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Selection: with tag equity [8 articles] 


Discounting... on stilts

The University of Chicago Law Review, Vol. 74, No. 1. (2007), pp. 119-138


[Excerpt] Jeremy Bentham famously described the concept of natural rights as “nonsense upon stilts.” This Response argues that cost-benefit analysis (CBA)—a contemporary applied version of Bentham’s utilitarianism for public policy analysis—is also nonsensical in that CBA purports to resolve questions, the answers to which have already been subsumed within the framework’s architecture. In particular, CBA subsumes vital questions of intergenerational equity through its use of an exponential discount factor to adjust future costs and benefits to a present value. This discounting procedure has the practical effect of dramatically diminishing the apparent ...


The development of environmental thinking in economics

Environmental Values, Vol. 8, No. 4. (November 1999), pp. 413-435,


There has always been a sub-group of established economists trying to convey an environmental critique of the mainstream. This paper traces their thinking into the late 20th century via the development of associations and journals in the USA and Europe. There is clearly a divergence between the conformity to neo-classical economics favoured by resource and environmental economists and the acceptance of more radical critiques apparent in ecological economics. Thus, the progressive elements of ecological economics are increasingly incompatible with those practising ...


Green and blue water demand from large-scale land acquisitions in Africa

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, No. 41. (11 October 2016), pp. 11471-11476,


[Significance] Freshwater appropriation can have vast impacts, depending on management and scale of water use. Since 2000, foreign investors have contracted an area the size of the United Kingdom in Africa, leading to increased pressure on water resources. Here we couple site-specific water demand for the crops planted there to the efficiency of different irrigation systems, while relating these estimates to local water availability. This approach enables us to identify “hotspot” areas of freshwater use where crops demand more water from irrigation ...


Global freshwater resources: soft-path solutions for the 21st century

Science, Vol. 302, No. 5650. (2003), pp. 1524-1528,


Twentieth-century water policies relied on the construction of massive infrastructure in the form of dams, aqueducts, pipelines, and complex centralized treatment plants to meet human demands. These facilities brought tremendous benefits to billions of people, but they also had serious and often unanticipated social, economical, and ecological costs. Many unsolved water problems remain, and past approaches no longer seem sufficient. A transition is under way to a 'soft path' that complements centralized physical infrastructure with lower cost community-scale systems, decentralized and ...


Mixed messages on prices and food security

Science, Vol. 335, No. 6067. (2012), pp. 405-406,


[Summary] Spikes in food prices have pushed food security to the top of the global policy agenda. Price increases have mixed effects on poverty and hunger: They increase the cost of food for consumers but increase incomes of farmers, who represent the bulk of the world's poor. Net effects will differ depending on whether poor households or countries buy or import, or sell or export food (infrastructure, institutions, and market imperfections will play roles, as well) (1–4). Policies to influence prices imply ...


Universal education is key to enhanced climate adaptation

Science, Vol. 346, No. 6213. (28 November 2014), pp. 1061-1062,


Over the coming years, enormous amounts of money will likely be spent on adaptation to climate change. The international community recently made pledges of up to $100 billion per year by 2020 for the Green Climate Fund. Judging from such climate finance to date, funding for large projects overwhelmingly goes to engineers to build seawalls, dams, or irrigation systems (1). But with specific projections of future changes in climate in specific locations still highly uncertain, such heavy concrete (in both meanings) ...


(INRMM-MiD internal record) List of keywords of the INRMM meta-information database - part 12

(February 2014)
Keywords: endangered-species   endemic-species   endophtic-fungi   energy   energy-consumption   engineering   england   english   enological-parameters   ensemble   enso   enterolobium-cyclocarpum   entransy   entropy   environment-society-economy   environmental-factors   environmental-modelling   environmental-policy   environmental-predictors   envisat-asar   enzykl-holzgew-handb-atlas-dendrol   ephedra-distachya   epinotia-solandriana   epirrita-autumnata   epistemology   eppo   equador   equity   erica-arborea   erica-australis   erica-spp   erica-tetralix   erica-vagans   erodibility   erosion   erosivity   error-clustering   error-spatial-correlation   errors   erwinia-salicis   eryobotria-japonica   erythrina-abyssinica   erythrina-poeppigiana   erythrina-sandwicensis   erythrina-variegata   escarpment   esdac   essential-oils   estonia   ethics   eu-27   eucaliptus-camaldulensis   eucalyptus-citriodora   eucalyptus-coccifera   eucalyptus-diversicolor   eucalyptus-globulus   eucalyptus-gunii   eucalyptus-nitens   eucalyptus-regnans   eucalyptus-spp   euclystis-spp   eucryphia-cordifolia   eugenia-malaccensis   euonymus-europaea   euonymus-europaeus   euonymus-latifolia   euonymus-spp   euonymus-verrucosa   euproctis-chrysorrhoea   europe   europe-2020   european-black-poplar   european-commission   european-conifer   european-council   european-parliament   european-research-council   european-soil-data-centre   european-union   euterpe-oleracea   eutrophication   evaporation   evapotranspiration   even-aged-forest   evergreen   evolution   evolutionary-techniques   evolutionary-tools   evonymus-europaea   ex-situ-conservation   exotic-plants   expat   experimental-approach   experimental-mathematics   expert-judgement   expert-systems   extinction   inrmm-list-of-tags  


List of indexed keywords within the transdisciplinary set of domains which relate to the Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management (INRMM). In particular, the list of keywords maps the semantic tags in the INRMM Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD). [\n] The INRMM-MiD records providing this list are accessible by the special tag: inrmm-list-of-tags ( ). ...


The equity and legitimacy of markets for ecosystem services

Development and Change, Vol. 38, No. 4. (July 2007), pp. 587-613,


Markets for ecosystem services are being promoted across the developing world, amidst claims that the provision of economic incentives is vital to bring about resource conservation. This article argues that equity and legitimacy are also critical dimensions in the design and implementation of such markets, if social development goals beyond economic gains are to be achieved. The article examines this issue by focusing on two communities involved in a project for carbon sequestration services of forests in the state of Chiapas, ...

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Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management - Meta-information Database.

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Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD).
This database integrates a dedicated meta-information database in CiteULike (the CiteULike INRMM Group) with the meta-information available in Google Scholar, CrossRef and DataCite. The Altmetric database with Article-Level Metrics is also harvested. Part of the provided semantic content (machine-readable) is made even human-readable thanks to the DCMI Dublin Core viewer. Digital preservation of the meta-information indexed within the INRMM-MiD publication records is implemented thanks to the Internet Archive.
The library of INRMM related pubblications may be quickly accessed with the following links.
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Full-text and abstracts of the publications indexed by the INRMM meta-information database are copyrighted by the respective publishers/authors. They are subject to all applicable copyright protection. The conditions of use of each indexed publication is defined by its copyright owner. Please, be aware that the indexed meta-information entirely relies on voluntary work and constitutes a quite incomplete and not homogeneous work-in-progress.
INRMM-MiD was experimentally established by the Maieutike Research Initiative in 2008 and then improved with the help of several volunteers (with a major technical upgrade in 2011). This new integrated interface is operational since 2014.