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Selection: with tag ecosystem-services [145 articles] 

 

US natural resources and climate change: concepts and approaches for management adaptation

  
Environmental Management, Vol. 44, No. 6. (2009), pp. 1001-1021, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00267-009-9345-1

Abstract

Public lands and waters in the United States traditionally have been managed using frameworks and objectives that were established under an implicit assumption of stable climatic conditions. However, projected climatic changes render this assumption invalid. Here, we summarize general principles for management adaptations that have emerged from a major literature review. These general principles cover many topics including: (1) how to assess climate impacts to ecosystem processes that are key to management goals; (2) using management practices to support ecosystem resilience; ...

 

Natural climate solutions

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (16 October 2017), 201710465, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1710465114

Abstract

[Significance] Most nations recently agreed to hold global average temperature rise to well below 2 °C. We examine how much climate mitigation nature can contribute to this goal with a comprehensive analysis of “natural climate solutions” (NCS): 20 conservation, restoration, and/or improved land management actions that increase carbon storage and/or avoid greenhouse gas emissions across global forests, wetlands, grasslands, and agricultural lands. We show that NCS can provide over one-third of the cost-effective climate mitigation needed between now and 2030 to stabilize ...

 

Strengthening protected areas for biodiversity and ecosystem services in China

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 114, No. 7. (14 February 2017), pp. 1601-1606, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1620503114

Abstract

[Significance] Following severe environmental degradation from rapid economic development, China is now advancing policies to secure biodiversity and ecosystem services. We report the first nationwide assessment, showing that protected areas (PAs) are not well delineated to protect either biodiversity or key ecosystem services. This serious deficiency exists in many countries. We propose creating a national park system in China to help guide development along a path of green growth, improving the well-being of both people and nature. This involves establishing new, strictly ...

 

The impacts of logging on landslide activity at Clayoquot Sound, British Columbia

  
CATENA, Vol. 38, No. 4. (February 2000), pp. 279-300, https://doi.org/10.1016/s0341-8162(99)00078-8

Abstract

The objective of this study was to investigate the impacts of logging on landslide activity in Clayoquot Sound on the west coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia. A total of 1004 landslides were documented in order to test the hypothesis that areas affected by logging activities show different density, frequency and magnitude characteristics of landsliding than areas unaffected by logging. The frequency of landslides in logged terrain was found to be nine times higher than in undisturbed forest. An exponential increase ...

 

Observational evidence for cloud cover enhancement over western European forests

  
Nature Communications, Vol. 8 (11 January 2017), 14065, https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms14065

Abstract

Forests impact regional hydrology and climate directly by regulating water and heat fluxes. Indirect effects through cloud formation and precipitation can be important in facilitating continental-scale moisture recycling but are poorly understood at regional scales. In particular, the impact of temperate forest on clouds is largely unknown. Here we provide observational evidence for a strong increase in cloud cover over large forest regions in western Europe based on analysis of 10 years of 15 min resolution data from geostationary satellites. In addition, ...

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Connecting models, data, and concepts to understand fragmentation's ecosystem-wide effects

  
Ecography, Vol. 40, No. 1. (January 2017), pp. 1-8, https://doi.org/10.1111/ecog.02974

Abstract

[Excerpt: Conclusions] The body of experimental and theoretical work that has accumulated on the problem of habitat fragmentation has slowly matured over the years, and this Special Issue highlights this growth. Yet, it also provides a springboard to the new frontiers in fragmentation research. These areas include in particular the interplay between evolutionary and metacommunity dynamics with fragments, and this interface should be the subject of inquiry that integrates theory, experiment, and observation with resources at hand. New large-scale, experimental research should ...

 

Integration of ecological and socio-economic factors to assess global vulnerability to wildfire

  
Global Ecology and Biogeography, Vol. 23, No. 2. (2014), pp. 245-258, https://doi.org/10.1111/geb.12095

Abstract

[Aim] This paper presents a map of global fire vulnerability, estimating the potential damage of wildland fires to global ecosystems. [Location] Global scale at 0.5° grid resolution. [Methods] Three vulnerability factors were considered: ecological richness and fragility, provision of ecosystem services and value of houses in the wildland–urban interface. Each of these factors was estimated from existing global databases. Ecological values were estimated from biodiversity relevance, conservation status and fragmentation based on Olson's ecoregions. The ecological regeneration delay was estimated from adaptation to fires and soil ...

 

Passing the point of no return

  
Science, Vol. 354, No. 6316. (02 December 2016), pp. 1109-1109, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aal2188

Abstract

[Excerpt] In the field of ecology, regime shifts are massive changes in function and character that occur when an ecosystem passes a tipping point. Regime shifts sometimes have severe consequences for human well-being through losses of ecosystem services, including desertification in arid regions and marine fisheries collapses. These changes are difficult to predict and sometimes impossible to reverse. For these reasons, understanding how to anticipate and prevent regime shifts is one of the most important challenges faced by environmental scientists. [\n] Theoretical analyses ...

 

Ecosystem service supply and vulnerability to global change in Europe

  
Science, Vol. 310, No. 5752. (25 November 2005), pp. 1333-1337, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1115233

Abstract

Global change will alter the supply of ecosystem services that are vital for human well-being. To investigate ecosystem service supply during the 21st century, we used a range of ecosystem models and scenarios of climate and land-use change to conduct a Europe-wide assessment. Large changes in climate and land use typically resulted in large changes in ecosystem service supply. Some of these trends may be positive (for example, increases in forest area and productivity) or offer opportunities (for example, “surplus land” ...

 

Biodiversity and ecosystem services: a multilayered relationship

  
Trends in Ecology & Evolution, Vol. 27, No. 1. (1 January 2012), pp. 19-26, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2011.08.006

Abstract

The relationship between biodiversity and the rapidly expanding research and policy field of ecosystem services is confused and is damaging efforts to create coherent policy. Using the widely accepted Convention on Biological Diversity definition of biodiversity and work for the UK National Ecosystem Assessment we show that biodiversity has key roles at all levels of the ecosystem service hierarchy: as a regulator of underpinning ecosystem processes, as a final ecosystem service and as a good that is subject to valuation, whether ...

 

The bio-economy concept and knowledge base in a public goods and farmer perspective

  
Bio-based and Applied Economics, Vol. 1, No. 1. (2012), pp. 47-63

Abstract

Currently an industrial perspective dominates the EU policy framework for a European bio-economy. The Commission’s proposal on the bio-economy emphasises greater resource-efficiency, largely within an industrial perspective on global economic competitiveness, benefiting capital-intensive industries at higher levels of the value chain. However a responsible bio-economy must initially address the sustainable use of resources. Many farmers are not only commodity producers but also providers of quality food and managers of the eco-system. A public goods-oriented bio-economy emphasises agro-ecological methods, organic and low ...

 

Synergies and trade-offs between ecosystem service supply, biodiversity, and habitat conservation status in Europe

  
Biological Conservation, Vol. 155 (October 2012), pp. 1-12, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2012.06.016

Abstract

[Abstract] In the European Union (EU) efforts to conserve biodiversity have been consistently directed towards the protection of habitats and species through the designation of protected areas under the Habitats Directive (92/43/ECC). These biodiversity conservation efforts also have the potential to maintain or improve the supply of ecosystem services; however, this potential has been poorly explored across Europe. This paper reports on a spatial assessment of the relationships between biodiversity, ecosystem services, and conservation status of protected habitats at European scale. We ...

 

The role of biodiversity in supporting ecosystem services in Natura 2000 sites

  
Ecological Indicators, Vol. 24 (January 2013), pp. 12-22, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2012.05.016

Abstract

[Abstract] The recent discussion about the relationships between biodiversity and ecosystem services also raises the question as to whether the argumentative basis for nature conservation can be strengthened by emphasizing the role of species and habitats in supporting ecosystem services. A literature survey shows that mainly socio-cultural and some regulating services are dependent on particular species, groups of species, or habitat types, while many other services, especially those related to provisioning, rely more heavily on vegetation structures and land cover. These findings ...

 

Applicazione del modello dimostrativo di valutazione qualitativa e quantitativa dei servizi ecosistemici nei siti pilota - Parte 1: quantificazione dei servizi ecosistemici

  
(2015)

Abstract

[Excerpt: Introduzione] Sulla base della valutazione qualitativa degli habitat e della copertura, del questionario e degli incontri con gli stakeholder sono stati selezionati 2-3 servizi ecosistemici (SE) per ogni sito pilota LIFE+ MGN [...]. Per ognuno di questi SE viene riportato in questo report il risultato della quantifiazione biofisica e monetaria. [...] [:English version (Ed.): Introduction] For each pilot site LIFE+ MGN, 2-3 ecosystem services (ES) have been selected. The selection considered the qualitative assessment of habitat and cover; the survey and the ...

References

  1. ARPA Lombardia. Servizio Idrografico. http://idro.arpalombardia.it/pmapper-4.0/map.phtml .
  2. ASR Lombardia (2014). Valori medi dei terreni agricoli in Provincia di Cremona - Regione agraria. http://www.asr-lombardia.it/ASR/lombardia-e-province/agricoltura/produzione-agricola-zootecnia-e-risultati-economici/tavole/890/2014/ .
  3. Autorità di bacino del fiume Arno (2008). Progetto di Piano di Bacino Stralcio “Bilancio Idrico”.
  4. Autorità di bacino del fiume Po (1999). Progetto di Piano stralcio per l’Assetto Idrogeologico (PAI). http://www.adbpo.it/on-multi/ADBPO/Home/Pianificazione/Pianistralcioapprovati/PianostralcioperlAssettoIdrogeologicoPAI.html .
  5. Autorità di bacino del
 

The effect of biodiversity on tree productivity: from temperate to boreal forests

  
Global Ecology and Biogeography, Vol. 20, No. 1. (1 January 2011), pp. 170-180, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1466-8238.2010.00592.x

Abstract

[Aim] An important issue regarding biodiversity concerns its influence on ecosystem functioning. Experimental work has led to the proposal of mechanisms such as niche complementarity. However, few attempts have been made to confirm these in natural systems, especially in forests. Furthermore, one of the most interesting unresolved questions is whether the effects of complementarity on ecosystem functioning (EF) decrease in favour of competitive exclusions over an increasing productivity gradient. Using records from permanent forest plots, we asked the following questions. (1) ...

 

Diversity increases carbon storage and tree productivity in Spanish forests

  
Global Ecology and Biogeography, Vol. 23, No. 3. (1 March 2014), pp. 311-322, https://doi.org/10.1111/geb.12126

Abstract

[Aim] Biodiversity loss could reduce primary productivity and the carbon storage provided by forests; however, the mechanisms underpinning the effects of biodiversity on multiple ecosystem functions are not completely understood. Spanish forests are of particular interest because of the broad variation in environmental conditions and management history. We tested for the existence of a relationship between diversity effects and both carbon storage and tree productivity, and examined the relative importance of complementarity and selection mechanisms in a wide variety of forests, ...

 

Above-ground carbon storage by urban trees in Leipzig, Germany: analysis of patterns in a European city

  
Landscape and Urban Planning, Vol. 104, No. 1. (January 2012), pp. 95-104, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2011.10.001

Abstract

Many aspects of global change, including carbon dioxide emissions, have been attributed to urban areas. On the other hand, cities have been found to provide valuable ecosystem services such as carbon storage. The aim of this study is to estimate the above-ground carbon storage in trees in the central European city of Leipzig and produce spatially explicit carbon storage maps. We used stratified random sampling across 19 land cover classes using 190 sample plots to measure carbon storage. In addition, we ...

 

Ecological services of urban forest in Barcelona

  
(2009)

Abstract

[Excerpt: Summary] Forests and urban trees generally offer multiple services and environmental benefits to society. These trees are distributed into different land uses (in our case, land uses are defined from the third edition of Mapa Ecològic de Barcelona, 2006), ranging from forest environments and gardens, to densely built areas or polluted urban environments. The structure, and consequently the composition, of urban forest vary in these different land uses, whether public or private. Trees, and the functions and services that they offer, such as air quality improvement, carbon sequestration or temperature reduction, ...

 

Collapse of the world's largest herbivores

  
Science Advances, Vol. 1, No. 4. (01 May 2015), pp. e1400103-e1400103, https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.1400103

Abstract

Large wild herbivores are crucial to ecosystems and human societies. We highlight the 74 largest terrestrial herbivore species on Earth (body mass ≥100 kg), the threats they face, their important and often overlooked ecosystem effects, and the conservation efforts needed to save them and their predators from extinction. Large herbivores are generally facing dramatic population declines and range contractions, such that ~60% are threatened with extinction. Nearly all threatened species are in developing countries, where major threats include hunting, land-use change, ...

 

How green are biofuels?

  
Science, Vol. 319, No. 5859. (04 January 2008), pp. 43-44, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1153103

Abstract

Many biofuels are associated with lower greenhouse-gas emissions but have greater aggregate environmental costs than gasoline. [Excerpt] Global warming and escalating petroleum costs are creating an urgent need to find ecologically friendly fuels. Biofuels—such as ethanol from corn (maize) and sugarcane—have been increasingly heralded as a possible savior. But others have argued that biofuels will consume vast swaths of farmland and native habitats, drive up food prices, and result in little reduction in greenhouse-gas emissions . An innovative study by Zah et ...

 

Domesticated nature: shaping landscapes and ecosystems for human welfare

  
Science, Vol. 316, No. 5833. (2007), pp. 1866-1869, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1140170

Abstract

Like all species, humans have exercised their impulse to perpetuate and propagate themselves. In doing so, we have domesticated landscapes and ecosystems in ways that enhance our food supplies, reduce exposure to predators and natural dangers, and promote commerce. On average, the net benefits to humankind of domesticated nature have been positive. We have, of course, made mistakes, causing unforeseen changes in ecosystem attributes, while leaving few, if any, truly wild places on Earth. Going into the future, scientists can help ...

 

Ecological forecasts: an emerging imperative

  
Science, Vol. 293, No. 5530. (2001), pp. 657-660, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.293.5530.657

Abstract

Planning and decision-making can be improved by access to reliable forecasts of ecosystem state, ecosystem services, and natural capital. Availability of new data sets, together with progress in computation and statistics, will increase our ability to forecast ecosystem change. An agenda that would lead toward a capacity to produce, evaluate, and communicate forecasts of critical ecosystem services requires a process that engages scientists and decision-makers. Interdisciplinary linkages are necessary because of the climate and societal controls on ecosystems, the feedbacks involving ...

 

A quantitative review of relationships between ecosystem services

  
Ecological Indicators, Vol. 66 (July 2016), pp. 340-351, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2016.02.004

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] Relationships between ecosystem services (ES) were analyzed across case studies. [::] For many pairs of ES a dominant relationship was identified. [::] These relationships were not significantly moderated by scale or by land system. [::] Methods used to identify the relationship influenced the result. [::] Descriptive methods showed a higher probability to identify trade-off relationships. [Abstract] Ecosystems provide multiple ecosystem services (ES) to society. Ignoring the multi-functionality of land systems in natural resource management generates potential trade-offs with respect to the provisioning of ES. Understanding relationships ...

 

Biotic homogenization can decrease landscape-scale forest multifunctionality

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, No. 13. (29 March 2016), pp. 3557-3562, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1517903113

Abstract

[Significance] Numerous studies have demonstrated the importance of biodiversity in maintaining multiple ecosystem functions and services (multifunctionality) at local spatial scales, but it is unknown whether similar relationships are found at larger spatial scales in real-world landscapes. Here, we show, for the first time to our knowledge, that biodiversity can also be important for multifunctionality at larger spatial scales in European forest landscapes. Both high local (α-) diversity and a high turnover in species composition between locations (high β-diversity) were found to ...

 

European atlas of forest tree species

  
Keywords: bioeconomy   chorology   classification   climate   constrained-spatial-multi-frequency-analysis   data-heterogeneity   data-integration   data-uncertainty   disasters   disturbances   ecological-zones   ecology   ecosystem-services   europe   floods   forest-fires   forest-pests   forest-resources   free-software   geospatial   geospatial-semantic-array-programming   gis   gnu-bash   gnu-linux   gnu-octave   habitat-suitability   integrated-modelling   integrated-natural-resources-modelling-and-management   integration-techniques   knowledge-integration   landslides   mastrave-modelling-library   modelling-uncertainty   open-data   paleoecology   relative-distance-similarity   reproducible-research   review   science-policy-interface   science-society-interface   semantic-array-programming   semantic-constraints   semantics   semap   software-uncertainty   soil-erosion   soil-resources   species-distribution   tree-species   uncertainty   water-resources   windstorm  

Abstract

[Excerpt] The European Atlas of Forest Tree Species is the first comprehensive publication of such a unique and essential environmental resource, that is, our trees. Leading scientists and forestry professionals have contributed in the many stages of the production of this atlas, through the collection of ground data on the location of tree species, elaboration of the distribution and suitability maps, production of the photographic material and compilation of the different chapters. The European Atlas of Forest Tree Species is both ...

 

European forest ecosystems - State and trends

  
Vol. 5/2016 (21 March 2016), https://doi.org/10.2800/964893

Abstract

[Executive summary] The importance of forests with regard to supporting human needs is considerable. [\n] Forests are rich in biodiversity and valuable for recreation, water regulation and soil protection. [\n] As well as for providing timber and other non-wood forest products, forests are important for mitigating climate change and for the renewable energy sector. [\n] Forest ecosystems are exposed to a range of environmental, economic and social pressures that challenge their sustainability. The forest sector is influenced by the unprecedented pressures arising from climate change and the growing demands of society on natural resources. ...

References

  1. Agenda 21, 2016. http://rod.eionet.europa.eu/instruments/573 , accessed 25 February 2016.
  2. Adams, M. A., 2013. Mega-fires, tipping points and ecosystem services: Managing forests and woodlands in an uncertain future. Forest Ecology and Management, 294, 250–261. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2012.11.039 .
  3. Aggestam, F., Weiss, G., 2011. An updated and further elaborated policy database and a tested prototype of policy analysis interface for ToSIA, EFI Technical Report 38, European Forest Institute, Joensuu.
 

Green paper on forest protection and information in the EU: preparing forests for climate change

  
COM Documents, Vol. 2010, No. COM/2010/0066 final. (1 March 2010)

Abstract

[Excerpt: Introduction] The purpose of this Green Paper is to launch the debate on options for a European Union (EU) approach to forest protection and information in the framework of the EU Forest Action Plan, as announced by the Commission in the White Paper "Adapting to Climate Change: towards a European Framework for action"[1]. The Council conclusions of 25 June 2009 on this White Paper underlined that climate change has had and will have an impact, inter alia, on forests. As these ...

 

Commission staff working document - impact assessment, Part 1 accompanying the document: Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions - An EU strategy on adaptation to climate change

  
Commission Staff Working Document, Vol. 2013, No. SWD/2013/0132 final. (16 April 2013)

Abstract

[Excerpt: Climate change and the need for adaptation] The increase in global surface temperature is the most obvious aspect of anthropogenic climate change. The average temperature for the European land area for the last decade (2002-2011) is 1.3°C above the preindustrial average, which makes the increase over Europe faster than the global average. Moreover, significant economic losses[6] and human fatalities associated with extreme weather events, such as heat waves, droughts and heavy precipitation, have been registered. [\n] Climate change will continue for ...

 

Biodiversity loss and its impact on humanity

  
Nature, Vol. 486, No. 7401. (6 June 2012), pp. 59-67, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature11148

Abstract

The most unique feature of Earth is the existence of life, and the most extraordinary feature of life is its diversity. Approximately 9 million types of plants, animals, protists and fungi inhabit the Earth. So, too, do 7 billion people. Two decades ago, at the first Earth Summit, the vast majority of the world’s nations declared that human actions were dismantling the Earth’s ecosystems, eliminating genes, species and biological traits at an alarming rate. This observation led to the question of ...

 

Water Management and Ecosystems: Living with Change

  
(2003)

Abstract

[Excerpt: Introduction] This report, based on the links between water and ecosystems, outlines how ecosystem-focused approaches may be incorporated into integrated water resources management (IWRM). It analyses to what degree water is involved in the relationship between society and the surrounding ecosystems, clarifies how humans and ecosystems are sharing the same water, and shows how ecosystem sustainability may be strengthened within the IWRM process. The report will provide a conceptual background to support land/water integration in a catchment based ecosystem approach to ...

 

The true loss caused by biodiversity offsets

  
Biological Conservation, Vol. 192 (December 2015), pp. 552-559, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2015.08.016

Abstract

Biodiversity offsets aim to achieve a “no-net-loss” of biodiversity, ecosystem functions and services due to development. The “no-net-less” objective assumes that the multi-dimensional values of biodiversity in complex ecosystems can be isolated from their spatial, evolutionary, historical, social, and moral context. We examine the irreplaceability of ecosystems, the limits of restoration, and the environmental values that claim to be compensated through ecosystem restoration. We discuss multiple ecological, instrumental, and non-instrumental values of ecosystems that should be considered in offsetting calculations. Considering ...

 

A meta-analysis of functional group responses to forest recovery outside of the tropics

  
Conservation Biology, Vol. 29, No. 6. (1 December 2015), pp. 1695-1703, https://doi.org/10.1111/cobi.12548

Abstract

Both active and passive forest restoration schemes are used in degraded landscapes across the world to enhance biodiversity and ecosystem service provision. Restoration is increasingly also being implemented in biodiversity offset schemes as compensation for loss of natural habitat to anthropogenic development. This has raised concerns about the value of replacing old-growth forest with plantations, motivating research on biodiversity recovery as forest stands age. Functional diversity is now advocated as a key metric for restoration success, yet it has received little ...

 

Designing forested landscapes to provide multiple services

  
CAB Reviews: Perspectives in Agriculture, Veterinary Science, Nutrition and Natural Resources, Vol. 2, No. 038. (01 September 2007), https://doi.org/10.1079/pavsnnr20072038

Abstract

Forest services are benefits generated for society by the existence of certain forest types and their attributes. The particular mix of services, and their amount and quality, depend on the condition of the forest resource. Water and nitrogen processes are determined to a great extent by forest management. Streamwater runoff in areas where water is a scarce resource is significantly affected by tree cover and tree age. Old forests may provide better vistas and more suitable habitat than young forests. Such ...

 

Rainfall infiltration and soil hydrological characteristics below ancient forest, planted forest and grassland in a temperate northern climate

  
Ecohydrology (2015), pp. n/a-n/a, https://doi.org/10.1002/eco.1658

Abstract

How rainfall infiltration rate and soil hydrological characteristics develop over time under forests of different ages in temperate regions is poorly understood. In this study, infiltration rate and soil hydrological characteristics were investigated under forests of different ages and under grassland. Soil hydraulic characteristics were measured at different scales under a 250-year-old grazed grassland (GL), 6-year-old (6yr) and 48-year-old (48yr) Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) plantations, remnant 300-year-old individual Scots pine (OT) and a 4000-year-old Caledonian Forest (AF). In situ field-saturated hydraulic ...

 

Extinction, Substitution, and Ecosystem Services

  
BioScience, Vol. 33, No. 4. (01 April 1983), pp. 248-254, https://doi.org/10.2307/1309037

Abstract

The loss of services to humanity following extinctions ranges from trivial to catastrophic, depending on the number of elements (populations, species, guilds) deleted and the degree of control each exerted in the system. Most attempts to substitute other organisms for those lost have been unsuccessful, to one degree or another, and prospects for increasing the success rate in the foreseeable future are not great. Attempts to supply the lost services by other means tend to be expensive failures in the long ...

 

Biodiversity studies: science and policy

  
Science, Vol. 253, No. 5021. (16 August 1991), pp. 758-762, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.253.5021.758

Abstract

Biodiversity studies comprise the systematic examination of the full array of different kinds of organisms together with the technology by which the diversity can be maintained and used for the benefit of humanity. Current basic research at the species level focuses on the process of species formation, the standing levels of species numbers in various higher taxonomic categories, and the phenomena of hyperdiversity and extinction proneness. The major practical concern is the massive extinction rate now caused by human activity, which ...

 

Conserving genetic resources on-site in forest ecosystems

  
Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 35, No. 1-2. (June 1990), pp. 45-68, https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-1127(90)90231-y

Abstract

Genetic diversity and its structure (its organization in space and time) are the critical raw materials from which many other aspects of diversity are derived. These genetic resources represent information about unique and successful relationships among genes and between gene complexes and environments. Only a fraction of this information has been mined through research. The balance, and the genetic materials themselves, are most effectively conserved for future use by on-site (in-situ) preservation, management, or restoration of populations, communities and entire landscapes. ...

 

In Absentia Benefits of Nature Preserves: A Review

  
Environmental Conservation, Vol. 11 (March 1984), pp. 3-10, https://doi.org/10.1017/s0376892900013436

Abstract

Nature preserves are lands which are protected in order to provide hoped-for perpetuation of natural features within the context of a relatively unmodified natural environment. Nature preserves are typically justified on the basis of benefits to communities of plants or animals (biocentric benefits) or to Mankind (anthropocentric benefits). Anthropocentric benefits are usually described in terms of on-site uses of nature preserves for recreation, quiet enjoyment, scientific research, education, and/or resource-banking. These benefits are not, however, by any means the only effects ...

 

Indicators for ecosystem services

  
In OpenNESS Ecosystem Service Reference Book (2015)
edited by M. Potschin, K. Jax

Abstract

[Excerpt: Indicators in a policy context] The main purpose of using indicators in a policy context is to provide messages to stakeholders and policy actors to achieve better (more informed) governance. This involves indicators being used for normative goals in addition to descriptive purposes (Heink and Kowarik, 2010). Hence, not all indicators used are solely science-based. Several major factors that determine the “usefulness” and “success” of an indicator are outside of the scope of science. [\n] The use of scientific information for policy ...

Visual summary

 

An indicator framework for assessing ecosystem services in support of the EU Biodiversity Strategy to 2020

  
Ecosystem Services, Vol. 17 (February 2016), pp. 14-23, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoser.2015.10.023

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] EU Member states have to map and assess ecosystems and their services (MAES). [::] We present the MAES conceptual model which links biodiversity to human wellbeing. [::] Typologies of ecosystems and their services ensure comparability across countries. [::] We present a list of indicators that can be used for national MAES assessments. [::] We critically discuss the data gaps and challenges of the MAES typologies. [Abstract] In the EU, the mapping and assessment of ecosystems and their services, abbreviated to MAES, is seen as a key ...

Visual summary


 

Mapping and assessment of ecosystems and their services indicators for ecosystem assessments under action 5 of the EU biodiversity strategy to 2020: 2nd report - final, February 2014

  

Abstract

The second MAES report presents indicators that can be used at European and Member State's level to map and assess biodiversity, ecosystem condition and ecosystem services according to the Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services (CICES v4.3). This work is based on a review of data and indicators available at national and European level and is applying the MAES analytical framework adopted in 2013. ...

 

The economics of ecosystems and biodiversity: ecological and economic foundations

  
(2010)

Abstract

Human well-being relies critically on ecosystem services provided by nature. Examples include water and air quality regulation, nutrient cycling and decomposition, plant pollination and flood control, all of which are dependent on biodiversity. They are predominantly public goods with limited or no markets and do not command any price in the conventional economic system, so their loss is often not detected and continues unaddressed and unabated. This in turn not only impacts human well-being, but also seriously undermines the sustainability of ...

 

Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services (CICES): Consultation on Version 4, August-December 2012

  
(2013)

Abstract

[Excerpt: Executive Summary] [:1] This Report documents the development of a Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services (CICES), following the most recent round of consultation between August and December 2012. [:2] We confirm the need to frame the Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services (CICES) around human needs, and recommend that CICES is regarded primarily as a way of describing ecosystem outputs as they directly contribute to human well-being, so that discussions about appropriate assessment frameworks (economic, social, aesthetic and moral) can take ...

 

Expert group and workshop on valuation of forest ecosystem services

  
(2015)

Abstract

[Excerpt: Foreword] Forests create multiple benefits for the society, providing renewable raw materials and play an important role in human wellbeing, biological diversity, the global carbon cycle, water balance, erosion control, combating desertification and the prevention of natural hazards, among others. Forests contribute to environmental stability, economic prosperity and offer social, ecosystem and recreational services. [\n] They improve the knowledge about ecosystem services, its value and natural capital allow us to see the direct ways in which we depend on the natural environment and how local policy makers can address policy challenges in many ...

 

Trade-offs across space, time, and ecosystem services

  
Ecology and Society, Vol. 11, No. 1. (2006), 28

Abstract

Ecosystem service (ES) trade-offs arise from management choices made by humans, which can change the type, magnitude, and relative mix of services provided by ecosystems. Trade-offs occur when the provision of one ES is reduced as a consequence of increased use of another ES. In some cases, a trade-off may be an explicit choice; but in others, trade-offs arise without premeditation or even awareness that they are taking place. Trade-offs in ES can be classified along three axes: spatial scale, temporal ...

Visual summary

 

Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Synthesis - A Report of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment

  
(2005)

Abstract

[Excerpt] Everyone in the world depends completely on Earth’s ecosystems and the services they provide, such as food, water, disease management, climate regulation, spiritual fulfillment, and aesthetic enjoyment. Over the past 50 years, humans have changed these ecosystems more rapidly and extensively than in any comparable period of time in human history, largely to meet rapidly growing demands for food, fresh water, timber, fiber, and fuel. This transformation of the planet has contributed to substantial net gains in human well-being and economic development. But not all regions ...

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Making forestry decisions with multiple criteria: a review and an assessment

  
Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 255, No. 8-9. (May 2008), pp. 3222-3241, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2008.01.038

Abstract

This paper provides a survey of the literature on multiple criteria decision-making (MCDM) applications to forestry problems undertaken in the last 30 years or so. More than 250 references regarding 9 forestry topics and 9 different MCDM approaches have been categorized and evaluated. This provides a unified source of references that could be useful for forest management students, researchers and practitioners. The paper ends with an assessment of the literature presented, aiming to reach some conclusions, as well as indicate future ...

 

The biodiversity-dependent ecosystem service debt

  
Ecology Letters, Vol. 18, No. 2. (February 2015), pp. 119-134, https://doi.org/10.1111/ele.12393

Abstract

Habitat destruction is driving biodiversity loss in remaining ecosystems, and ecosystem functioning and services often directly depend on biodiversity. Thus, biodiversity loss is likely creating an ecosystem service debt: a gradual loss of biodiversity-dependent benefits that people obtain from remaining fragments of natural ecosystems. Here, we develop an approach for quantifying ecosystem service debts, and illustrate its use to estimate how one anthropogenic driver, habitat destruction, could indirectly diminish one ecosystem service, carbon storage, by creating an extinction debt. We estimate ...

 

Pivotal cultural values of nature cannot be integrated into the ecosystem services framework

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 109, No. 46. (13 November 2012), pp. E3146-E3146, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1212409109

Abstract

[Excerpt] In a recent issue of PNAS, Daniel et al. (1) attempted to advance the integration of cultural values and cultural ecosystem services (ES) into the ES framework. Although I agree with the authors that cultural values are of eminent importance, I see two flaws in their argument. [\n]The range of cultural values correlating to ecological structures and functions is much more limited than they claim. Many cultural values attaching to the natural/cultivated environment cannot be addressed in this way. An area’s appropriateness for recreational activities ...

 

Where are cultural and social in ecosystem services? A framework for constructive engagement

  
BioScience, Vol. 62, No. 8. (01 August 2012), pp. 744-756, https://doi.org/10.1525/bio.2012.62.8.7

Abstract

A focus on ecosystem services (ES) is seen as a means for improving decisionmaking. In the research to date, the valuation of the material contributions of ecosystems to human well-being has been emphasized, with less attention to important cultural ES and nonmaterial values. This gap persists because there is no commonly accepted framework for eliciting less tangible values, characterizing their changes, and including them alongside other services in decisionmaking. Here, we develop such a framework for ES research and practice, addressing ...

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