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Selection: with tag epistemology [84 articles] 


What is science's crisis really about?

Futures, Vol. 91 (August 2017), pp. 5-11,


[Highlights] [::] Science’s crisis is real. A resolution is not in sight, but a Reformation is not impossible. [::] The mainstream interpretation of the root causes of the crisis (perverse incentive, too many papers) is insufficient. [::] The crisis is due to a transformed role: from emancipation and betterment of mankind to instrument of profit and growth [::] Scientists cannot resolve the problem alone and have high stakes in the preservation of the status quo. [::] Institutions are in denial pretending that current predicaments of science ...


To be a responsible researcher, reach out and listen



[Excerpt] Vietnam’s Red River is a lifeblood of the country’s economy. But managing its delta region—which is home to 17 million people; hosts the capital city Hanoi, as well as extensive industrial, agricultural, and navigational activities; and provides crucial environmental services—is also a source of conflict between local stakeholders, each with different needs and priorities. [\n] Rodolfo Soncini-Sessa isn’t a local himself—he’s a professor of natural resources management a continent away, at the Polytechnic University of Milan in Italy. But after he ...


A new definition of complexity in a risk analysis setting

Reliability Engineering & System Safety (November 2017),


[Highlights] [::] A new definition of complexity is presented [::] It allows for improved clarity on the links between complexity and risk [::] The idea is to link complexity to activities, and the knowledge about the consequences of these at different levels [Abstract] In this paper, we discuss the concept of complexity in a risk analysis context. Inspired by the work of Johansen and Rausand, a new perspective on complexity is presented which includes several common definitions of complexity as special cases. The idea ...


Rules of thumb for judging ecological theories

Trends in Ecology & Evolution, Vol. 19, No. 3. (March 2004), pp. 121-126,


An impressive fit to historical data suggests to biologists that a given ecological model is highly valid. Models often achieve this fit at the expense of exaggerated complexity that is not justified by empirical evidence. Because overfitted theories complement the traditional assumption that ecology is `messy', they generally remain unquestioned. Using predation theory as an example, we suggest that a fit-driven appraisal of model value is commonly misdirected; although fit to historical data can be important, the simplicity and generality of ...


The strategy of model building in population biology

American Scientist, Vol. 54, No. 4. (1966), pp. 421-431


[Excerpt: Cluster of models] A mathematical model is neither an hypothesis nor a theory. Unlike the scientific hypothesis, a model is not verifiable directly by experiment. For all models are both true and false. Almost any plausible proposed relation among aspects of nature is likely to be true in the sense that it occurs (although rarely and slightly). Yet all models leave out a lot and are in that sense false, incomplete, inadequate. The validation of a model is not that it ...


The uncertain nature of absences and their importance in species distribution modelling

Ecography, Vol. 33, No. 1. (1 February 2010), pp. 103-114,


Species distribution models (SDM) are commonly used to obtain hypotheses on either the realized or the potential distribution of species. The reliability and meaning of these hypotheses depends on the kind of absences included in the training data, the variables used as predictors and the methods employed to parameterize the models. Information about the absence of species from certain localities is usually lacking, so pseudo-absences are often incorporated to the training data. We explore the effect of using different kinds of ...


To model or not to model, that is no longer the question for ecologists

Ecosystems, Vol. 20, No. 2. (2017), pp. 222-228,


Here, I argue that we should abandon the division between “field ecologists” and “modelers,” and embrace modeling and empirical research as two powerful and often complementary approaches in the toolbox of 21st century ecologists, to be deployed alone or in combination depending on the task at hand. As empirical research has the longer tradition in ecology, and modeling is the more recent addition to the methodological arsenal, I provide both practical and theoretical reasons for integrating modeling more deeply into ecosystem ...


Global environmental issues and the emergence of Second Order Science

Vol. 12803 (1990)


[Excerpt: Introduction] The fundamental achievements of science, like those of all creative activities, have a timeless quality. The social activity of science, like any other, evolves in response to its changing circumstances, in its objects, methods and social functions. In the high Middle Ages, the independence of secular learning was established in the universities, removed from the monasteries; and the boundary between the sacred and private on the one hand, and the secular and public on the other, was set for ...


Seven myths of risk

Risk Management In Risk Management, Vol. 7, No. 2. (01 April 2005), pp. 7-17,


Communication between experts and the public has turned out to be unusually difficult in the field of risk research. These difficulties are closely connected to a series of recalcitrant misconceptions of risk and its social preconditions. In this paper, seven of the most pernicious myths of risk are exposed, namely: first, that ‘risk’ must have a single, well-defined meaning; second, that the severity of risks should be judged according to probability-weighted averages of the severity of their outcomes; third, that decisions ...


Building confidence in climate model projections: an analysis of inferences from fit

WIREs Clim Change, Vol. 8, No. 3. (1 May 2017), n/a,


Climate model projections are used to inform policy decisions and constitute a major focus of climate research. Confidence in climate projections relies on the adequacy of climate models for those projections. The question of how to argue for the adequacy of models for climate projections has not gotten sufficient attention in the climate modeling community. The most common way to evaluate a climate model is to assess in a quantitative way degrees of ‘model fit’; that is, how well model results ...


Impact factors: no totum pro parte by skewness of citation

Cardiovascular Research, Vol. 61, No. 2. (01 February 2004), pp. 201-203,


Citation of the various papers published in one and the same journal is highly skewed. Journals with a high impact factor obtain this high value by frequent citation of only a limited number of their papers and, on the other hand, journals with low impact factors publish many papers that remain uncited [1]. Thus, mere publication of a paper in a given journal cannot be regarded as a quality marker of that particular paper [2], it just means that the authors ...


Attempts to manufacture scientific discovery

Nature, Vol. 94, No. 2358. (7 January 1915), pp. 512-512,


[Excerpt] In an excellent article forming one of his admirable series of essays entitled “Science from an Easy-chair,” published in the Daily Telegraph of December 15, 1914, Sir Ray Lankester deals particularly with the case of the recent proposal that the Lister Institute should be handed over to the Medical Research Committee of the National Insurance Commission. The proposal was rejected on November 18 by the votes of the members; and Sir Ray Lankester preaches a useful sermon upon this text. ...


Post-normal institutional identities: quality assurance, reflexivity and ethos of care



[Highlights] [::] Given the current crises of legitimacy and quality in mainstream science, institutions that produce and govern science and those that provide scientific advice to policy need to change their modus operandis; we advocate for an ethos of care. [::] Post-normal science and other frameworks of scientific knowledge production may inspire trustfulness in institutions that provide scientific advice to policy. [::] In Europe, the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission has the necessary scaffolding to advise policy in view of public interest, ...


When a preprint becomes the final paper



A geneticist's decision not to publish his finalized preprint in a journal gets support from scientists online. [Excerpt] Preprint papers posted on servers such as arXiv and bioRxiv are designed to get research results out for discussion before they are formally peer reviewed and published in journals. But for some scientists, the term is now a misnomer — their preprint papers will never be submitted for formal publication. [...] One of the major services of traditional journals is that papers are peer ...


When free software isn't (practically) superior

GNU Operating System (2011)


[Excerpt] The Open Source Initiative's mission statement reads, “Open source is a development method for software that harnesses the power of distributed peer review and transparency of process. The promise of open source is better quality, higher reliability, more flexibility, lower cost, and an end to predatory vendor lock-in.” [\n] For more than a decade now, the Free Software Foundation has argued against this “open source” characterization of the free software movement. Free software advocates have primarily argued against this framing because ...


The politics of publication

Nature, Vol. 422, No. 6929. (20 March 2003), pp. 259-261,


Authors, reviewers and editors must act to protect the quality of research. Listen. All over the world scientists are fretting. [Excerpt] The decision about publication of a paper is the result of interaction between authors, editors and reviewers. Scientists are increasingly desperate to publish in a few top journals and are wasting time and energy manipulating their manuscripts and courting editors. As a result, the objective presentation of work, the accessibility of articles and the quality of research itself are being compromised. ...


Good data are not enough

Nature, Vol. 539, No. 7627. (2 November 2016), pp. 23-25,


A vibrant scientific culture encourages many interpretations of evidence, argues Avi Loeb. [Excerpt] [...] Most research funding is allocated assuming that the highest-quality data will inevitably deliver useful scientific interpretation and theoretical concepts, which can be tested and refined by future data. [...] To truly move forward, free thought must be encouraged outside the mainstream. Multiple interpretations of existing data and alternative motivations for collecting new data must be supported. [...] [Blinkered view] Mayan cosmologists had high social status. They got generous support ...


Why policy needs philosophers as much as it needs science

The Guardian, Vol. 2016, No. October, 13. (2016), 57b3q


[Excerpt] In a widely-discussed recent essay for the New Atlantis, the policy scholar Daniel Sarewitz argues that science is in deep trouble. While modern research remains wondrously productive, its results are more ambiguous, contestable and dubious than ever before. This problem isn’t caused by a lack of funding or of scientific rigour. Rather, Sarewitz argues that we need to let go of a longstanding and cherished cultural belief – that science consists of uniquely objective knowledge that can put an end to ...



In The development dictionary: a guide to knowledge as power (2010), pp. 228-242
edited by Wolfgang Sachs


[Excerpt] ‘Resource’ originally implied life. Its root is the Latin verb surgere, which evoked the image of a spring that continually rises from the ground. Like a spring, a ‘re-source’ rises again and again, even if it has repeatedly been used and consumed. The concept thus highlighted nature’s power of self-regeneration and called attention to her prodigious creativity. Moreover, it implied an ancient idea about the relationship between humans and nature: that the earth bestows gifts on humans who, in turn, are well advised to show diligence in ...


Measuring scientific impact beyond citation counts

D-Lib Magazine, Vol. 22, No. 9/10. (September 2016),


The measurement of scientific progress remains a significant challenge exasperated by the use of multiple different types of metrics that are often incorrectly used, overused, or even explicitly abused. Several metrics such as h-index or journal impact factor (JIF) are often used as a means to assess whether an author, article, or journal creates an "impact" on science. Unfortunately, external forces can be used to manipulate these metrics thereby diluting the value of their intended, original purpose. This work highlights these ...


The natural selection of bad science

Royal Society Open Science, Vol. 3, No. 9. (01 September 2016), 160384,


Poor research design and data analysis encourage false-positive findings. Such poor methods persist despite perennial calls for improvement, suggesting that they result from something more than just misunderstanding. The persistence of poor methods results partly from incentives that favour them, leading to the natural selection of bad science. This dynamic requires no conscious strategizing—no deliberate cheating nor loafing—by scientists, only that publication is a principal factor for career advancement. Some normative methods of analysis have almost certainly been selected to further ...


ePiX tutorial and reference manual



[Excerpt: Introduction] ePiX, a collection of batch utilities, creates mathematically accurate figures, plots, and animations containing LATEX typography. The input syntax is easy to learn, and the user interface resembles that of LATEX itself: You prepare a scene description in a text editor, then “compile” the input file into a picture. LATEX- and web-compatible output types include a LATEX picture-like environment written with PSTricks, tikz, or eepic macros; vector images (eps, ps, and pdf); and bitmapped images and movies (png, mng, and gif). [\n] ePiX’s strengths include: [::] Quality of ...


Corporate culture has no place in academia

Nature, Vol. 538, No. 7623. (3 October 2016), pp. 7-7,


‘Academic capitalism’ contributed to the mishandling of the Macchiarini case by officials at the Karolinska Institute in Sweden, argues Olof Hallonsten. [Excerpt] [...] As academic capitalism spreads, universities abandon traditional meritocratic and collegial governance to hunt money, prestige and a stronger brand. [...] Yet this conduct goes against fundamental values of academia — the careful scrutiny of all claims, and of the research (and teaching) portfolios of those making such claims. This core principle in the self-organization of the academic system (studied ...


How to review a paper



[Excerpt] As junior scientists develop their expertise and make names for themselves, they are increasingly likely to receive invitations to review research manuscripts. It’s an important skill and service to the scientific community, but the learning curve can be particularly steep. Writing a good review requires expertise in the field, an intimate knowledge of research methods, a critical mind, the ability to give fair and constructive feedback, and sensitivity to the feelings of authors on the receiving end. As a range ...


Why scientists must share their research code

Nature (13 September 2016),


'Reproducibility editor' Victoria Stodden explains the growing movement to make code and data available to others. [Excerpt] [...] [::What does computational reproducibility mean?] It means that all details of computation — code and data — are made routinely available to others. If I can run your code on your data, then I can understand what you did. We need to expose all the steps that went into any discovery that relies on a computer. [::What’s the scientific value of running the same data with the ...


Scientific advances: fallacy of perfection harms peer review

Nature, Vol. 537, No. 7618. (31 August 2016), pp. 34-34,


[Excerpt] [...] The history of science has taught us that most progress has come from exploring flawed hypotheses and imperfect models. We must always strive for the better study, the better model, the better analysis. As experienced reviewers, however, we contend that seeking ultimate perfection is not the same as accepting nothing less here and now. Scientific progress depends on such compromise — provided that potential caveats are recognized. [\n] If a model is the most technically and ethically feasible approach available, ...


Transparency in ecology and evolution: real problems, real solutions

Trends in Ecology & Evolution, Vol. 31, No. 9. (September 2016), pp. 711-719,


To make progress scientists need to know what other researchers have found and how they found it. However, transparency is often insufficient across much of ecology and evolution. Researchers often fail to report results and methods in detail sufficient to permit interpretation and meta-analysis, and many results go entirely unreported. Further, these unreported results are often a biased subset. Thus the conclusions we can draw from the published literature are themselves often biased and sometimes might be entirely incorrect. Fortunately there ...


Opinion: science in the age of selfies

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, No. 34. (23 August 2016), pp. 9384-9387,


[Excerpt] [\n] [...] [\n] Here there is a paradox: Today, there are many more scientists, and much more money is spent on research, yet the pace of fundamental innovation, the kinds of theories and engineering practices that will feed the pipeline of future progress, appears, to some observers, including us, to be slowing [...]. Why might that be the case? [\n] One argument is that “theoretical models” may not even exist for some branches of science, at least not in the ...


The battle lines are drawn

Science, Vol. 353, No. 6294. (30 June 2016), pp. 38-38,


[Excerpt] [\n] [...] In his new book, The War on Science, Shawn Otto documents the modern clash between what he calls the “authoritarians” (governments, large corporations, and religious groups) and the “antiauthoritarians” (scientists and other liberal thinkers). Drawing on recent examples ranging from the evolution debate to vaccine skepticism, Otto describes the emergence of an antiscience movement whose focus is to disrupt the creation of evidence-based policy for the sake of preserving profitable business models or entrenched religious dogma. [\n] Otto is at his ...


1,500 scientists lift the lid on reproducibility

Nature, Vol. 533, No. 7604. (25 May 2016), pp. 452-454,


Survey sheds light on the ‘crisis’ rocking research. [Excerpt] More than 70% of researchers have tried and failed to reproduce another scientist's experiments, and more than half have failed to reproduce their own experiments. Those are some of the telling figures that emerged from Nature's survey of 1,576 researchers who took a brief online questionnaire on reproducibility in research. [\n] The data reveal sometimes-contradictory attitudes towards reproducibility. Although 52% of those surveyed agree that there is a significant 'crisis' of reproducibility, less than ...


Modelling as a discipline

International Journal of General Systems, Vol. 30, No. 3. (1 January 2001), pp. 261-282,


Modelling is an essential and inseparable part of all scientific, and indeed all intellectual, activity. How then can we treat it as a separate discipline? The answer is that the professional modeller brings special skills and techniques to bear in order to produce results that are insightful, reliable, and useful. Many of these techniques can be taught formally, such as sophisticated statistical methods, computer simulation, systems identification, and sensitivity analysis. These are valuable tools, but they are not as important as ...


Integrating local and scientific knowledge for environmental management

Journal of Environmental Management, Vol. 91, No. 8. (22 August 2010), pp. 1766-1777,


This paper evaluates the processes and mechanisms available for integrating different types of knowledge for environmental management. Following a review of the challenges associated with knowledge integration, we present a series of questions for identifying, engaging, evaluating and applying different knowledges during project design and delivery. These questions are used as a basis to compare three environmental management projects that aimed to integrate knowledge from different sources in the United Kingdom, Solomon Islands and Australia. Comparative results indicate that integrating different ...

Visual summary


Misplaced faith

Nature, Vol. 522, No. 7554. (2 June 2015), pp. 6-6,


The public trusts scientists much more than scientists think. But should it? [Excerpt] [... A] poll by Ipsos MORI this year showed that scientists are among the most trusted professionals in Britain; some nine in ten people said that they trust scientists to follow all of the research rules and regulations relevant to them. How many scientists would say the same? Not many, probably, of the attendees at this week’s 4th World Conference on Research Integrity in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. As we ...


On malfunctioning software

Synthese In Synthese (2014), pp. 1-22,


Artefacts do not always do what they are supposed to, due to a variety of reasons, including manufacturing problems, poor maintenance, and normal wear-and-tear. Since software is an artefact, it should be subject to malfunctioning in the same sense in which other artefacts can malfunction. Yet, whether software is on a par with other artefacts when it comes to malfunctioning crucially depends on the abstraction used in the analysis. We distinguish between “negative” and “positive” notions of malfunction. A negative malfunction, ...


What is the question?

Science, Vol. 347, No. 6228. (20 March 2015), pp. 1314-1315,


Over the past 2 years, increased focus on statistical analysis brought on by the era of big data has pushed the issue of reproducibility out of the pages of academic journals and into the popular consciousness (1). Just weeks ago, a paper about the relationship between tissue-specific cancer incidence and stem cell divisions (2) was widely misreported because of misunderstandings about the primary statistical argument in the paper (3). Public pressure has contributed to the massive recent adoption of reproducible research ...

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The pleasure of publishing

eLife, Vol. 4 (06 January 2015), e05770,


When assessing manuscripts eLife editors look for a combination of rigour and insight, along with results and ideas that make other researchers think differently about their subject. [Excerpt] The senior editors at eLife are often asked: ‘Where is the bar for an eLife paper?’ Another frequent question is: ‘Why should I submit my best work to eLife?’ The second of these questions is not surprising because it is human nature to be wary of anything new and challenging. The first question has ...


Hardware designs should be free - Here's how to do it

WIRED, Vol. 2015 (18 March 2015)


We must design free hardware. But the question remains: how? [\n] First, we must understand why we can’t make hardware free the same way we make software free. Hardware and software are fundamentally different. A program, even in compiled executable form, is a collection of data which can be interpreted as instruction for a computer. Like any other digital work, it can be copied and changed using a computer. A copy of a program has no inherent physical form or embodiment. [\n] By ...


On the role of scientific thought

In Selected Writings on Computing: A personal Perspective (1982), pp. 60-66,


Essentially, this essay contains nothing new; on the contrary, its subject matter is so old that sometimes it seems forgotten. It is written in an effort to undo some of the more common misunderstandings that I encounter (nearly daily) in my professional world of computing scientists, programmers, computer users and computer designers, and even colleagues engaged in educational politics. The decision to write this essay now was taken because I suddenly realized that my confrontation with this same pattern of misunderstanding ...


Reproducible research can still be wrong: adopting a prevention approach

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 112, No. 6. (11 February 2015), pp. 1645-1646,


[Excerpt] Reproducibility—the ability to recompute results—and replicability—the chances other experimenters will achieve a consistent result—are two foundational characteristics of successful scientific research. Consistent findings from independent investigators are the primary means by which scientific evidence accumulates for or against a hypothesis. Yet, of late, there has been a crisis of confidence among researchers worried about the rate at which studies are either reproducible or replicable. To maintain the integrity of science research and the public’s trust in science, the scientific community ...

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data-based mechanistic and top-down modelling

In Proceedings of the 1st Biennial Meeting of the iEMSs "Integrated Assessment and Decision Support" (2002)


The paper discusses the problems associated with environmental modelling and the need to develop simple, ‘top-down’, stochastic models that match the information content of the data. It introduces the concept of Data-Based Mechanistic (DBM) modelling and contrasts its inductive approach with the hypothetico-deductive approaches that dominate most environmental modelling research at the present time. The major methodological procedures utilized in DBM modelling are outlined and two practical examples illustrate how it has been applied in a hydrological and water quality context. The use of this same ...


Biochemist questions peer review at UK funding agency



[Excerpt] Many researchers do little more than grumble if a funding agency declines their grant applications. But when the UK Medical Research Council (MRC) turned down two proposals from biochemist Ian Eperon – despite high scores from peer reviewers — he decided to find out how closely the agency follows the evaluations it invites from experts. After much chasing and a freedom-of-information request, he has received figures that surprised him: in 2013–14, the scores given to grant proposals in his field ...


Observational articles: a tool to reconstruct ecological history based on chronicling unusual events

F1000Research, Vol. 2 (9 August 2013), 168,


Natural history is based on observations, whereas modern ecology is mostly based on experiments aimed at testing hypotheses, either in the field or in a computer. Furthermore, experiments often reveal generalities that are taken as norms. Ecology, however, is a historical discipline and history is driven by both regularities (deriving from norms) and irregularities, or contingencies, which occur when norms are broken. If only norms occured, there would be no history. The current disregard for the importance of contingencies and anecdotes ...


Rampant software errors undermine scientific results

F1000Research, Vol. 3 (11 December 2014), 303,


Errors in scientific results due to software bugs are not limited to a few high-profile cases that lead to retractions and are widely reported. Here I estimate that in fact most scientific results are probably wrong if data have passed through a computer, and that these errors may remain largely undetected. The opportunities for both subtle and profound errors in software and data management are boundless, yet they remain surprisingly underappreciated. ...


A taxonomy of prospection: introducing an organizational framework for future-oriented cognition

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 111, No. 52. (30 December 2014), pp. 18414-18421,


Prospection—the ability to represent what might happen in the future—is a broad concept that has been used to characterize a wide variety of future-oriented cognitions, including affective forecasting, prospective memory, temporal discounting, episodic simulation, and autobiographical planning. In this article, we propose a taxonomy of prospection to initiate the important and necessary process of teasing apart the various forms of future thinking that constitute the landscape of prospective cognition. The organizational framework that we propose delineates episodic and semantic forms of ...


Reversals of national fortune, and social science methodologies

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 111, No. 50. (16 December 2014), pp. 17709-17714,


Among non-European regions colonized by Europeans, regions that were relatively richer five centuries ago (like Mexico, Peru, and India) tend to be poorer today, while regions that originally were relatively poorer (like the United States, Chile, and Australia) tend now to be richer. Acemoglu, Johnson, and Robinson (abbreviated AJR) established the generality of this reversal of fortune. Chanda, Cook, and Putterman (abbreviated CCP) have now reanalyzed it, taking as a unit of analysis populations rather than geographic regions. That is, India's ...


The question concerning technology, and other essays



[Excerpt] Modern man as scientist, through the prescribed procedures of experiment, inquires of nature to learn more and more about it. But in so doing he does not relate himself to nature as the Greek related himself to the multitudinous presencing of everything that met him spontaneously at every turn. He does not relate to nature in the openness of immediate response. For the scientist's "nature" is in fact, Heidegger says, a human construction. Science strikingly manifests the way in which modern man as subject represents reality. The modern ...


The philosophy and epistemology of simulation: a review

Simulation & Gaming, Vol. 41, No. 1. (01 February 2010), pp. 20-50,


The philosophical literature on simulations has increased dramatically during the past 40 years. Many of its main topics are epistemological. For example, philosophers consider how the results of simulations help explain natural phenomena. This essay’s review treats mainly simulations in the social sciences. It considers the nature of simulations, the varieties of simulation, and uses of simulations for representation, prediction, explanation, and policy decisions. Being oriented toward philosophy of science, it compares simulations to models and experiments and considers whether simulations ...


Restricted complexity, general complexity

In Colloquium “Intelligence de la complexité : épistémologie et pragma- tique”, Cerisy-La-Salle, France (10 Oct 2006)
Keywords: complexity   epistemology  


Why has the problematic of complexity appeared so late? And why would it be justified? ...


The philosophical novelty of computer simulation methods

Synthese In Synthese, Vol. 169, No. 3. (1 August 2009), pp. 615-626,


Reasons are given to justify the claim that computer simulations and computational science constitute a distinctively new set of scientific methods and that these methods introduce new issues in the philosophy of science. These issues are both epistemological and methodological in kind. ...


Autonomous technology – sources of confusion: a model for explanation and prediction of conceptual shifts

Ergonomics, Vol. 57, No. 3. (5 December 2013), pp. 455-470,


Today, autonomous is often used for technology with a more intelligent self-management capability than common automation. This concept usage is maladaptive, ignoring both the distinction between autonomy and heteronomy according to Kant's categorical imperative and that the meaning of autonomy implies qualities technology cannot have. Being autonomous is about having the right to be wrong, a right justified by accountability and insightful understanding of real-life values, and it is about being externally uncontrollable. The contemporary use of autonomy as well as ...

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