis virescens, to sugar maple dieback and decay in Northern Michigan. American Journal of Plant Sciences 4, 436–443.
  2. de Beer, Z.W., Duong, T.A., Barnes, I., Wingfield, B.D., Wingfield, M.J., 2014. Redefining Ceratocystis and allied genera. Studies in Mycology 79, 187–219. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.simyco.2014.10.001 .
  3. Bossard, M., Feranec, J., Otahel, J., 2000. CORINE land cover technical guide
 

Pest categorisation of Stegophora ulmea

  
EFSA Journal, Vol. 15, No. 12. (December 2017), e05105, https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2017.5105

Abstract

Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH) performed a pest categorisation of Stegophora ulmea, a well-defined and distinguishable fungal species of the family Sydowiellaceae. S. ulmea causes a tree disease known as black spot of elm (Ulmus spp.). The pathogen is reported from North America (native range) and Asia (Far-East Russia and China), but not from the EU. S. ulmea is regulated in Council Directive 2000/29/EC (Annex IIAI) as a harmful organism whose introduction ...

References

  1. Caudullo, G., de Rigo, D., 2016. Ulmus - elms in Europe: distribution, habitat, usage and threats. In: San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., de Rigo, D., Caudullo, G., Houston Durrant, T., Mauri, A. (eds.). European Atlas of Forest Tree Species. Publication Office of the European Union, Luxembourg, pp. e01bd40+.
  2. Baker, R., Candresse, T., Dormannsné Simon, E., Gilioli, G., Grégoire, J.-C., Jeger, M. J., Karadjova, O. E., Lövei, G., Makowski, D., Manceau, C., Navajas, M., Porta Puglia, A., Rafoss,
 

Pest categorisation of Cephalcia lariciphila

  
EFSA Journal, Vol. 15, No. 12. (December 2017), e05106, https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2017.5106

Abstract

The Panel on Plant health performed a pest categorisation of the larch web-spinning sawfly Cephalcia lariciphila (Hymenoptera: Pamphiliidae) for the EU. The insect has been reported in 11 EU Member States (MSs). It is a quarantine pest listed in Annex IIB of Council Directive 2000/29/EC. Protected zones are in place in Ireland and the UK (Northern Ireland, Isle of Man and Jersey). C. lariciphila can feed on all species of the genus Larix. There have been reported outbreaks in the Czech ...

References

  1. Battisti, A., 1994a. Effects of entomopathogenic nematodes on the spruce web-spinning sawfly Cephalcia arvensis Panzer and its parasitoids in the field. Biocontrol Science and Technology 4, 95–102.
  2. Battisti, A., 1994b. Voltinism and diapause in the spruce web-spinning sawfly Cephalcia arvensis. Entomologia experimentalis et applicata 70, 105–113.
  3. Bell, H., Wakefield, M., Macarthur, R., Stein, J., Collins, D., Hart, A., Roques, A., Augustin, S., Yart, A., Péré, C., Schrader, G., Wendt, C., Battisti,
 

An assessment of forest biomass maps in Europe using harmonized national statistics and inventory plots

  
Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 409 (February 2018), pp. 489-498, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2017.11.047

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] We assessed four biomass maps for Europe using harmonized biomass reference data. [::] The harmonized statistics were derived from ∼430,000 plots from 26 countries. [::] All maps overestimated at low biomass and underestimated at high biomass. [::] All maps had an overall negative bias (23–43 Mg ha−1 at national level). [::] The maps relative errors was 29–40% at national level and 63–72% at cell level. [Abstract] Maps of aboveground forest biomass based on different input data and modelling approaches have been recently produced for Europe, opening up the ...

 

World’s carbon emissions set to spike by 2% in 2017

  
Nature, Vol. 551, No. 7680. (13 November 2017), https://doi.org/10.1038/nature.2017.22995

Abstract

Increased coal use in China appears to be driving the first increase in global greenhouse-gas output since 2014. [Excerpt] [...] Humanity’s carbon emissions are likely to surge by 2% in 2017, driven mainly by increased coal consumption in China, scientists reported on 13 November. The unexpected rise would end a three-year period in which emissions have remained flat despite a growing global economy. [...] Several factors caused the world’s CO2 emissions to level out from 2014 to 2016, including an economic slowdown ...

 

Pest categorisation of Pseudocercospora pini-densiflorae

  
EFSA Journal, Vol. 15, No. 11. (November 2017), e05029, https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2017.5029

Abstract

Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Plant Health (PLH) Panel performed a pest categorisation of Pseudocercospora pini-densiflorae, a well-defined and distinguishable fungal species of the family Mycosphaerellaceae. The regulated harmful organism is the anamorph Cercoseptoria pini-densiflorae (synonym Cercospora pini-densiflorae) with the corresponding teleomorph Mycosphaerella gibsonii. P. pini-densiflorae causes a needle blight of Pinus spp. also known as Cercospora blight of pines or Cercospora needle blight. P. pini-densiflorae is reported from sub-Saharan Africa, Central and South America, Asia and ...

References

  1. Anon, 2015. PM 7/46 (3) Lecanosticta acicola (formerly Mycosphaerella dearnessii), Dothistroma septosporum (formerly Mycosphaerella pini) and Dothistroma pini. EPPO Bulletin 45, 163–182.
  2. Bossard, M., Feranec, J., Otahel, J., 2000. CORINE land cover technical guide - addendum 2000. Tech. Rep. 40, European Environment Agency. https://www.eea.europa.eu/ds_resolveuid/032TFUPGVR .
  3. Büttner, G., Kosztra, B., Maucha, G., Pataki, R., 2012. Implementation and achievements of CLC2006. Tech. rep., European Environment Agency. http://www.eea.europa.eu/ds_resolveuid/GQ4JECM8TB .
 

Pest categorisation of Gremmeniella abietina

  
EFSA Journal, Vol. 15, No. 11. (November 2017), e05030, https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2017.5030

Abstract

Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Plant Health (PLH) Panel performed a pest categorisation of Gremmeniella abietina, a well-defined species and distinguishable fungus of the family Godroniaceae. The species G. abietina includes several varieties, races and biotypes that are found in different geographical locations, on different hosts and that vary in aggressiveness. The pathogen causes diseases on Pinus species and other conifers such as Abies spp., Picea spp., Larix spp. and Pseudotsuga spp. known as Scleroderris canker in ...

References

  1. Ahlqvist, B., Karlman, M., Witzell, J., 1996. Gremmeniella-infected Pinus contorta as raw material in the production of kraft pulp. European Journal of Forest Pathology 26, 113–121.
  2. Anon, 2009. PM 7/92(1): Gremmeniella abietina. EPPO Bulletin 39, 310–317.
  3. Barbeito, I., Brücker, R., Rixen, C., Bebi, P., 2013. Snow fungi-induced mortality of Pinus cembra at the alpine treeline: evidence from plantations. Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research 45, 455–470.
  4. Bernhold, A., Witzell,
 

Pest categorisation of Ips cembrae

  
EFSA Journal, Vol. 15, No. 11. (October 2017), e05039, https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2017.5039

Abstract

The Panel on Plant Health performed a pest categorisation of the large larch bark beetle, Ips cembrae (Heer) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), for the EU. I. cembrae is a well-defined and distinguishable species, native to Europe and recognised mainly as a pest of larch (Larix spp.) and occasionally of pine (Pinus spp.) and spruce (Picea spp.). It is distributed in 16 Member States of the EU and listed in Annex IIB of Council Directive 2000/29/EC. Protected zones are in place in ...

References

  1. Balachowsky, A., 1949. Faune de France. 50 Coleoptères Scolytides. Lechevalier, Paris. 320 pp.
  2. Balogun, R.A., 1970. The life-history and habits of the larch bark beetle, Ips cembrae (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), in the North-East of Scotland. The Canadian Entomologist 102, 226–239.
  3. Bossard, M., Feranec, J., Otahel, J., 2000. CORINE land cover technical guide - Addendum 2000. Technical Report 40, European Environment Agency. https://www.eea.europa.eu/ds_resolveuid/032TFUPGVR , INRMM-MiD:13106045 .
  4. Bright, D.E.,
 

Pest categorisation of Ips duplicatus

  
EFSA Journal, Vol. 15, No. 10. (October 2017), e05040, https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2017.5040

Abstract

The Panel on Plant Health performed a pest categorisation of the double-spined bark beetle, Ips duplicatus (Sahlberg, 1836) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), for the EU. I. duplicatus is a well-defined and distinguishable species, native to Europe and attacking mainly spruce (Picea spp.) but also observed on pine (Pinus spp.) and larch (Larix spp.). It is distributed in 15 EU Member States and is locally spreading in some of them. I. duplicatus is listed in Annex IIB of Council Directive 2000/29/EC. Protected zones ...

References

  1. Bakke, A., 1975. Aggregation pheromone in the bark beetle Ips duplicatus. Norwegian Journal of Entomology 22(1), 67–70.
  2. Balachowsky, A., 1949. Faune de France. 50. Coleoptères Scolytides. Lechevalier, Paris, 320 pp.
  3. Bossard, M., Feranec, J., Otahel, J., 2000. CORINE land cover technical guide - Addendum 2000. Tech. Rep. 40, European Environment Agency. https://www.eea.europa.eu/ds_resolveuid/032TFUPGVR , INRMM-MiD:13106045 .
  4. Bright, D.E., Skidmore, R.E., 2002. A catalogue of Scolytidae and Platypodidae
 

Pest categorisation of Ips amitinus

  
EFSA Journal, Vol. 15, No. 10. (October 2017), e05038, https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2017.5038

Abstract

The Panel on Plant Health performed a pest categorisation of the small spruce bark beetle, Ips amitinus (Eichhoff) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), for the EU. I. amitinus is a well-defined and distinguishable species, native to Europe and attacking mainly spruce (Picea spp.) and pine (Pinus spp.) and sporadically fir (Abies spp.) and larch (Larix spp.). It is distributed in 16 EU Member States and is locally spreading in some. The pest is listed in Annex IIB of Council Directive 2000/29/EC. Protected zones ...

References

  1. Bakke, A., 1968. Ecological studies on bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) associated with Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in Norway with particular reference to the influence of temperature. Meddelelser fra det Norske Skogsforsoksvesen 21, 441–602.
  2. Balachowsky, A., 1949. Faune de France. 50. Coleoptères Scolytides. Lechevalier, Paris. 320 pp.
  3. Bossard, M., Feranec, J., Otahel, J., 2000. CORINE land cover technical guide - Addendum 2000. Tech. Rep. 40, European Environment Agency. https://www.eea.europa.eu/ds_resolveuid/032TFUPGVR
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