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Selection: with tag ecosystem-resilience [57 articles] 

 

Bark thickness and fire regime

  
Functional Ecology, Vol. 29, No. 3. (1 March 2015), pp. 315-327, https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2435.12372

Abstract

[::] Bark is a vital and very visible part of woody plants, yet only recently has bark characteristics started to be considered as key traits structuring communities and biomes. Bark thickness is very variable among woody plants, and I hypothesize that fire is a key factor selecting for a thick bark, and thus, at the global scale, a significant proportion of the variability in bark thickness is explained by the variability in fire regimes. Previous research has focused on the importance ...

 

Resistance and resilience to changing climate and fire regime depend on plant functional traits

  
Journal of Ecology, Vol. 102, No. 6. (November 2014), pp. 1572-1581, https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2745.12306

Abstract

[Summary] [::] Changing disturbance–climate interactions will drive shifts in plant communities: these effects are not adequately quantified by environmental niche models used to predict future species distributions. We quantified the effects of more frequent fire and lower rainfall – as projected to occur under a warming and drying climate – on population responses of shrub species in biodiverse Mediterranean-climate type shrublands near Eneabba, southwestern Australia. [::] Using experimental fires, we measured the density of all shrub species for four dominant plant functional groups ...

 

Little evidence for fire-adapted plant traits in Mediterranean climate regions

  
Trends in Plant Science, Vol. 16, No. 2. (20 February 2011), pp. 69-76, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tplants.2010.10.007

Abstract

As climate change increases vegetation combustibility, humans are impacted by wildfires through loss of lives and property, leading to an increased emphasis on prescribed burning practices to reduce hazards. A key and pervading concept accepted by most environmental managers is that combustible ecosystems have traditionally burnt because plants are fire adapted. In this opinion article, we explore the concept of plant traits adapted to fire in Mediterranean climates. In the light of major threats to biodiversity conservation, we recommend caution in ...

 

Behavioral self-organization underlies the resilience of a coastal ecosystem

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 114, No. 30. (25 July 2017), pp. 8035-8040, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1619203114

Abstract

[Significance] Theoretical models suggest that spatial self-organization enhances the resistance of ecosystems to disturbance. However, experiments investigating this important prediction are lacking. Our paper provides clear experimental evidence that spatial self-organization profoundly increases the ability of ecosystems to persist in the face of disturbance. The mechanisms underlying this positive impact of self-organization are driven by the combination of ecological and behavioral processes. Specifically, large-scale banded patterns in mussel beds created by ecological feedback processes facilitate fast behavioral aggregation of individual mussels into ...

 

Forest resilience and tipping points at different spatio-temporal scales: approaches and challenges

  
Journal of Ecology, Vol. 103, No. 1. (January 2015), pp. 5-15, https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2745.12337

Abstract

[::] Anthropogenic global change compromises forest resilience, with profound impacts to ecosystem functions and services. This synthesis paper reflects on the current understanding of forest resilience and potential tipping points under environmental change and explores challenges to assessing responses using experiments, observations and models. [::] Forests are changing over a wide range of spatio-temporal scales, but it is often unclear whether these changes reduce resilience or represent a tipping point. Tipping points may arise from interactions across scales, as processes such as ...

 

Resilience as a universal criterion of health

  
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, Vol. 95, No. 3. (1 February 2015), pp. 455-465, https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.6539

Abstract

To promote and maintain health in agricultural and food systems, appropriate criteria are needed for the description and assessment of the health of soils, plants, animals, humans and ecosystems. Here we identify the concept of resilience as a universally applicable and fundamentally important criterion of health in all relevant areas of agriculture. We discuss definitions of resilience for soils, plants, animals, humans and ecosystems, and explore ways in which resilience can be applied as a criterion of health in different agricultural ...

 

Quaternary history and the stability of forest communities

  
In Forest Succession (1981), pp. 132-153, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4612-5950-3_10

Abstract

The concept of stability of plant communities inevitably enters discussions of forest succession. Succession following disturbance often leads to restoration of the original community, which is seen as the equilibrium community for the site. In this context, succession can be viewed as a mechanism maintaining stability. ...

 

Sequential disturbance effects of hailstorm and fire on vegetation in a Mediterranean-type ecosystem

  
Ecosystems, Vol. 18, No. 7. (2015), pp. 1121-1134, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10021-015-9886-5

Abstract

Frequency and intensity of disturbance is projected to increase for many ecosystems globally, with uncertain consequences, particularly when disturbances occur in rapid succession. We quantified community response (52 shrub species and the tree Eucalyptus todtiana) to a severe hailstorm followed 2 months later by prescribed fire for a Mediterranean-type shrubland in southwestern Australia. Partial overlap of hailstorm path and fire perimeter provided a unique opportunity to compare storm and fire effects along a storm severity gradient (high–moderate–none) with and without fire. ...

 

Factors determining low Mediterranean ecosystems resilience to fire: the case of Pinus halepensis forests

  
In Ecology, Conservation and Management of Mediterranean Climate Ecosystems - Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Mediterranean Climate Ecosystems (2004), 20

Abstract

Factors acting as drivers of low resilience to fire in Pinus halepensis ecosystems are being examined. The commonest factor seems to be fire interval. From the several time windows examined, that of, the shortest one ever reported in this type of communities (3 years only) seemed to be the most crucial. From the plant species previously existing on the site woody and herbaceous obligate seeders are mainly affected by this factor. Other factors, affecting mainly pine regeneration, are the abundance of Quercus coccifera individuals in the ...

 

The precision problem in conservation and restoration

  
Trends in Ecology & Evolution (2016), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2016.08.001

Abstract

Within the varied contexts of environmental policy, conservation of imperilled species populations, and restoration of damaged habitats, an emphasis on idealized optimal conditions has led to increasingly specific targets for management. Overly-precise conservation targets can reduce habitat variability at multiple scales, with unintended consequences for future ecological resilience. We describe this dilemma in the context of endangered species management, stream restoration, and climate-change adaptation. Inappropriate application of conservation targets can be expensive, with marginal conservation benefit. Reduced habitat variability can limit ...

 

The effect of biodiversity on tree productivity: from temperate to boreal forests

  
Global Ecology and Biogeography, Vol. 20, No. 1. (1 January 2011), pp. 170-180, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1466-8238.2010.00592.x

Abstract

[Aim] An important issue regarding biodiversity concerns its influence on ecosystem functioning. Experimental work has led to the proposal of mechanisms such as niche complementarity. However, few attempts have been made to confirm these in natural systems, especially in forests. Furthermore, one of the most interesting unresolved questions is whether the effects of complementarity on ecosystem functioning (EF) decrease in favour of competitive exclusions over an increasing productivity gradient. Using records from permanent forest plots, we asked the following questions. (1) ...

 

Temporal stability in forest productivity increases with tree diversity due to asynchrony in species dynamics

  
Ecology Letters, Vol. 17, No. 12. (1 December 2014), pp. 1526-1535, https://doi.org/10.1111/ele.12357

Abstract

Theory predicts a positive relationship between biodiversity and stability in ecosystem properties, while diversity is expected to have a negative impact on stability at the species level. We used virtual experiments based on a dynamic simulation model to test for the diversity–stability relationship and its underlying mechanisms in Central European forests. First our results show that variability in productivity between stands differing in species composition decreases as species richness and functional diversity increase. Second we show temporal stability increases with increasing ...

 

Stabilizing effects of diversity on aboveground wood production in forest ecosystems: linking patterns and processes

  
Ecology Letters, Vol. 17, No. 12. (1 December 2014), pp. 1560-1569, https://doi.org/10.1111/ele.12382

Abstract

Both theory and evidence suggest that diversity stabilises productivity in herbaceous plant communities through a combination of overyielding, species asynchrony and favourable species interactions. However, whether these same processes also promote stability in forest ecosystems has never been tested. Using tree ring data from permanent forest plots across Europe, we show that aboveground wood production is inherently more stable through time in mixed-species forests. Faster rates of wood production (i.e. overyielding), decreased year-to-year variation in productivity through asynchronous responses of species ...

 

Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Synthesis - A Report of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment

  
(2005)

Abstract

[Excerpt] Everyone in the world depends completely on Earth’s ecosystems and the services they provide, such as food, water, disease management, climate regulation, spiritual fulfillment, and aesthetic enjoyment. Over the past 50 years, humans have changed these ecosystems more rapidly and extensively than in any comparable period of time in human history, largely to meet rapidly growing demands for food, fresh water, timber, fiber, and fuel. This transformation of the planet has contributed to substantial net gains in human well-being and economic development. But not all regions ...

Visual summary

 

Technical note: comparing and ranking soil drought indices performance over Europe, through remote-sensing of vegetation

  
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, Vol. 14, No. 2. (12 February 2010), pp. 271-277, https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-14-271-2010

Abstract

In the past years there have been many attempts to produce and improve global soil-moisture datasets and drought indices. However, comparing and validating these various datasets is not straightforward. Here, interannual variations in drought indices are compared to interannual changes in vegetation, as captured by NDVI. By comparing the correlations of the different indices with NDVI we evaluated which drought index describes most realistically the actual changes in vegetation. Strong correlation between NDVI and the drought indices were found in areas ...

 

Response of vegetation to the 2003 European drought was mitigated by height

  
Biogeosciences, Vol. 11, No. 11. (4 June 2014), pp. 2897-2908, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-11-2897-2014

Abstract

The effects on climate of land-cover change, predominantly from the conversion of forests to crops or grassland, are reasonably well understood for low and high latitudes but are largely unknown for temperate latitudes. The main reason for this gap in our knowledge is that there are compensating effects on the energy and water balance that are related to changes in land-surface albedo, soil evaporation and plant transpiration. We analyse how vegetation height affected the response of vegetation during the 2003 European ...

 

Increasing human dominance of tropical forests

  
Science, Vol. 349, No. 6250. (21 August 2015), pp. 827-832, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aaa9932

Abstract

Tropical forests house over half of Earth’s biodiversity and are an important influence on the climate system. These forests are experiencing escalating human influence, altering their health and the provision of important ecosystem functions and services. Impacts started with hunting and millennia-old megafaunal extinctions (phase I), continuing via low-intensity shifting cultivation (phase II), to today’s global integration, dominated by intensive permanent agriculture, industrial logging, and attendant fires and fragmentation (phase III). Such ongoing pressures, together with an intensification of global environmental ...

 

Boreal forest health and global change

  
Science, Vol. 349, No. 6250. (21 August 2015), pp. 819-822, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aaa9092

Abstract

The boreal forest, one of the largest biomes on Earth, provides ecosystem services that benefit society at levels ranging from local to global. Currently, about two-thirds of the area covered by this biome is under some form of management, mostly for wood production. Services such as climate regulation are also provided by both the unmanaged and managed boreal forests. Although most of the boreal forests have retained the resilience to cope with current disturbances, projected environmental changes of unprecedented speed and ...

 

Forest health and global change

  
Science, Vol. 349, No. 6250. (21 August 2015), pp. 814-818, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aac6759

Abstract

Humans rely on healthy forests to supply energy, building materials, and food and to provide services such as storing carbon, hosting biodiversity, and regulating climate. Defining forest health integrates utilitarian and ecosystem measures of forest condition and function, implemented across a range of spatial scales. Although native forests are adapted to some level of disturbance, all forests now face novel stresses in the form of climate change, air pollution, and invasive pests. Detecting how intensification of these stresses will affect the ...

 

Core Concept: Ecosystem services

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 112, No. 24. (16 June 2015), pp. 7337-7338, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1503837112

Abstract

[Excerpt] If one were to build a healthy biosphere from scratch on another planet, what kinds of ecosystems and combinations of species would be necessary to support humans? This is the thought experiment that ecologist Gretchen Daily, a Bing professor at Stanford University, poses to illustrate the crucial role that the natural environment plays in supporting human society. [\n] Efforts to spotlight the various ways human existence relies on our natural surroundings began in the 1980s, partly instigated by Daily’s doctoral ...

 

Eluding catastrophic shifts

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 112, No. 15. (14 April 2015), pp. E1828-E1836, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1414708112

Abstract

[Significance] Catastrophic shifts such as desertification processes, massive extinctions, or stock market collapses are ubiquitous threats in nature and society. In these events, there is a shift from one steady state to a radically different one, from which recovery is exceedingly difficult. Thus, there is a huge interest in predicting and eventually preventing catastrophic shifts. Here we explore the influence of key mechanisms such as demographic fluctuations, heterogeneity, and diffusion, which appear generically in real circumstances. The mechanisms we study could ideally ...

 

Early human impact (5000-3000 BC) affects mountain forest dynamics in the Alps

  
Journal of Ecology, Vol. 103, No. 2. (1 March 2015), pp. 281-295, https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2745.12354

Abstract

[Summary] [::] The resilience, diversity and stability of mountain ecosystems are threatened by climatic as well as land-use changes, but the combined effects of these drivers are only poorly understood. [::] We combine two high-resolution sediment records from Iffigsee (2065 m a.s.l.) and Lauenensee (1382 m a.s.l.) at different elevations in the Northern Swiss Alps to provide a detailed history of vegetational changes during the period of first pastoralism (ca. 7000–5000 cal. BP, 5000–3000 BC) in order to understand ongoing and future changes ...

 

Tree diversity does not always improve resistance of forest ecosystems to drought

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 111, No. 41. (14 October 2014), pp. 14812-14815, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1411970111

Abstract

[Significance] In the context of climate change, expected drier and warmer environmental conditions will have drastic consequences on forest functions and services and may bring about important drought-induced die-off events. Biodiversity promotes forest ecosystem performance and resistance to insect pests and diseases, but whether or not diverse forests are also better adapted to deal with drought stress remains unknown. Within our study network of 160 forest stands across Europe, we found that mixed species forests are less exposed to drought stress ...

 

Climate change impacts, adaptive capacity, and vulnerability of European forest ecosystems

  
Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 259, No. 4. (16 February 2010), pp. 698-709, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2009.09.023

Abstract

This study compiles and summarizes the existing knowledge about observed and projected impacts of climate change on forests in Europe. Forests will have to adapt not only to changes in mean climate variables but also to increased variability with greater risk of extreme weather events, such as prolonged drought, storms and floods. Sensitivity, potential impacts, adaptive capacity, and vulnerability to climate change are reviewed for European forests. The most important potential impacts of climate change on forest goods and services are ...

 

Canopy recovery after drought dieback in holm-oak Mediterranean forests of Catalonia (NE Spain)

  
Global Change Biology, Vol. 10, No. 12. (December 2004), pp. 2092-2099, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2004.00870.x

Abstract

Climate change is likely to produce more frequent and longer droughts in the Mediterranean region, like that of 1994, which produced important changes in the Quercus ilex forests, with up to 76% of the trees showing complete canopy dieback. At the landscape level, a mosaic of responses to the drought was observed, linked to the distribution of lithological substrates. Damage to the dominant tree species (Q. ilex) and the most common understorey shrub (Erica arborea) was more noticeable on the compact ...

 

Climate change, connectivity and conservation decision making: back to basics

  
Journal of Applied Ecology, Vol. 46, No. 5. (October 2009), pp. 964-969, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2009.01695.x

Abstract

The challenge of climate change forces us to re-examine the assumptions underlying conservation planning. [\n] Increasing ‘connectivity’ has emerged as the most favoured option for conservation in the face of climate change. [\n] We argue that the importance of connectivity is being overemphasized: quantifying the benefits of connectivity per se is plagued with uncertainty, and connectivity can be co-incidentally improved by targeting more concrete metrics: habitat area and habitat quality. [::Synthesis and applications] Before investing in connectivity projects, conservation practitioners should ...

 

Beyond the fragmentation threshold hypothesis: regime shifts in biodiversity across fragmented landscapes

  
PLoS ONE, Vol. 5, No. 10. (27 October 2010), pp. e13666-e13666, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013666

Abstract

Ecological systems are vulnerable to irreversible change when key system properties are pushed over thresholds, resulting in the loss of resilience and the precipitation of a regime shift. Perhaps the most important of such properties in human-modified landscapes is the total amount of remnant native vegetation. In a seminal study Andrén proposed the existence of a fragmentation threshold in the total amount of remnant vegetation, below which landscape-scale connectivity is eroded and local species richness and abundance become dependent on patch ...

 

Conservation Ecology: Cumulative effects of barriers on the movements of forest birds

  
Conservation Ecology, Vol. 5, No. 2. (2001), pp. XIX-XX

Abstract

Although there is a consensus of opinion that habitat fragmentation has deleterious effects on animal populations, primarily by inhibiting dispersal among remaining patches, there have been few explicit demonstrations of the ways by which degraded habitats actually constrain individual movement. Two impediments are primarily responsible for this paucity: it is difficult to separate the effects of habitat fragmentation (configuration) from habitat loss (composition), and conventional measures of fragmented habitats are assumed to be, but probably are not, isotropic. We addressed these ...

 

Changes in plant community composition lag behind climate warming in lowland forests

  
Nature, Vol. 479, No. 7374. (19 October 2011), pp. 517-520, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature10548

Abstract

Climate change is driving latitudinal and altitudinal shifts in species distribution worldwide, leading to novel species assemblages. Lags between these biotic responses and contemporary climate changes have been reported for plants and animals. Theoretically, the magnitude of these lags should be greatest in lowland areas, where the velocity of climate change is expected to be much greater than that in highland areas. We compared temperature trends to temperatures reconstructed from plant assemblages (observed in 76,634 surveys) over a 44-year period in ...

 

Stochastic model of lake system invasion and its optimal control: neurodynamic programming as a solution method

  
Natural Resource Modeling, Vol. 22, No. 2. (08 December 2008), pp. 257-288, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-7445.2008.00036.x

Abstract

We develop a stochastic model for the process of spread of an aquatic invader in a lake system. The invader is transported along with recreation boats, and treatment of boats allows one to control the invader spread. Optimization of invasion and control costs leads to a dynamic programming problem. However, standard stochastic dynamic programming (SDP) algorithms allow us to solve the problem for at most 13–14 lakes, which is significantly less than the size of systems arising in applications. We have ...

 

(INRMM-MiD internal record) List of keywords of the INRMM meta-information database - part 11

  
(February 2014)
Keywords: doronicum-hungaricum   doronicum-orientale   dothistroma-pini   dothistroma-septosporum   downscaling   dracaena-draco   dracaena-drago   drinking-water   drought-stress   drought-tolerance   droughts   dry-summers   dry-years   dryas-octopetala   dryocoetus-autographus   dryocopus-martius   dss   dublin-core   duplicated-entry-to-be-removed   durio-zibethinus   dutch-elm   dutch-elm-disease   dynamic-data-driven-application-system   dynamic-downscaling   dynamic-programming   dynamic-vegetation-models   e-obs   e-rusle   early-dissemination   early-medieval   earth-observation   earth-system   earthquakes   east-africa   east-china-see   east-europe   ebola   ecological-change   ecological-corridor   ecological-footprint   ecological-networks   ecological-restoration   ecological-zones   ecology   economic-impacts   economic-value   economics   economy-bias   ecophysiology   ecoprovinces   ecosystem   ecosystem-change   ecosystem-conservation   ecosystem-decline   ecosystem-disservices   ecosystem-functions   ecosystem-heterogeneity   ecosystem-invasibility   ecosystem-management   ecosystem-processes   ecosystem-resilience   ecosystem-services   ecotype   edge-effect   edible-plants   editorial   editorial-policy   education   eemian   efdac   effective-gene-flow   effectiveness   effects   efficienct   effis   eficp   efics   efsa   efsa-scientific-opinion   egypt   el-nino   elaeagnus-angustifolia   elatobium-abietinum   elderberry-wine   electronics   elevation   elisa   ellenberg-climatic-quotient   ellenberg-numbers   elm-phloem-necrosis   elsevier   emergency-events   emergency-management   emergent-engineering   emergent-property   empetrum-nigrum   empirical-equation   emulation   end-of-history-bias   inrmm-list-of-tags  

Abstract

List of indexed keywords within the transdisciplinary set of domains which relate to the Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management (INRMM). In particular, the list of keywords maps the semantic tags in the INRMM Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD). [\n] The INRMM-MiD records providing this list are accessible by the special tag: inrmm-list-of-tags ( http://mfkp.org/INRMM/tag/inrmm-list-of-tags ). ...

 

The consequence of tree pests and diseases for ecosystem services

  
Science, Vol. 342, No. 6160. (15 November 2013), 1235773, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1235773

Abstract

[Structured Abstract] [::Background] Trees are major components of many terrestrial ecosystems and are grown in managed plantations and orchards to provide a variety of economically important products, including timber, pulp, fiber, and food. They are subject to a wide range of pests and diseases, of which the most important causative agents are viruses, bacteria, fungi, oomycetes, and insect herbivores. Research on tree pests and diseases has had a historical focus on trees of direct economic importance. However, some epidemics and infestations have damaged ...

 

Status and ecological effects of the world's largest carnivores

  
Science, Vol. 343, No. 6167. (10 January 2014), 1241484, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1241484

Abstract

The largest terrestrial species in the order Carnivora are wide-ranging and rare because of their positions at the top of food webs. They are some of the world’s most admired mammals and, ironically, some of the most imperiled. Most have experienced substantial population declines and range contractions throughout the world during the past two centuries. Because of the high metabolic demands that come with endothermy and large body size, these carnivores often require large prey and expansive habitats. These food requirements ...

 

Agricultural landscape simplification does not consistently drive insecticide use

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 110, No. 38. (17 September 2013), pp. 15330-15335, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1301900110

Abstract

[Significance] Increases in agricultural production have greatly altered land-use patterns, often resulting in simplified landscapes composed of large monocultures separated by fragments of natural lands. It is thought that these simplified landscapes enable agricultural insect pests to thrive due to an absence of predators and abundant food, necessitating greater insecticide use. Despite the logic of this theory, empirical support is lacking. Using a multiyear analysis it becomes clear that the presence and direction of the relationship between landscape simplification and insecticide use ...

 

The Himalayas must be protected

  
Nature, Vol. 501, No. 7467. (18 September 2013), pp. 283-283, https://doi.org/10.1038/501283a

Abstract

Climate change and human activities are pushing the fragile ecosystem ever closer to instability, warns Maharaj K. Pandit. ...

 

Resilience, adaptability and transformability in social-ecological systems

  
Ecology and Society, Vol. 9, No. 2. (2004), 5+

Abstract

The concept of resilience has evolved considerably since Holling’s (1973) seminal paper. Different interpretations of what is meant by resilience, however, cause confusion. Resilience of a system needs to be considered in terms of the attributes that govern the system’s dynamics. Three related attributes of social–ecological systems (SESs) determine their future trajectories: resilience, adaptability, and transformability. Resilience (the capacity of a system to absorb disturbance and reorganize while undergoing change so as to still retain essentially the same function, structure, identity, ...

 

Multiscale regime shifts and planetary boundaries

  
Trends in Ecology & Evolution, Vol. 28, No. 7. (1 July 2013), pp. 389-395, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2013.05.019

Abstract

"The history of life reveals repeated planetary-scale tipping points."The pace of global changes is often slow even after a tipping point is exceeded."The risk of long-term damage to Earth systems that support humanity is increasing."Planetary-scale governance is needed to safeguard humans and ecosystems. Life on Earth has repeatedly displayed abrupt and massive changes in the past, and there is no reason to expect that comparable planetary-scale regime shifts will not continue in the future. Different lines of evidence indicate that regime ...

 

On the origin of planetary-scale tipping points

  
Trends in Ecology & Evolution, Vol. 28, No. 7. (1 July 2013), pp. 380-382, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2013.06.001

Abstract

Tipping points are recognised in many systems, including ecosystems and elements of the climate system. But can the biosphere as a whole tip and, if so, how? Past global tipping points were rare and occurred in the coupled planetary-scale dynamics of the Earth system, not in the local-scale dynamics of its weakly interacting component ecosystems. Yet, evolutionary innovations have triggered past global transformations, suggesting that tipping point theory needs to go beyond bifurcations and networks to include evolution. ...

 

Satellite evidence of decreasing resilience in Mediterranean plant communities after recurrent wildfires

  
Ecology, Vol. 83, No. 8. (August 2002), pp. 2293-2303, https://doi.org/10.1890/0012-9658(2002)083[2293:seodri]2.0.co;2

Abstract

Vegetation recovery from fire has been widely studied at the stand level in many types of terrestrial ecosystems, but factors controlling regeneration at the landscape scale are less well known. Over large areas, fire history, climate, topography, and dominant type of vegetation may affect postfire response. Increased fire frequency, as is occurring in some mediterranean-type ecosystems, may reduce ecosystem resilience, i.e., the ability to recover the pre-disturbance state. We used the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from Landsat imagery to monitor ...

 

Are wildfires a disaster in the Mediterranean basin? – A review

  
International Journal of Wildland Fire, Vol. 17, No. 6. (2008), 713, https://doi.org/10.1071/wf07151

Abstract

Evolutionary and paleoecological studies suggest that fires are natural in the Mediterranean basin. However, the important increase in the number of fires and area burned during the 20th century has created the perception that fires are disasters. In the present paper, we review to what extent fires are generating ecological disasters in the Mediterranean basin, in view of current fire regimes and the long-term human pressure on the landscapes. Specifically, we review studies on post-fire plant regeneration and soil losses. The ...

 

Biodiversity, climate change, and ecosystem services

  
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, Vol. 1, No. 1. (October 2009), pp. 46-54, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cosust.2009.07.006

Abstract

The capacity of ecosystems to deliver essential services to society is already under stress. The additional stresses imposed by climate change in the coming years will require extraordinary adaptation. We need to track the changing status of ecosystems, deepen our understanding of the biological underpinnings for ecosystem service delivery and develop new tools and techniques for maintaining and restoring resilient biological and social systems. We will be building on an ecosystem foundation that has been radically compromised during the past half ...

 

On the hope for biodiversity-friendly tropical landscapes

  
Trends in Ecology & Evolution, Vol. 28, No. 8. (8 July 2015), pp. 462-468, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2013.01.001

Abstract

With the decreasing affordability of protecting large blocks of pristine tropical forests, ecologists have staked their hopes on the management of human-modified landscapes (HMLs) to conserve tropical biodiversity. Here, we examine key forces affecting the dynamics of HMLs, and propose a framework connecting human disturbances, land use, and prospects for both tropical biodiversity and ecosystem services. We question the forest transition as a worldwide source of new secondary forest; the role played by regenerating (secondary) forest for biodiversity conservation, and the ...

 

The economic value of ecological stability

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 100, No. 12. (10 June 2003), pp. 7147-7151, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0832226100

Abstract

Seemingly intangible ecosystem characteristics that preoccupy ecologists, like ecosystem stability and the responsiveness of populations to environmental variation, have quantifiable economic values. We show how to derive these values, and how their consideration should change environmental decision making. To illustrate these concepts, we use a simple reserve design model. When resource managers choose a particular landscape configuration, their decision affects both the mean abundance of species and the temporal variation in abundances. Population stability and related phenomena have economic value, because ...

 

Climate Change Impacts on the Tree of Life: Changes in Phylogenetic Diversity Illustrated for Acropora Corals

  
Biology, Vol. 1, No. 3. (14 December 2012), pp. 906-932, https://doi.org/10.3390/biology1030906

Abstract

The possible loss of whole branches from the tree of life is a dramatic, but under-studied, biological implication of climate change. The tree of life represents an evolutionary heritage providing both present and future benefits to humanity, often in unanticipated ways. Losses in this evolutionary (evo) life-support system represent losses in “evosystem” services, and are quantified using the phylogenetic diversity (PD) measure. High species-level biodiversity losses may or may not correspond to high PD losses. If climate change impacts are clumped ...

 

Ecosystem resilience despite large-scale altered hydroclimatic conditions

  
Nature, Vol. 494, No. 7437. (20 January 2013), pp. 349-352, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature11836

Abstract

Climate change is predicted to increase both drought frequency and duration, and when coupled with substantial warming, will establish a new hydroclimatological model for many regions1. Large-scale, warm droughts have recently occurred in North America, Africa, Europe, Amazonia and Australia, resulting in major effects on terrestrial ecosystems, carbon balance and food security2, 3. Here we compare the functional response of above-ground net primary production to contrasting hydroclimatic periods in the late twentieth century (1975–1998), and drier, warmer conditions in the early ...

 

Building diverse computer systems

  
In Operating Systems, 1997., The Sixth Workshop on Hot Topics in (May 1997), pp. 67-72, https://doi.org/10.1109/hotos.1997.595185

Abstract

Diversity is an important source of robustness in biological systems. Computers, by contrast, are notable for their lack of diversity. Although homogeneous systems have many advantages, the beneficial effects of diversity in computing systems have been overlooked, specifically in the area of computer security. Several methods of achieving software diversity are discussed based on randomizations that respect the specified behavior of the program. Such randomization could potentially increase the robustness of software systems with minimal impact on convenience, usability, and efficiency. ...

 

Indicating ecosystem integrity — theoretical concepts and environmental requirements

  
Ecological Modelling, Vol. 130, No. 1-3. (June 2000), pp. 13-23, https://doi.org/10.1016/s0304-3800(00)00210-6

Abstract

This paper discusses some conceptual fundamentals for the derivation of environmental indicator sets. On the one hand, it defines requirements from environmental politics, environmental management and legislation, reaching from political target hierarchies and sustainable management strategies to holistic protection concepts such as process protection, resource preservation, ecosystem health and ecological integrity. On the other hand, demands from ecosystem theory are described which include the consideration of features such as self-organization, emergence, thermodynamics, gradients and ecological orientors in environmental indicator sets. From ...

 

Beyond Competition: Incorporating Positive Interactions between Species to Predict Ecosystem Invasibility

  
PLoS Biol, Vol. 6, No. 6. (24 June 2008), e162, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0060162

Abstract

Incorporating positive species interactions into models relating native species richness to community invasibility will increase our ability to forecast, prevent, and manage future invasions. ...

 

Modelling the ecological consequences of global climate change

  
Proc. iEMSs 4th Biennial Meeting - Int. CProceedings of the iEMSs Fourth Biennial Meeting: International Congress on Environmental Modelling and Software (iEMSs 2008), Vol. 1 (2008), pp. 1-3
 

Complex Species Interactions and the Dynamics of Ecological Systems: Long-Term Experiments

  
Science, Vol. 293, No. 5530. (27 July 2001), pp. 643-650, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.293.5530.643

Abstract

Studies that combine experimental manipulations with long-term data collection reveal elaborate interactions among species that affect the structure and dynamics of ecosystems. Research programs in U.S. desert shrubland and pinyon-juniper woodland have shown that (i) complex dynamics of species populations reflect interactions with other organisms and fluctuating climate; (ii) genotype x environment interactions affect responses of species to environmental change; (iii) herbivore-resistance traits of dominant plant species and impacts of “keystone” animal species cascade through the system to affect many organisms ...

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