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Selection: with tag economics [56 articles] 


Risk of increased food insecurity under stringent global climate change mitigation policy

Nature Climate Change, Vol. 8, No. 8. (30 July 2018), pp. 699-703,


Food insecurity can be directly exacerbated by climate change due to crop-production-related impacts of warmer and drier conditions that are expected in important agricultural regions1,2,3. However, efforts to mitigate climate change through comprehensive, economy-wide GHG emissions reductions may also negatively affect food security, due to indirect impacts on prices and supplies of key agricultural commodities4,5,6. Here we conduct a multiple model assessment on the combined effects of climate change and climate mitigation efforts on agricultural commodity prices, dietary energy availability and ...


Impacts of inter-annual wind and solar variations on the European power system



[Highlights] [::] The impact of weather patterns on power system increases with decarbonization [::] Europe's CO2 output and generation cost variability could increase 5-fold by 2030 [::] Several metrics can be reasonably approximated from the level VRE penetration [::] The most representative single years for renewable generation are 1989 and 2012 [Context & Scale] Wind and solar power have been driving the decarbonization of Europe's electricity over the last decade. Increasing our reliance on weather-dependent resources makes it imperative that planning of electricity systems becomes cognizant of ...


Positive biodiversity-productivity relationships in forests: climate matters

Biology Letters, Vol. 14, No. 4. (04 April 2018), 20170747,


While it is widely acknowledged that forest biodiversity contributes to climate change mitigation through improved carbon sequestration, conversely how climate affects tree species diversity–forest productivity relationships is still poorly understood. We combined the results of long-term experiments where forest mixtures and corresponding monocultures were compared on the same site to estimate the yield of mixed-species stands at a global scale, and its response to climatic factors. We found positive mixture effects on productivity using a meta-analysis of 126 case studies established ...


On the use of cost-benefit analysis and multi-criteria evaluation in ex-ante impact assessment

Vol. 28768 EN (2017),


When a public administration wishes to implement policies, there is a need of comparing different options and valuating and evaluating them to assess their social attractiveness. Traditionally, welfare economics has used cost-benefit analysis based on the Kaldor-Hicks compensation principle, which was invented to achieve two clear objectives: [::1] To compare individuals’ preferences according to the efficiency oriented utilitarian calculus, explicitly avoiding the principle one individual, one vote. [::2] To implement an objective evaluation criterion, that could be accepted in the framework of the ...


Less than 2 °C? An economic-environmental evaluation of the Paris Agreement

Ecological Economics, Vol. 146 (April 2018), pp. 69-84,


[Highlights] [::] 188 countries' INDCs have been analysed from a policies, finance and emissions point of view. [::] Policies and finance are faced up with socio-economic and biophysical constraints. [::] Unilateralism and finance approach lead to mismatches between policies and global objectives. [::] Constraints and mismatches could explain the Paris Agreement ineffectiveness. [Abstract] The literature dedicated to the analysis of the different climate agreements has usually focused on the effectiveness of the aims for emissions in the light of the advance in climate change. This article quantifies ...


Reboot for the AI revolution

Nature, Vol. 550, No. 7676. (17 October 2017), pp. 324-327,


As artificial intelligence puts many out of work, we must forge new economic, social and educational systems, argues Yuval Noah Harari. [Excerpt] The ongoing artificial-intelligence revolution will change almost every line of work, creating enormous social and economic opportunities — and challenges. Some believe that intelligent computers will push humans out of the job market and create a new 'useless class'; others maintain that automation will generate a wide range of new human jobs and greater prosperity for all. Almost everybody agrees ...


Meta-analysis of field experiments shows no change in racial discrimination in hiring over time

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 114, No. 41. (10 October 2017), pp. 10870-10875,


[Significance] Many scholars have argued that discrimination in American society has decreased over time, while others point to persisting race and ethnic gaps and subtle forms of prejudice. The question has remained unsettled due to the indirect methods often used to assess levels of discrimination. We assess trends in hiring discrimination against African Americans and Latinos over time by analyzing callback rates from all available field experiments of hiring, capitalizing on the direct measure of discrimination and strong causal validity of these ...


Exploring spatial patterns and drivers of forest fires in Portugal (1980–2014)

Science of The Total Environment, Vol. 573 (December 2016), pp. 1190-1202,


[Highlights] [::] Wildfires are irregularly distributed in Portugal, both in ignitions and burnt area. [::] In 80% of the municipality's ignition density reveal a positive trend since the 80s. [::] Geographically Weighted Regression was used to identify relevant municipal drivers of fires. [::] Topography and population density were significant factors in municipal ignitions. [::] Topography and uncultivated land were significant factors in municipal burnt area. [Abstract] Information on the spatial incidence of fire ignition density and burnt area, trends and drivers of wildfires is vitally important in providing ...


Three years to safeguard our climate

Nature, Vol. 546, No. 7660. (28 June 2017), pp. 593-595,


Christiana Figueres and colleagues set out a six-point plan for turning the tide of the world’s carbon dioxide by 2020. [Excerpt] [...] According to an April report1 (prepared by Carbon Tracker in London, the Climate Action Tracker consortium, the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research in Germany and Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut), should emissions continue to rise beyond 2020, or even remain level, the temperature goals set in Paris become almost unattainable. The UN Sustainable Development Goals that were agreed ...


When the appeal of a dominant leader is greater than a prestige leader

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 114, No. 26. (27 June 2017), pp. 6734-6739,


[Significance] We examine why dominant/authoritarian leaders attract support despite the presence of other admired/respected candidates. Although evolutionary psychology supports both dominance and prestige as viable routes for attaining influential leadership positions, extant research lacks theoretical clarity explaining when and why dominant leaders are preferred. Across three large-scale studies we provide robust evidence showing how economic uncertainty affects individuals’ psychological feelings of lack of personal control, resulting in a greater preference for dominant leaders. This research offers important theoretical explanations for why, around ...


To slow or not? Challenges in subsecond networks

Science, Vol. 355, No. 6327. (23 February 2017), pp. 801-802,


[Excerpt] [...] today's electronic exchanges are an all-machine playing field with extreme subsecond operating times that lie far beyond the ∼1-s real-time response and intervention of any human. High-speed algorithms now receive, process, and respond to information on the scale of microseconds, and the only guaranteed future speed barrier is the speed of light. Hundreds of orders are executed across multiple exchange nodes within 1 ms (millisecond). [...] The need to develop a systems-level understanding concerning regulation in subsecond networks, is ...


The development of environmental thinking in economics

Environmental Values, Vol. 8, No. 4. (November 1999), pp. 413-435,


There has always been a sub-group of established economists trying to convey an environmental critique of the mainstream. This paper traces their thinking into the late 20th century via the development of associations and journals in the USA and Europe. There is clearly a divergence between the conformity to neo-classical economics favoured by resource and environmental economists and the acceptance of more radical critiques apparent in ecological economics. Thus, the progressive elements of ecological economics are increasingly incompatible with those practising ...


A multi-criteria optimisation of scenarios for the protection of water resources in Europe: support to the EU blueprint to safeguard Europe's waters



A modelling environment has been developed to assess optimum combinations of water retention measures, water savings measures, and nutrient reduction measures for continental Europe. This modelling environment consists of linking the agricultural CAPRI model, the LUMP land use model, the LISFLOOD water quantity model, the EPIC water quality model, the LISQUAL combined water quantity, quality and hydro-economic model, and a multi-criteria optimisation routine. Simulations have been carried out to assess the effects of water retention measures, water savings measures, and nutrient ...


Forestry in bioeconomy - smart green growth for the humankind

Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, Vol. 29, No. 4. (19 May 2014), pp. 360-366,


This paper draws on the European Union's Bioeconomy Action Plan (BAP) to clarify the notion “bioeconomy” and examine how it relates to the forest sector and its current challenges. The interpretation is linked to a broader context of climate and energy policies and the ideas of green economy and green growth. It is shown that, despite its good intentions, BAP fails to link bioeconomy to the core idea of green economy and the sources of economic growth. It hardly discusses climate ...


Does it take prices to make volumes move? A comparison of timber market functioning in Finland and Lithuania

Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, Vol. 31, No. 4. (18 May 2016), pp. 428-433,


Forest ownership structure is known to have implications for forest management and the production of forest products and services. The ownership structure, as well as the degree of state regulation of forestry, could thus be expected to affect the functioning of timber markets. Hence, in the presence of strict prescriptions for forest management, the self-regulating mechanisms of timber markets – governed by the economic principle of supply and demand – could be inhibited. Using Finland and Lithuania as contrasting cases, we ...


GECO 2015 - Global energy and climate outlook: road to Paris

Vol. EUR 27239 EN (2015),


This report presents the modelling work quoted in the EC communication "The Paris Protocol - a blueprint for tackling global climate change beyond 2020" in the EU's Energy Union package. It examines the effects of a Baseline scenario where current trends continue beyond 2020, and of a Global Mitigation scenario in line with keeping global warming below 2°C. The analysis uses the POLES and GEM-E3 models in a framework where economic welfare is maximised while tackling climate change. In the Baseline, ...


  1. Arezki, R., Blanchard, O., 2014. Seven Questions about the Recent Oil Price Slump. .
  2. AR5 database, 2015. IPCC Assessment Report 5 database. .
  3. Assunção, J., Gandour, C., Rocha, R., 2015. Deforestation slowdown in the Brazilian Amazon: prices or policies?. Environment and Development Economics, available on CJO2015. .
  4. BGR (German Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources) 2013. Energy Study 2013.

Global human capital: integrating education and population

Science, Vol. 333, No. 6042. (28 July 2011), pp. 587-592,


Almost universally, women with higher levels of education have fewer children. Better education is associated with lower mortality, better health, and different migration patterns. Hence, the global population outlook depends greatly on further progress in education, particularly of young women. By 2050, the highest and lowest education scenarios—assuming identical education-specific fertility rates—result in world population sizes of 8.9 and 10.0 billion, respectively. Better education also matters for human development, including health, economic growth, and democracy. Existing methods of multi-state demography can ...


Humanity's unsustainable environmental footprint

Science, Vol. 344, No. 6188. (2014), pp. 1114-1117,


Within the context of Earth’s limited natural resources and assimilation capacity, the current environmental footprint of humankind is not sustainable. Assessing land, water, energy, material, and other footprints along supply chains is paramount in understanding the sustainability, efficiency, and equity of resource use from the perspective of producers, consumers, and government. We review current footprints and relate those to maximum sustainable levels, highlighting the need for future work on combining footprints, assessing trade-offs between them, improving computational techniques, estimating maximum sustainable ...


Opportunities for advances in climate change economics

Science, Vol. 352, No. 6283. (15 April 2016), pp. 292-293,


There have been dramatic advances in understanding the physical science of climate change, facilitated by substantial and reliable research support. The social value of these advances depends on understanding their implications for society, an arena where research support has been more modest and research progress slower. Some advances have been made in understanding and formalizing climate-economy linkages, but knowledge gaps remain [e.g., as discussed in (1, 2)]. We outline three areas where we believe research progress on climate economics is both ...


Mixed messages on prices and food security

Science, Vol. 335, No. 6067. (2012), pp. 405-406,


[Summary] Spikes in food prices have pushed food security to the top of the global policy agenda. Price increases have mixed effects on poverty and hunger: They increase the cost of food for consumers but increase incomes of farmers, who represent the bulk of the world's poor. Net effects will differ depending on whether poor households or countries buy or import, or sell or export food (infrastructure, institutions, and market imperfections will play roles, as well) (1–4). Policies to influence prices imply ...


Commission staff working document - Document accompanying the Communication from the Commission to the Council, The European Parliament, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions - Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection - Impact assessment of the thematic strategy on soil protection

Commission Staff Working Document, Vol. 2006, No. SEC/2006/0620. (22 September 2006)


[Excerpt:Conclusions] Different Community policies contribute to soil protection, particularly environment (e.g. air and water) and agricultural (agri-environment and cross-compliance) policy. For instance, land management practices such as organic and integrated farming or extensive agricultural practices in mountain areas can maintain and enhance organic matter in the soil and prevent landslides respectively. [\n] Achieving the objectives of the Water Framework Directive will entail changes in practices in soil management and the protection of some soils, but only where soil degradation hinders water quality. It ...


Economics: current climate models are grossly misleading

Nature, Vol. 530, No. 7591. (24 February 2016), pp. 407-409,


Nicholas Stern calls on scientists, engineers and economists to help policymakers by better modelling the immense risks to future generations, and the potential for action. [Excerpt] The twin defining challenges of our century are overcoming poverty and managing climate change. If we can tackle these issues together, we will create a secure and prosperous world for generations to come. If we don't, the future is at grave risk. [\n] Researchers across a range of disciplines must work together to help decision-makers in the ...


The economics of ecosystems and biodiversity: ecological and economic foundations



Human well-being relies critically on ecosystem services provided by nature. Examples include water and air quality regulation, nutrient cycling and decomposition, plant pollination and flood control, all of which are dependent on biodiversity. They are predominantly public goods with limited or no markets and do not command any price in the conventional economic system, so their loss is often not detected and continues unaddressed and unabated. This in turn not only impacts human well-being, but also seriously undermines the sustainability of ...


Commission staff working document - Executive summary of the impact assessment accompanying the document Proposal for a regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on the prevention and management of the introduction and spread of invasive alien species

Commission Staff Working Document, Vol. 2013, No. SWD/2013/0322 final. (2013)


[Executive summary] [\n] [::1. Problem definition] There are two facets to the problem of IAS in Europe: 1) the ecological problem created by their entry, establishment and spread, 2) the policy failure caused by the fragmented and incoherent policy set up at EU and national levels that is allowing the ecological problem to grow. [\n] An ecological problem - Alien species are species that are transported as a result of human action outside of their natural range across ecological barriers. Scientific evidence shows that ...


Contingent valuation: from dubious to hopeless

Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol. 26, No. 4. (November 2012), pp. 43-56,


Approximately 20 years ago, Peter Diamond and I wrote an article for this journal analyzing contingent valuation methods. At that time Peter's view was contingent valuation was hopeless, while I was dubious but somewhat more optimistic. But 20 years later, after millions of dollars of largely govemment-research, 1 have concluded that Peter's earlier position was correct and that contingent valuation is hopeless. In this paper; I selectively review the continc valuation literature, focusing on empirical results. I find that three long-standing ...


Context, drivers, and future potential for wood-frame multi-story construction in Europe

Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Vol. 99 (October 2015), pp. 181-196,


[Highlights] [::] Wood-based industrial prefabrication practices are entering the multi-story sector. [::] Abrupt market penetration in some countries despite the economic downturn [::] Potential to improve productivity and quality while reducing environmental impact [::] Diffusion is dependent on regulatory framework and industry structure. [::] Increasing co-operation between industries and competition within industry needed [Abstract] Compared to many manufacturing industries, there have been few major improvements over the past few decades in the productivity, profitability, or the environmental impact of construction. However, driven by institutional changes, promotion campaigns, ...


Prospects for timber frame in multi-storey house building in England, France, Germany, Ireland, the Netherlands and Sweden

Vol. 52 (2009)


[Excerpt: Summary] Many countries across Europe, encouraged by EU policies, have set targets to reduce carbon-dioxide emissions and are adopting legislative methods to ensure buildings and materials help achieve individual country targets. In many cases this has led to an increased use, or at least consideration, of wood as an alternative to conventional construction materials such as steel and concrete. [\n] Apart from building regulations and other policy instruments, the potential for multi-storey timber frame buildings is first of all ...


Bio-based economy in Europe: state of play and future potential - Part 2 Summary of position papers received in response to the European Commission's public on-line consultation



[Excerpt: Executive summary] This report summarises the 35 position papers received from organisations directly or indirectly linked to the bio-based economy in response to the public consultation on the ‘bio-based economy for Europe: state of play and future potential’. [Definition of a bio-based economy] The respondents support a public goods-oriented global and coherent strategy for a sustainable bio-based economy focusing on a recycling community, conservation of ecosystems and equitable sharing. An alternative definition of the bio-economy could be: [\n]A public goods-oriented bio-based economy based on: [::] […] production paradigms that rely ...


Evaluation of Skåne County's capacity to be self-sufficient in foodstuffproduction: now and for the years 2030 and 2050

Vol. 242 (2015)


Sweden is becoming increasingly dependent on the import of foodstuffs from a globalfood system that is unsustainable due to its responsibility for environmental degradation and itsdependency on finite resources like fertilizers and fossil fuels. The diminishing ability to be selfsufficientin a time when peak oil, climate change, environmental degradation, exponentialpopulation growth, and a troublesome global economy might reshape the structures of the currentsystems, in a not so distant future, could be a cause for great worry. Skåne County has functioned asa ...


Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.)

In Forest Tree Breeding in Europe, Vol. 25 (2013), pp. 267-323,
edited by Luc E. Pâques


Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris L.) is an economically very important and scientifically well investigated tree species of the northern hemisphere. Its requirements are moderate in terms of climate and soil conditions and its morphological variation is very high. The broad natural range of Scots pine occupies large areas with different climate conditions in Eurasia. Therefore the high number of species and ecotypes is not surprising. Provenance trials with Pinus sylvestris have been established since the end of the nineteenth century. Today ...


Larches (Larix sp.)

In Forest Tree Breeding in Europe, Vol. 25 (2013), pp. 177-227,
edited by Luc E. Pâques


European larch (Larix decidua) is a native species from the Alps and from several mountainous ranges in Central Europe. Its early introduction outside its native range, especially in lowlands western and northern Europe has been problematic for ecological (phenology) and sanitary (canker) reasons due to the lack of knowledge of its genetic variability. As a substitute, Japanese larch (Larix kaempferi) and then hybrids between European and Japanese larches have been preferred in these regions together with Siberian larches in northern Scandinavia. ...


Pinus pinea - Version 2014.3

In The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (2013), 42391/0


[Excerpt] The widespread occurrence of this species, partly due to past plantings in the Mediterranean, some of which cannot be verified as to indigenity with certainty, ensures it is not threatened with extinction globally. [::Common Name(s)] [::]English – Stone Pine, Umbrella Pine, Italian Stone Pine [::]French – Pin parasol, Pin pignon [::]Spanish ...


Reversals of national fortune, and social science methodologies

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 111, No. 50. (16 December 2014), pp. 17709-17714,


Among non-European regions colonized by Europeans, regions that were relatively richer five centuries ago (like Mexico, Peru, and India) tend to be poorer today, while regions that originally were relatively poorer (like the United States, Chile, and Australia) tend now to be richer. Acemoglu, Johnson, and Robinson (abbreviated AJR) established the generality of this reversal of fortune. Chanda, Cook, and Putterman (abbreviated CCP) have now reanalyzed it, taking as a unit of analysis populations rather than geographic regions. That is, India's ...


Importing Timber, Exporting Ecological Impact

Science, Vol. 308, No. 5720. (15 April 2005), pp. 359-360,


Covering 32% of the planet, boreal forests are one of the last relatively intact terrestrial biomes, and are a critical carbon sink in global climate dynamics. Mature and old-growth boreal forests provide a large number of products that are culturally and economically important, from wood-based lumber, pulp, and fuel wood, to numerous nonwood products. Intensive wood harvest and conservation of naturally dynamic intact forests tend to be mutually exclusive; where biodiversity is highly valued, wood harvests are limited or banned outright. ...


Business culture and dishonesty in the banking industry

Nature, Vol. 516, No. 7529. (19 November 2014), pp. 86-89,


Trust in others' honesty is a key component of the long-term performance of firms, industries, and even whole countries. However, in recent years, numerous scandals involving fraud have undermined confidence in the financial industry. Contemporary commentators have attributed these scandals to the financial sector's business culture, but no scientific evidence supports this claim. Here we show that employees of a large, international bank behave, on average, honestly in a control condition. However, when their professional identity as bank employees is rendered ...


Fat-Tailed Uncertainty in the Economics of Catastrophic Climate Change

Review of Environmental Economics and Policy, Vol. 5, No. 2. (01 July 2011), pp. 275-292,


In this article, I revisit some basic issues concerning structural uncertainty and catastrophic climate change. My target audience here are general economists, so this article could also be viewed as a somewhat less technical exposition that supplements my previous work. Using empirical examples, I argue that it is implausible that low-probability, high-negative impact events would not much influence an economic analysis of climate change. I then try to integrate the empirical examples and the theory together into a unified package with ...


Transdisciplinary Perspectives on Environmental Sustainability: A Resource Base and Framework for IT-Enabled Business Transformation

MIS Quarterly, Vol. 35, No. 1. (2011), pp. 197-236


The quality and future of human existence are directly related to the condition of our natural environment, but we are damaging the environment. Scientific evidence has mounted a compelling case that human behavior is responsible for deterioration in the Earth’s natural environment, with the rate of deterioration predicted to increase in the future. Acknowledging this evidence, the governments of 192 countries have formally agreed to take action to resolve problems with the climate system, one of the most highly stressed parts ...


Risks, information and short-run timber supply

Forests, Vol. 4, No. 4. (11 December 2013), pp. 1158-1170,


Efforts to increase wood mobilization have highlighted the need to appraise drivers of short-run timber supply. The current study aims to shed further light on harvesting decisions of private forest owners, by investigating optimal harvesting under uncertainty, when timber revenues are invested on financial markets and uncertainty is mitigated by news releases. By distinguishing between aggregate economic risk and sector specific risks, the model studies in great detail optimal harvesting-investment decisions, with particular emphasis on the non-trivial transmission of risk on ...


Trends and possible future developments in global forest-product markets - implications for the Swedish forest sector

Forests, Vol. 2, No. 1. (20 January 2011), pp. 147-167,
Keywords: economics   forest-resources   sweden  


This paper analyzes trends and possible future developments in global wood-product markets and discusses implications for the Swedish forest sector. Four possible futures, or scenarios, are considered, based on qualitative scenario analysis. The scenarios are distinguished principally by divergent futures with respect to two highly influential factors driving change in global wood-product markets, whose future development is unpredictable. These so-called critical uncertainties were found to be degrees to which: (i) current patterns of globalization will continue, or be replaced by regionalism, ...


Integrating selected ecological effects of mixed European beech - Norway spruce stands in bioeconomic modelling

Ecological Modelling, Vol. 210, No. 4. (February 2008), pp. 487-498,


The simplicity of many bioeconomic models has been criticised several times, due to their lack of realism resulting from a deterministic nature and a single-species focus. In this context it was interesting to test the financial sensitivity of bioeconomic modelling against fairly well documented ecological effects in mixed forests. For this purpose our study linked existing results of ecological research with bioeconomic modelling. The presented methodological approach could not only show the importance of considering ecological effects in bioeconomic models; it ...


Replacing coniferous monocultures with mixed-species production stands: an assessment of the potential benefits for forest biodiversity in northern Europe

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 260, No. 6. (15 August 2010), pp. 939-947,


Conifer dominated plantations in central and northern Europe are associated with relatively low ecological values, and in some cases, may be vulnerable to disturbances caused by anthropogenic climate change. This has prompted the consideration of alternative tree species compositions for use in production forestry in this region. Here we evaluate the likely biodiversity costs and benefits of supplanting Norway spruce ( Picea abies ) monocultures with polycultures of spruce and birch ( Betula spp.) in southern Sweden. This polyculture alternative has ...


Consequences of climate change damages for economic growth

OECD Economics Department Working Papers, Vol. 2014, No. 1135. (2014)


This report focuses on the effects of climate change impacts on economic growth. Simulations with the OECD’s dynamic global general equilibrium model ENV-Linkages assess the consequences of a selected number of climate change impacts in the various world regions at the macroeconomic and sectoral level. This is complemented with an assessment of very long-run implications, using the AD-RICE model. The analysis finds that the effect of climate change impacts on annual global GDP is projected to increase over time, leading to ...


  1. Agrawala, S. and S. Fankhauser (2008), “Economic Aspects of Adaptation to Climate Change”, OECD Publishing.
  2. Agrawala, S., F. Bosello, C. Carraro, E. De Cian, E. Lanzi, K.C. De Bruin and R.B. Dellink (2011), “Plan or React? Analysis of adaptation costs and benefits using Integrated Assessment Models”, Climate Change Economics, Vol. 2(3), pp. 175-208.
  3. Berrittella, M., Bigano, A., Roson, R. and R.S.J. Tol (2006), “A general equilibrium analysis of climate change

Data-based mechanistic modelling of environmental, ecological, economic and engineering systems

Environmental Modelling and Software, Vol. 13, No. 2. (April 1998), pp. 105-122,


Mathematical modelling in the natural and engineering sciences is most often dominated by a philosophy of deterministic reductionism. Moreover, many of the ‘simulation' models that emerge from this approach to modelling are very large and so difficult to identify, estimate (i.e. calibrate) and validate in rigorous statistical terms. In this situation, it seems sensible to consider alternative modelling strategies which overtly acknowledge these data-based modelling difficulties and address the very real problems of calibration and validation associated with the dynamic modelling ...


Sitka Spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr)

In Forest Tree Breeding in Europe, Vol. 25 (2013), pp. 177-227,
edited by Luc E. Pâques


Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr) is native to the Pacific North West of America and was introduced to Western Europe in the early 19th nineteenth century. It is now an important commercial species along the extreme western seaboard of Europe – namely Ireland and Great Britain – and this is where most progress has been made in the area of selection and breeding. Sitka spruce has been the subject of more limited selection and breeding work in some other European ...


Picea abies - Version 2014.3

In The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (2013), 42318/0


[Excerpt] Picea abies is the most abundant, if not widespread conifer in Europe. As such, it is assessed as Least Concern. [::Common Name(s)] [::]English – Norway Spruce [::]French – Epicéa commun [::Taxonomic Notes] Two varieties are recognized: the typical variety is found almost throughout the range of the species. Picea abies var. ...


Integrating tipping points into climate impact assessments

Climatic Change In Climatic Change, Vol. 117, No. 3. (29 August 2013), pp. 585-597,


There is currently a huge gulf between natural scientists’ understanding of climate tipping points and economists’ representations of climate catastrophes in integrated assessment models (IAMs). In particular, there are multiple potential tipping points and they are not all low-probability events; at least one has a significant probability of being passed this century under mid-range (2–4 °C) global warming, and they cannot all be ruled out at low (<2 °C) warming. In contrast, the dominant framing of climate catastrophes in IAMs, and in critiques ...


Managing complex adaptive systems - A co-evolutionary perspective on natural resource management

Ecological Economics, Vol. 63, No. 1. (15 June 2007), pp. 9-21,


The overexploitation of natural resources and the increasing number of social conflicts following from their unsustainable use point to a wide gap between the objectives of sustainability and current resource management practices. One of the reasons for the difficulties to close this gap is that for evolving complex systems like natural and socio-economic systems, sustainability cannot be a static objective. Instead sustainable development is an open evolutionary process of improving the management of social-ecological systems, through better understanding and knowledge. Therefore, ...


(INRMM-MiD internal record) List of keywords of the INRMM meta-information database - part 12

(February 2014)
Keywords: diprion-pini   dipteryx-panamensis   direct-reciprocity   disaster-recovery   disaster-response   disasters   discharge   disciplinary-barrier   disconcerting-learning   discount-rate   discourse   discourse-analysis   discovery   disease   diseases   disjunction   dispersal   dispersal-limitation   dispersal-models   dissent   distance-analysis   distance-correlation   distilled-gin   distribution   distribution-limit   disturbance-ecology   disturbance-interactions   disturbance-resistance   disturbances   diversification   diversity   django   dna   dna-fingerprinting   dobrogea   docker   dodonaea-viscosa   dormancy   dormouse   doronicum-hungaricum   doronicum-orientale   dothistroma-pini   dothistroma-septosporum   downscaling   dracaena-draco   dracaena-drago   drinking-water   drought-stress   drought-tolerance   droughts   dry-spells   dry-summers   dry-years   dryas-octopetala   dryocoetus-autographus   dryocopus-martius   dryocosmus-kuriphilus   dryopteris-carthusiana   dryopteris-dilatata   dryopteris-spp   dss   dublin-core   duff-moisture-code   dupl   duplicated-entry-to-be-removed   durio-zibethinus   dutch-elm   dutch-elm-disease   dynamic-data-driven-application-system   dynamic-downscaling   dynamic-programming   dynamic-system   dynamic-vegetation-models   e-obs   e-rusle   early-dissemination   early-medieval   early-warning   earth-observation   earth-system   earthquakes   east-africa   east-china-see   east-europe   eastern-asia   ebola   ecological-change   ecological-corridor   ecological-footprint   ecological-impacts   ecological-modernization   ecological-networks   ecological-restoration   ecological-zones   ecology   economic-impacts   economic-value   economics   economy-bias   inrmm-list-of-tags  


List of indexed keywords within the transdisciplinary set of domains which relate to the Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management (INRMM). In particular, the list of keywords maps the semantic tags in the INRMM Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD). [\n] The INRMM-MiD records providing this list are accessible by the special tag: inrmm-list-of-tags ( ). ...


Commission staff working document - a blueprint for the EU forest-based industries (woodworking, furniture, pulp & paper manufacturing and converting, printing)

Commission Staff Working Document, Vol. 2013, No. SWD/2013/0343 final. (20 September 2013)


[Introduction] The EU Forest-based Industries - EU F-BI - are taken to include: the woodworking industries; the furniture industry; the pulp & paper manufacturing and converting industries, and the printing industry. Together, they represent about 7% of EU manufacturing GDP and nearly 3.5 million jobs. The EU F-BI thus form an important part of the EU’s manufacturing industry and their growth can help achieve the goals of the EU’s Industrial Policy , including the aspirational goal of raising manufacturing industries’ contribution ...


Climate impacts in Europe: an integrated economic assessment

In Impacts World 2013 - International Conference on Climate Change Effects (May 2013), pp. 87-96,


The JRC PESETA II study integrates the consequences of several separate climate change impacts into a macroeconomic CGE model. This enables comparison of the different impacts based on common metrics (household welfare and economic activity). The study uses a large set of climate model runs (twelve) and impact categories (agriculture, energy demand, river floods, sea-level rise, forest fires, transport infrastructure). The results show that there is a wide dispersion of impacts across EU regions, with strong geographical asymmetries, depending on the specific ...


  1. Brown,S., Nicholls, R.J., Vafeidis, A., Hinkel, J., Watkiss, P., 2011. The Impacts and Economic Costs of Sea Level Rise in Europe and the Costs and Benefits of Adaptation. Summary of Results from the EC RTD ClimateCost Project. In Watkiss, P., (Editor), 2011. The ClimateCost Project. Final Report. Volume 1: Europe. Published by the Stockholm Environment Institute, Sweden, 2011. ISBN 978-91-86125-35-6.
  2. Camia, A., Libertà, G., San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., 2012. Modelling impacts of climate change on forest
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