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Selection: with tag elevation [26 articles] 


A high-accuracy map of global terrain elevations

Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 44, No. 11. (16 June 2017), pp. 5844-5853,

Hole-filled SRTM for the globe Version 4

In CGIAR Consortium for Spatial Information (CGIAR-CSI) (2008)


[Excerpt: Introduction] The SRTM digital elevation data provided on this site has been processed to fill data voids, and to facilitate it’s ease of use by a wide group of potential users. This data is provided in an effort to promote the use of geospatial science and applications for sustainable development and resource conservation in the developing world. Digital elevation models (DEM) for the entire globe, covering all of the countries of the world, are available for download on this site. [\n] The ...


An evaluation of void-filling interpolation methods for SRTM data

International Journal of Geographical Information Science, Vol. 21, No. 9. (1 October 2007), pp. 983-1008,


The Digital Elevation Model that has been derived from the February 2000 Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) has been one of the most important publicly available new spatial data sets in recent years. However, the ‘finished’ grade version of the data (also referred to as Version 2) still contains data voids (some 836,000 km2)—and other anomalies—that prevent immediate use in many applications. These voids can be filled using a range of interpolation algorithms in conjunction with other sources of elevation data, ...


Spatial and seasonal variations of air temperature lapse rates in Alpine regions

Journal of Climate, Vol. 16, No. 7. (1 April 2003), pp. 1032-1046,<1032:sasvoa>;2


Air temperature decrease with altitude was estimated by simple linear regression for several regions around northern Italy for minimum, maximum, and mean monthly temperatures. The comparison of the gradients with previous works revealed the absence of a lapse rate seasonal pattern in most earlier studies. Such inconsistencies in other analyses were demonstrated to be largely due to insufficient climatic stations in each area, and incomplete temporal coverage. These problems were solved here by using 269 stations in northern Italy, 205 in ...


Simultaneous estimation of daily solar radiation and humidity from observed temperature and precipitation: an application over complex terrain in Austria

Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, Vol. 104, No. 4. (15 September 2000), pp. 255-271,


Using daily observations of temperature, precipitation, radiation, and humidity from 24 stations spanning a large elevation gradient in Austria, we tested several previously defined algorithms for estimating daily radiation and humidity. The estimation algorithms were first tested independently, and then combined, resulting in a combined algorithm for estimating both radiation and humidity that relies only on temperature and precipitation inputs. Mean absolute errors (MAE) for joint radiation and humidity estimates were 2.52 MJ m −2 per day and 85.6 Pa, respectively, close to values ...


Predictors of elevational biodiversity gradients change from single taxa to the multi-taxa community level

Nature Communications, Vol. 7 (22 December 2016), 13736,


The factors determining gradients of biodiversity are a fundamental yet unresolved topic in ecology. While diversity gradients have been analysed for numerous single taxa, progress towards general explanatory models has been hampered by limitations in the phylogenetic coverage of past studies. By parallel sampling of 25 major plant and animal taxa along a 3.7 km elevational gradient on Mt. Kilimanjaro, we quantify cross-taxon consensus in diversity gradients and evaluate predictors of diversity from single taxa to a multi-taxa community level. While single ...


Evidences of drought stress as a predisposing factor to Scots pine decline in Valle d’Aosta (Italy)

European Journal of Forest Research In European Journal of Forest Research, Vol. 131, No. 4. (25 October 2012), pp. 989-1000,


Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris L.) forests of many inner Alpine valleys have recently displayed a quick loss of vitality. A decline disease has been suggested as the cause, with drought as the main predisposing factor and the additional contribution of biotic agents inciting tree dieback. This study is focused on Valle d’Aosta, a dry, inner-Alpine region in NW Italy. We inferred vitality changes between years 2000 and 2007 by computing reductions in enhanced vegetation index (EVI). Image differencing was carried ...


Plant-pest interactions in time and space: a Douglas-fir bark beetle outbreak as a case study

Landscape Ecology, Vol. 14, No. 2. (1999), pp. 105-120,


A conceptual model of Douglas-fir bark beetle (Dendroctonus pseudotsugae) dynamics and associated host tree mortality across multiple spatial and temporal scales was developed, then used to guide a study of the association between the occurrence of beetle- killed trees and factors that might render trees more susceptible to attack. Long-term records of beetle kill showed that beetle epidemics were associated with windstorms and drought at statewide and local spatial scales. At the landscape scale, beetle kill was associated with (i) portions ...


Fine-scale spruce mortality dynamics driven by bark beetle disturbance in Babia Góra National Park, Poland

European Journal of Forest Research, Vol. 135, No. 3. (2016), pp. 507-517,


Bark beetle outbreaks have had major impacts on Norway spruce forests in Europe. The large majority of these forests are located in areas under forest management; thus, few studies have investigated outbreak-driven spruce mortality patterns unaffected by humans. Our study examined spruce mortality resultant from a beetle outbreak in a high-elevation, unmanaged forest over a 17-year span. We analyzed three tree-level survivorship and DBH datasets collected during pre-, mid-, and post-outbreak conditions to evaluate long-term mortality dynamics. We measured changes in ...


Determining landscape fine fuel moisture content of the Kilmore East ‘Black Saturday’ wildfire using spatially-extended point-based models

Environmental Modelling & Software, Vol. 40 (February 2013), pp. 98-108,


[Abstract] Fuel moisture is the most dynamic component of bushfire fuels. It varies rapidly both spatially and temporally and plays a significant role in determining the behaviour and spread of bushfires, particularly through combustibility and ease of ignition of dead fine fuels (i.e. particle diameter <6 mm). The Kilmore East fire in Victoria, Australia, on 7 February, 2009 (“Black Saturday”) was the most destructive bushfire in Australia's history. Its behaviour was characterised by mass spotting (the launch, transport and landing of burning ...


Modeling monthly near-surface air temperature from solar radiation and lapse rate: application over complex terrain in Yellowstone national park

Physical Geography, Vol. 29, No. 2. (1 March 2008), pp. 158-178,


Spatially distributed surface temperature over complex topography is important to many ecological processes, but it varies spatially and temporally in complex ways and is difficult to measure at landscape scales at tens of meters resolution. Our goal is to develop a methodology that accurately predicts surface temperature in mountain ecosystems. First, we modeled monthly incoming solar radiation (insolation) based on topography and observed variation in atmospheric conditions, and accounting for site latitude, elevation, and surface orientation (slope and aspect), daily and ...


A geometric solar radiation model with applications in agriculture and forestry

Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, Vol. 37, No. 1-3. (December 2002), pp. 25-35,


Incoming solar radiation (insolation) is fundamental to most physical and biophysical processes because of its role in energy and water balance. We calculated insolation maps from digital elevation models, using an insolation model that accounts for atmospheric conditions, elevation, surface orientation, and influences of surrounding topography. Herein, we focus on the application of this insolation model for spatial interpolation of soil temperature measurements over complex topography at landscape scales. Existing interpolation techniques generally apply only at continental or broad regional scales ...


Strong upslope shifts in Chimborazo's vegetation over two centuries since Humboldt

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (14 September 2015), 201509938,


[Significance] Tropical regions harbor the majority of the world’s biodiversity, but there is debate about whether montane species here are able to track global warming at the same rate as in temperate regions. By following in Humboldt's footsteps and revisiting his pioneering documentation of vegetation elevation ranges, we show that the limit of plant growth has already been strongly pushed upslope. Although the rate of plant range shifts matches that found in other studies, the total magnitude of change in vegetation and ...

Visual summary


Using LiDAR technology in forestry activities

Environmental Monitoring and Assessment In Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, Vol. 151, No. 1-4. (2009), pp. 117-125,


Managing natural resources in wide-scale areas can be highly time and resource consuming task which requires significant amount of data collection in the field and reduction of the data in the office to provide the necessary information. High performance LiDAR remote sensing technology has recently become an effective tool for use in applications of natural resources. In the field of forestry, the LiDAR measurements of the forested areas can provide high-quality data on three-dimensional characterizations of forest structures. Besides, LiDAR data ...


Oak woodland vegetation of Turkey - a first overview based on multivariate statistics

Applied Vegetation Science, Vol. 15, No. 4. (October 2012), pp. 590-608,


[Questions] Turkey is home to more Quercus species than any other country in the western Palaearctic. To what extent is the taxonomic diversity reflected in compositional diversity of oak woodland vegetation? What are the main compositional gradients, their environmental correlates and associated gradients in species traits? How are the oak woodland types in Turkey distributed? What is their stand structure, ecological range, conservation value and how are they used? Which phytosociological syntaxa are represented? What gaps remain in knowledge of Turkey's oak ...


The shuttle radar topography mission—a new class of digital elevation models acquired by spaceborne radar

ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Vol. 57, No. 4. (February 2003), pp. 241-262,


For 11 days in February 2000, the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) successfully recorded by interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data of the entire land mass of the earth between 60[degree sign]N and 57[degree sign]S. The data acquired in C- and X-bands are processed into the first global digital elevation models (DEMs) at 1 arc sec resolution, by NASA-JPL and German aerospace center (DLR), respectively. From the perspective of the SRTM-X system, we give in this paper an overview of the ...


GRASS GIS manual: r.watershed

In GRASS Development Team, 2014. GRASS GIS 7.1svn Reference Manual (2014)


r.watershed - Calculates hydrological parameters and RUSLE factors. ...


Global Multi-resolution Terrain Elevation Data 2010 (GMTED2010)

No. 2011–1073. (2011)
Keywords: elevation   global-scale   open-data  


[Excerpt] In 1996, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) developed a global topographic elevation model designated as GTOPO30 at a horizontal resolution of 30 arc-seconds for the entire Earth. Because no single source of topographic information covered the entire land surface, GTOPO30 was derived from eight raster and vector sources that included a substantial amount of U.S. Defense Mapping Agency data. The quality of the elevation data in GTOPO30 varies widely; there are no spatially-referenced metadata, and the major topographic features ...


Climate affects severity and altitudinal distribution of outbreaks in an eruptive bark beetle

Climatic Change In Climatic Change, Vol. 115, No. 2. (28 April 2012), pp. 327-341,


Temperature warming and the increased frequency of climatic anomalies are expected to trigger bark beetle outbreaks with potential severe consequences on forest ecosystems. We characterized the combined effects of climatic factors and density-dependent feedbacks on forest damage caused by Ips typographus (L.), one of the most destructive pests of European spruce forests, and tested whether climate modified the interannual variation in the altitudinal outbreak range of the species. We analyzed a 16-year time-series from the European Alps of timber loss in ...


GRASS GIS manual: r.watershed

In GRASS Development Team, 2014. GRASS GIS 7.0.0svn Reference Manual (2014)


r.watershed - Calculates hydrological parameters and RUSLE factors. ...


(INRMM-MiD internal record) List of keywords of the INRMM meta-information database - part 11

(February 2014)
Keywords: doronicum-hungaricum   doronicum-orientale   dothistroma-pini   dothistroma-septosporum   downscaling   dracaena-draco   dracaena-drago   drinking-water   drought-stress   drought-tolerance   droughts   dry-summers   dry-years   dryas-octopetala   dryocoetus-autographus   dryocopus-martius   dss   dublin-core   duplicated-entry-to-be-removed   durio-zibethinus   dutch-elm   dutch-elm-disease   dynamic-data-driven-application-system   dynamic-downscaling   dynamic-programming   dynamic-vegetation-models   e-obs   e-rusle   early-dissemination   early-medieval   earth-observation   earth-system   earthquakes   east-africa   east-china-see   east-europe   ebola   ecological-change   ecological-corridor   ecological-footprint   ecological-networks   ecological-restoration   ecological-zones   ecology   economic-impacts   economic-value   economics   economy-bias   ecophysiology   ecoprovinces   ecosystem   ecosystem-change   ecosystem-conservation   ecosystem-decline   ecosystem-disservices   ecosystem-functions   ecosystem-heterogeneity   ecosystem-invasibility   ecosystem-management   ecosystem-processes   ecosystem-resilience   ecosystem-services   ecotype   edge-effect   edible-plants   editorial   editorial-policy   education   eemian   efdac   effective-gene-flow   effectiveness   effects   efficienct   effis   eficp   efics   efsa   efsa-scientific-opinion   egypt   el-nino   elaeagnus-angustifolia   elatobium-abietinum   elderberry-wine   electronics   elevation   elisa   ellenberg-climatic-quotient   ellenberg-numbers   elm-phloem-necrosis   elsevier   emergency-events   emergency-management   emergent-engineering   emergent-property   empetrum-nigrum   empirical-equation   emulation   end-of-history-bias   inrmm-list-of-tags  


List of indexed keywords within the transdisciplinary set of domains which relate to the Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management (INRMM). In particular, the list of keywords maps the semantic tags in the INRMM Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD). [\n] The INRMM-MiD records providing this list are accessible by the special tag: inrmm-list-of-tags ( ). ...


A Significant Upward Shift in Plant Species Optimum Elevation During the 20th Century

Science, Vol. 320, No. 5884. (27 June 2008), pp. 1768-1771,


Spatial fingerprints of climate change on biotic communities are usually associated with changes in the distribution of species at their latitudinal or altitudinal extremes. By comparing the altitudinal distribution of 171 forest plant species between 1905 and 1985 and 1986 and 2005 along the entire elevation range (0 to 2600 meters above sea level) in west Europe, we show that climate warming has resulted in a significant upward shift in species optimum elevation averaging 29 meters per decade. The shift is ...


Understanding Earth’s eroding surface with 10Be

GSA Today, Vol. 21, No. 8. (August 2011), pp. 4-10,


For more than a century, geologists have sought to measure the distribution of erosion rates on Earth's dynamic surface. Since the mid-1980s, measurements of in situ 10Be, a cosmogenic radionuclide, have been used to estimate outcrop and basin-scale erosion rates at 87 sites around the world. Here, we compile, normalize, and compare published 10Be erosion rate data (n = 1599) in order to understand how, on a globalscale, geologic erosion rates integrated over 103 to 106 years varybetween climate zones, tectonic ...


The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission

Reviews of Geophysics, Vol. 45, No. 2. (1 June 2007), RG2004,
Keywords: data   elevation   nasa   open-data   remote-sensing   srtm  


The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission produced the most complete, highest-resolution digital elevation model of the Earth. The project was a joint endeavor of NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, and the German and Italian Space Agencies and flew in February 2000. It used dual radar antennas to acquire interferometric radar data, processed to digital topographic data at 1 arc sec resolution. Details of the development, flight operations, data processing, and products are provided for users of this revolutionary data set. ...


Bioclimatic and physical characterization of the world’s islands

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 110, No. 38. (17 September 2013), pp. 15307-15312,


The Earth’s islands harbor a distinct, yet highly threatened, biological and cultural diversity that has been shaped by geographic isolation and unique environments. Island systems are key natural laboratories for testing theory in ecology and evolution. However, despite their potential usefulness for research, a quantitative description of island environments and an environmental classification are still lacking. Here, we prepare a standardized dataset and perform a comprehensive global environmental characterization for 17,883 of the world’s marine islands >1 km2 (∼98% of total ...


Altitudinal changes in composition and structure of mountain-temperate vegetation: a case study from the Western Carpathians

Plant Ecology In Plant Ecology, Vol. 158, No. 2. (2002), pp. 201-221,


Changes in composition and structure of plant communities in relation tothe soil and snow cover variation were analyzed along an altitudinal transect(1150–1750 m) from the mountain-temperate forests to a woodyshrub community and alpine meadows on Mt Velký Gápel', Slovakia.The soils below the treeline (∼1510 m) had a more developedorganic layer above the mineral substratum. Generally, soil depth decreased asthe altitude increased, although the maximum values were recognized at a middlealtitude in a beech stand. Snow was redistributed by westerly winds from ...

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Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management - Meta-information Database.

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Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD).
This database integrates a dedicated meta-information database in CiteULike (the CiteULike INRMM Group) with the meta-information available in Google Scholar, CrossRef and DataCite. The Altmetric database with Article-Level Metrics is also harvested. Part of the provided semantic content (machine-readable) is made even human-readable thanks to the DCMI Dublin Core viewer. Digital preservation of the meta-information indexed within the INRMM-MiD publication records is implemented thanks to the Internet Archive.
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Full-text and abstracts of the publications indexed by the INRMM meta-information database are copyrighted by the respective publishers/authors. They are subject to all applicable copyright protection. The conditions of use of each indexed publication is defined by its copyright owner. Please, be aware that the indexed meta-information entirely relies on voluntary work and constitutes a quite incomplete and not homogeneous work-in-progress.
INRMM-MiD was experimentally established by the Maieutike Research Initiative in 2008 and then improved with the help of several volunteers (with a major technical upgrade in 2011). This new integrated interface is operational since 2014.