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Selection: with tag ecosystem-change [29 articles] 


Towards an understanding of the evolutionary role of fire in animals

Evolutionary Ecology (2018), pp. 1-13,


Wildfires underpin the dynamics and diversity of many ecosystems worldwide, and plants show a plethora of adaptive traits for persisting recurrent fires. Many fire-prone ecosystems also harbor a rich fauna; however, knowledge about adaptive traits to fire in animals remains poorly explored. We review existing literature and suggest that fire is an important evolutionary driver for animal diversity because (1) many animals are present in fire-prone landscapes and may have structural and phenotypic characters that contribute to adaptation to these open ...


Quaternary history and the stability of forest communities

In Forest Succession (1981), pp. 132-153,


The concept of stability of plant communities inevitably enters discussions of forest succession. Succession following disturbance often leads to restoration of the original community, which is seen as the equilibrium community for the site. In this context, succession can be viewed as a mechanism maintaining stability. ...


Climate change: the 2015 Paris Agreement thresholds and Mediterranean basin ecosystems

Science, Vol. 354, No. 6311. (28 October 2016), pp. 465-468,


[A warming limit for the Mediterranean basin] Pollen cores from sediments provide rich detail on the history of vegetation and climate in the Mediterranean during the Holocene (the most recent ~10,000 years). Guiot and Cramer used this information as a baseline against which to compare predictions of future climate and vegetation under different climate-change scenarios. Vegetation and land-use systems observed in the Holocene records may persist under a 1.5°C warming above preindustrial temperature levels. A 2°C warming, however, is likely over the ...


Grassland species loss resulting from reduced niche dimension

Nature, Vol. 446, No. 7137. (25 March 2007), pp. 791-793,


Intact ecosystems contain large numbers of competing but coexisting species. Although numerous alternative theories have provided potential explanations for this high biodiversity, there have been few field experiments testing between these theories. In particular, theory predicts that higher diversity of coexisting competitors could result from greater niche dimensionality1, for example larger numbers of limiting resources or factors. Alternatively, diversity could be independent of niche dimensionality because large numbers of species can coexist when limited by just one or two factors if ...


Habitat destruction: death by a thousand cuts

In Conservation Biology for All (01 January 2010), pp. 73-87,


[Excerpt] Humankind has dramatically transformed much of the Earth’s surface and its natural ecosystems. This process is not new—it has been ongoing for millennia—but it has accelerated sharply over the last two centuries, and especially in the last several decades. [\n] Today, the loss and degradation of natural habitats can be likened to a war of attrition. Many natural ecosystems are being progressively razed, bulldozed, and felled by axes or chainsaws, until only small scraps of their original extent survive. Forests have been hit especially hard: the global area of forests has been reduced ...


How green are biofuels?

Science, Vol. 319, No. 5859. (04 January 2008), pp. 43-44,


Many biofuels are associated with lower greenhouse-gas emissions but have greater aggregate environmental costs than gasoline. [Excerpt] Global warming and escalating petroleum costs are creating an urgent need to find ecologically friendly fuels. Biofuels—such as ethanol from corn (maize) and sugarcane—have been increasingly heralded as a possible savior. But others have argued that biofuels will consume vast swaths of farmland and native habitats, drive up food prices, and result in little reduction in greenhouse-gas emissions . An innovative study by Zah et ...


Climatic trends, disturbances and short-term vegetation dynamics in a Mediterranean shrubland

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 147, No. 1. (June 2001), pp. 25-37,


Fire and erosion are two major disturbances affecting Mediterranean ecosystems. Both of them are closely related to climate. There is evidence of decreasing precipitation in the Mediterranean, particularly during summer. There are also indications of an increased variability in the rainfall distribution. Climatic changes, though show high heterogeneity at a local scale. Based on these observations, we have evaluated the following hypotheses for the Region of Valencia (East Spain). [::1] During the past three decades, climatic conditions have become more favourable ...


Oak (Quercus robur L.) regeneration as a response to natural dynamics of stands in European hemiboreal zone

European Journal of Forest Research In European Journal of Forest Research, Vol. 130, No. 5. (10 February 2011), pp. 785-797,


The oak (Quercus robur L.) regeneration intensity was assessed in the core area of the Białowieża National Park (BNP) in Poland with respect to the selected ecological factors. The emphasis was placed on the response of oak regeneration to disturbances, including the large-scale dieback of spruce stands. Defining their effect could help predicting the role of oak in naturally developing lowland forest ecosystems in the European hemiboreal zone. The results of the study challenge the opinion that the ‘lime-oak-hornbeam forest’ is ...


Effects of Climate and Land-Use Change on the Establishment and Growth of Cembran Pine (Pinus cembra L.) over the Altitudinal Treeline Ecotone in the Central Swiss Alps

Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research, Vol. 40, No. 1. (1 February 2008), pp. 225-232,[vittoz];2


ABSTRACT Tree growth is generally limited by temperature in cold climates and by water availability in arid zones. Establishment in altitudinal treeline ecotones depends on the temperature, but may be very sensitive to water availability as well. We studied the effect of climate and land use on the colonization and growth of Pinus cembra in the treeline ecotone of the dry Central Swiss Alps; one site was influenced by timber harvest and cattle activity and another one was undisturbed. Stands were ...


Changes and disturbances of forest ecosystems caused by human activities in the western part of the mediterranean basin

Vegetatio In Vegetatio, Vol. 87, No. 2. (1990), pp. 151-173,


The development of socio-economic activity over the past ten years in the Mediterranean region has induced severe changes in the main natural forest ecosystems. In the northern Mediterranean, rural depopulation has accelerated since the end of the second World War, particularly since the establishment of Common Market agricultural policies, and led to an under-utilization of species causing a strong biological resurgence of the forest, even at high altitudes. This means that, at the present time, the extension of expansion model coniferous ...


Evolutionary tipping points in the capacity to adapt to environmental change

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 112, No. 1. (06 January 2015), pp. 184-189,


[Significance] Environmental variation is becoming more frequent and unpredictable as a consequence of climate change, yet we currently lack the tools to evaluate the extent to which organisms may adapt to this phenomenon. Here we develop a model that explores these issues and use it to study how changes in the timescale and predictability of environmental variation may ultimately affect population viability. Our model indicates that, although populations can often cope with fairly large changes in these environmental parameters, on occasion they ...

Visual summary

  • Figure:65%:
  • Source:
  • Caption: Evolutionary response to environmental variation under different levels of predictability (P) and relative timescale of environmental variation (R). At each parameter combination in A, the 100 mean population reaction norms that evolved at generation 50,000 in different replicate simulations are depicted [...] with environmental cues on the x axis and the resulting insulation phenotypes on the

Influence of landslides on biophysical diversity - A perspective from British Columbia

Geomorphology, Vol. 89, No. 1-2. (September 2007), pp. 55-69,


Landslides have long been overlooked or underestimated as important natural disturbance agents. In particular the ecological role of landslides in maintaining biological diversity has been largely ignored. Here we provide a western Canadian (British Columbian) perspective on the influences of landslides on biophysical diversity, which is related in several ways to biological diversity. We recognize several types of biophysical/ecological diversity: site diversity, soil diversity, and the derivative habitat or ecosystem (including aquatic ecosystems) diversity. There are also a variety of landslide ...


Soil erosion as a driver of land-use change

Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, Vol. 105, No. 3. (February 2005), pp. 467-481,


Although much research has been carried out on the crop productivity response to soil erosion, little is known about the role of soil erosion as a driver of land-use change. Given, however, the some-times large erosion-induced reductions in crop yields, it appears likely that erosion has a strong impact on land-use. Abandonment of arable land due to declining productivity is a land-use change that may result from soil erosion. To test this hypothesis, the western part of Lesvos, Greece, was chosen ...


A globally coherent fingerprint of climate change impacts across natural systems

Nature, Vol. 421, No. 6918. (2 January 2003), pp. 37-42,


Causal attribution of recent biological trends to climate change is complicated because non-climatic influences dominate local, short-term biological changes. Any underlying signal from climate change is likely to be revealed by analyses that seek systematic trends across diverse species and geographic regions; however, debates within the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reveal several definitions of a 'systematic trend'. Here, we explore these differences, apply diverse analyses to more than 1,700 species, and show that recent biological trends match climate change ...


Biotic invasions: causes, epidemiology, global consequences, and control

Ecological Applications, Vol. 10, No. 3. (June 2000), pp. 689-710,[0689:bicegc];2


Biotic invaders are species that establish a new range in which they proliferate, spread, and persist to the detriment of the environment. They are the most important ecological outcomes from the unprecedented alterations in the distribution of the earth's biota brought about largely through human transport and commerce. In a world without borders, few if any areas remain sheltered from these immigrations. The fate of immigrants is decidedly mixed. Few survive the hazards of chronic and stochastic forces, and only a small ...


Regional vegetation die-off in response to global-change-type drought

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 102, No. 42. (10 October 2005), pp. 15144-15148,


Future drought is projected to occur under warmer temperature conditions as climate change progresses, referred to here as global-change-type drought, yet quantitative assessments of the triggers and potential extent of drought-induced vegetation die-off remain pivotal uncertainties in assessing climate-change impacts. Of particular concern is regional-scale mortality of overstory trees, which rapidly alters ecosystem type, associated ecosystem properties, and land surface conditions for decades. Here, we quantify regional-scale vegetation die-off across southwestern North American woodlands in 2002-2003 in response to drought and ...


Climate change and the migration capacity of species

Trends in Ecology & Evolution, Vol. 21, No. 3. (2006), pp. 111-113,


In a recent paper, McLachlan et al. presented evidence that migration rates of two tree species at the end of the last glacial (c. 10–20 thousand years ago) were much slower than was previously thought. These results provide an important insight for climate-change impacts studies and suggest that the ability of species to track future climate change is limited. However, the detection of late-glacial refugia close to modern range limits also implies that some of our most catastrophic projections might be ...


Changes in plant community composition lag behind climate warming in lowland forests

Nature, Vol. 479, No. 7374. (19 October 2011), pp. 517-520,


Climate change is driving latitudinal and altitudinal shifts in species distribution worldwide, leading to novel species assemblages. Lags between these biotic responses and contemporary climate changes have been reported for plants and animals. Theoretically, the magnitude of these lags should be greatest in lowland areas, where the velocity of climate change is expected to be much greater than that in highland areas. We compared temperature trends to temperatures reconstructed from plant assemblages (observed in 76,634 surveys) over a 44-year period in ...


The Evolution of Project Inter-dependencies in a Software Ecosystem: The Case of Apache

In Software Maintenance (ICSM), 2013 29th IEEE International Conference on (2013), pp. 280-289,


Software ecosystems consist of multiple software projects, often interrelated each other by means of dependency relations. When one project undergoes changes, other projects may decide to upgrade the dependency. For example, a project could use a new version of another project because the latter has been enhanced or subject to some bug-fixing activities. This paper reports an exploratory study aimed at observing the evolution of the Java subset of the Apache ecosystem, consisting of 147 projects, for a period of 14 ...


(INRMM-MiD internal record) List of keywords of the INRMM meta-information database - part 11

(February 2014)
Keywords: doronicum-hungaricum   doronicum-orientale   dothistroma-pini   dothistroma-septosporum   downscaling   dracaena-draco   dracaena-drago   drinking-water   drought-stress   drought-tolerance   droughts   dry-summers   dry-years   dryas-octopetala   dryocoetus-autographus   dryocopus-martius   dss   dublin-core   duplicated-entry-to-be-removed   durio-zibethinus   dutch-elm   dutch-elm-disease   dynamic-data-driven-application-system   dynamic-downscaling   dynamic-programming   dynamic-vegetation-models   e-obs   e-rusle   early-dissemination   early-medieval   earth-observation   earth-system   earthquakes   east-africa   east-china-see   east-europe   ebola   ecological-change   ecological-corridor   ecological-footprint   ecological-networks   ecological-restoration   ecological-zones   ecology   economic-impacts   economic-value   economics   economy-bias   ecophysiology   ecoprovinces   ecosystem   ecosystem-change   ecosystem-conservation   ecosystem-decline   ecosystem-disservices   ecosystem-functions   ecosystem-heterogeneity   ecosystem-invasibility   ecosystem-management   ecosystem-processes   ecosystem-resilience   ecosystem-services   ecotype   edge-effect   edible-plants   editorial   editorial-policy   education   eemian   efdac   effective-gene-flow   effectiveness   effects   efficienct   effis   eficp   efics   efsa   efsa-scientific-opinion   egypt   el-nino   elaeagnus-angustifolia   elatobium-abietinum   elderberry-wine   electronics   elevation   elisa   ellenberg-climatic-quotient   ellenberg-numbers   elm-phloem-necrosis   elsevier   emergency-events   emergency-management   emergent-engineering   emergent-property   empetrum-nigrum   empirical-equation   emulation   end-of-history-bias   inrmm-list-of-tags  


List of indexed keywords within the transdisciplinary set of domains which relate to the Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management (INRMM). In particular, the list of keywords maps the semantic tags in the INRMM Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD). [\n] The INRMM-MiD records providing this list are accessible by the special tag: inrmm-list-of-tags ( ). ...


Forests of the Mediterranean region: gaps in knowledge and research needs

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 132, No. 1. (June 2000), pp. 97-109,


Mediterranean forests are characterised by a remarkable set of features that make them naturally and aesthetically attractive, on the one hand, but also quite fragile, on the other, therefore calling for careful strategies for their conservation and management. An exceptionally large variation of environmental conditions characterises the Mediterranean countries, where the environment can limit forest growth and succession but can also give rise, more often than it is supposed, to lush, mesic forest ecosystems, similar to those of central Europe. Moreover, ...


Ecosystem properties and forest decline in contrasting long-term chronosequences

Science, Vol. 305, No. 5683. (23 July 2004), pp. 509-513,


During succession, ecosystem development occurs; but in the long-term absence of catastrophic disturbance, a decline phase eventually follows. We studied six long-term chronosequences, in Australia, Sweden, Alaska, Hawaii, and New Zealand; for each, the decline phase was associated with a reduction in tree basal area and an increase in the substrate nitrogen–to-phosphorus ratio, indicating increasing phosphorus limitation over time. These changes were often associated with reductions in litter decomposition rates, phosphorus release from litter, and biomass and activity of decomposer microbes. ...


The Himalayas must be protected

Nature, Vol. 501, No. 7467. (18 September 2013), pp. 283-283,


Climate change and human activities are pushing the fragile ecosystem ever closer to instability, warns Maharaj K. Pandit. ...


Water forecasts

Nature Climate Change, Vol. 3, No. 9. (28 August 2013), pp. 765-765,


The effect of climate change on precipitation and flooding is of global concern. The strength of water movement through the hydrological cycle is influenced by climate change. Warming of the atmosphere increases its water-holding capacity — by approximately 7% per degree — which can increase the intensity of precipitation. This impact is expected to be seen predominantly in the tropics and high-latitude regions. Overall precipitation is also expected to increase in the tropics, and it is assumed that wet regions will ...


System-of-Systems hierarchy of biodiversity conservation problems

Ecological Modelling, Vol. 235-236 (June 2012), pp. 36-48,


Many natural and man-made systems influence the well-being and sustainability of a country. The state of biodiversity, water, air, and land are examples of the former whereas health, education, economy, and policies are examples of the latter. These systems are extremely involved and hard to model. To overcome some of the difficulties a System-of-Systems (SoS) approach is adopted. This paper models biodiversity as a SoS at various levels of organization, and each level is in turn modeled according to existing knowledge ...


Insect-resistant transgenic plants in a multi-trophic context

The Plant Journal, Vol. 31, No. 4. (1 August 2002), pp. 387-406,


So far, genetic engineering of plants in the context of insect pest control has involved insertion of genes that code for toxins, and may be characterized as the incorporation of biopesticides into classical plant breeding. In the context of pesticide usage in pest control, natural enemies of herbivores have received increasing attention, because carnivorous arthropods are an important component of insect pest control. However, in plant breeding programmes, natural enemies of herbivores have largely been ignored, although there are many examples ...


Impacts of genetically engineered crops on pesticide use in the U.S. -- the first sixteen years

Environmental Sciences Europe, Vol. 24, No. 1. (2012), 24,


Background. Genetically engineered, herbicide-resistant and insect-resistant crops have been remarkable commercial successes in the United States. Few independent studies have calculated their impacts on pesticide use per hectare or overall pesticide use, or taken into account the impact of rapidly spreading glyphosate-resistant weeds. A model was developed to quantify by crop and year the impacts of six major transgenic pest-management traits on pesticide use in the U.S. over the 16-year period, 1996–2011: herbicide-resistant corn, soybeans, and cotton; Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn targeting ...


Regime shifts in ecological systems can occur with no warning

Ecology Letters, Vol. 13, No. 4. (April 2010), pp. 464-472,


Predicting regime shifts – drastic changes in dynamic behaviour – is a key challenge in ecology and other fields. Here we show that the class of ecological systems that will exhibit leading indicators of regime shifts is limited, and that there is a set of ecological models and, therefore, also likely to be a class of natural systems for which there will be no forewarning of a regime change. We first describe how nonlinearities in combination with environmental variability lead to ...


The biodiversity and ecosystem services science-policy interface

Science, Vol. 331, No. 6021. (04 March 2011), pp. 1139-1140,


In recognition of our inability to halt damaging ecosystem change, the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) was asked in December 2010 to convene a meeting “to determine modalities and institutional arrangements” of a new assessment body, akin to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), to track causes and consequences of anthropogenic ecosystem change (5). The “blueprint” for this body, the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES), lies in recommendations of an intergovernmental conference held in the Republic of ...

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Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD).
This database integrates a dedicated meta-information database in CiteULike (the CiteULike INRMM Group) with the meta-information available in Google Scholar, CrossRef and DataCite. The Altmetric database with Article-Level Metrics is also harvested. Part of the provided semantic content (machine-readable) is made even human-readable thanks to the DCMI Dublin Core viewer. Digital preservation of the meta-information indexed within the INRMM-MiD publication records is implemented thanks to the Internet Archive.
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Full-text and abstracts of the publications indexed by the INRMM meta-information database are copyrighted by the respective publishers/authors. They are subject to all applicable copyright protection. The conditions of use of each indexed publication is defined by its copyright owner. Please, be aware that the indexed meta-information entirely relies on voluntary work and constitutes a quite incomplete and not homogeneous work-in-progress.
INRMM-MiD was experimentally established by the Maieutike Research Initiative in 2008 and then improved with the help of several volunteers (with a major technical upgrade in 2011). This new integrated interface is operational since 2014.