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Selection: with tag economic-impacts [43 articles] 


Reboot for the AI revolution

Nature, Vol. 550, No. 7676. (17 October 2017), pp. 324-327,


As artificial intelligence puts many out of work, we must forge new economic, social and educational systems, argues Yuval Noah Harari. [Excerpt] The ongoing artificial-intelligence revolution will change almost every line of work, creating enormous social and economic opportunities — and challenges. Some believe that intelligent computers will push humans out of the job market and create a new 'useless class'; others maintain that automation will generate a wide range of new human jobs and greater prosperity for all. Almost everybody agrees ...


Living with wildfires: what science can tell us - A contribution to the science-policy dialogue

Vol. 15 (2009)
edited by Yves Birot


[Excerpt: Introduction] Contrary to other natural hazards such as earthquakes or windstorms, wildfires are certainly among the most predictable ones. Therefore, it is a phenomenon which, in principle, should leave modern societies some degrees of freedom and margins of manoeuvre for implementing efficient counteracting strategies. However, this opportunity has not been properly used. Over the last decades, wildfires have proven to be a subject of growing concern for the Mediterranean Region. Woodlands, rangelands, maquis and garrigues in rural areas or at the interface with urban areas still ...


Global trends in wildfire and its impacts: perceptions versus realities in a changing world

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, Vol. 371, No. 1696. (05 June 2016), 20150345,


Wildfire has been an important process affecting the Earth’s surface and atmosphere for over 350 million years and human societies have coexisted with fire since their emergence. Yet many consider wildfire as an accelerating problem, with widely held perceptions both in the media and scientific papers of increasing fire occurrence, severity and resulting losses. However, important exceptions aside, the quantitative evidence available does not support these perceived overall trends. Instead, global area burned appears to have overall declined over past decades, and there is increasing evidence that there is ...


GECO 2015 - Global energy and climate outlook: road to Paris

Vol. EUR 27239 EN (2015),


This report presents the modelling work quoted in the EC communication "The Paris Protocol - a blueprint for tackling global climate change beyond 2020" in the EU's Energy Union package. It examines the effects of a Baseline scenario where current trends continue beyond 2020, and of a Global Mitigation scenario in line with keeping global warming below 2°C. The analysis uses the POLES and GEM-E3 models in a framework where economic welfare is maximised while tackling climate change. In the Baseline, ...


  1. Arezki, R., Blanchard, O., 2014. Seven Questions about the Recent Oil Price Slump. .
  2. AR5 database, 2015. IPCC Assessment Report 5 database. .
  3. Assunção, J., Gandour, C., Rocha, R., 2015. Deforestation slowdown in the Brazilian Amazon: prices or policies?. Environment and Development Economics, available on CJO2015. .
  4. BGR (German Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources) 2013. Energy Study 2013.

The circular economy

Nature, Vol. 531, No. 7595. (23 March 2016), pp. 435-438,


A new relationship with our goods and materials would save resources and energy and create local jobs, explains Walter R. Stahel. [Excerpt: Systems thinking] There are three kinds of industrial economy: linear, circular and performance. [\n] A linear economy flows like a river, turning natural resources into base materials and products for sale through a series of value-adding steps. At the point of sale, ownership and liability for risks and waste pass to the buyer (who is now owner and user). The owner decides ...


Economics: current climate models are grossly misleading

Nature, Vol. 530, No. 7591. (24 February 2016), pp. 407-409,


Nicholas Stern calls on scientists, engineers and economists to help policymakers by better modelling the immense risks to future generations, and the potential for action. [Excerpt] The twin defining challenges of our century are overcoming poverty and managing climate change. If we can tackle these issues together, we will create a secure and prosperous world for generations to come. If we don't, the future is at grave risk. [\n] Researchers across a range of disciplines must work together to help decision-makers in the ...


Destructive storms in European forests: past and forthcoming impacts



[Excerpt: Introduction] [::] Forest and other wooded land within Europe cover 42 % of the land area and have a wide range of ecological, social and economic functions that continue to grow in importance. [::] Wind storms have caused catastrophic damage to forests throughout history, but during the last century damage has increased markedly. Storms are now responsible for more than 50% of primary damage to European forests. [::] Much of the damage increase can be related to forest expansion and change. [::] Responses of foresters, ...


Natural capital and bioeconomy: challenges and opportunities for forestry

Annals of Silvicultural Research, Vol. 38, No. 2. (2014),


Over the last decades, the stock of natural capital has been globally reduced by human-induced effects such as climate change, and land use and cover modifications. In particular, the continuous flow of goods and services from ecosystems to people is currently under threat if the current human activities still remain unsustainable. The recent bioeconomy strategy is an important opportunity to halt the loss of biodiversity and the reduction of services provision, from global to local scale. In this framework, forest sector ...


Economic impacts of EU clean air policies assessed in a CGE framework

Environmental Science & Policy, Vol. 55 (January 2016), pp. 54-64,


This paper assesses the macroeconomic and sectoral impacts of the “Clean Air Policy Package” proposed by the European Commission in December 2013. The analysis incorporates both the expenditures necessary to implement the policy by 2030 and the resulting positive feedback effects on human health and crop production. A decomposition analysis identifies the important drivers of the macroeconomic impacts. We show that while expenditure on pollution abatement is a cost for the abating sectors, it also generates an increased demand for the ...


The Global Forest Trade Model GFTM



A meaningful assessment of policy options within the forest-based bioeconomy presupposes the capability to model market implications. To this end, an economic forest-based sector model, the Global Forest Trade Model (GFTM), is being developed at the Forest Resources and Climate unit of the Institute for Environment and Sustainability (IES). The GFTM is an equilibrium trade-based model for the forest sector with the aim of providing projections of production and trade of wood-based products and pellets for 48 countries/sub-regions of the world, ...


  1. European Commission 2013. A new EU Forest Strategy: for forests and the forest-based sector, COM(2013) 659 final, European Union Official Journal C 056, 26/02/1999, p. 0001 – 0004.
  2. Fonseca, M. 2010. Forest product conversion factors for the UNECE region. Geneva Timber and Forest Discussion Paper 49; UNECE/FAO: Geneva, Switzerland. ISSN 1020-7228.
  3. Jonsson, R. 2011. Trends and Possible Future Developments in Global Forest-Product Markets—Implications for the Swedish Forest Sector. Forests 2, 147-167.

Distribution and economic potential of the Sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) in Europe

Ecologia Mediterranea, Vol. 30, No. 2. (2004), pp. 179-193


No official and coherent data on the distribution of the European chestnut exist despite its wide range of distribution and the impor-tant economic role it has played in many countries. In 1997, in the framework of the COST action G4 "Multidisciplinary Chestnut Research", quantitative and qualitative data on chestnutforests were collected mostlyfrom the National Forest Inventories, in order to provide as sound a picture as possible of this important European resource. A total of2.25 million hectares offtrest dominated by ches-tnut were ...


Environmental tipping points significantly affect the cost−benefit assessment of climate policies

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 112, No. 15. (14 April 2015), pp. 4606-4611,


[Significance] Most current cost−benefit analyses of climate change suggest global climate policy should be relatively weak. However, relatively few studies account for the market or nonmarket impacts of passing environmental tipping points that cause abrupt and irreversible damages. We use a stochastic dynamic model of the climate and economy to quantify the effect of tipping points on climate change policy. We show that environmental tipping points can profoundly alter cost−benefit analysis, justifying a much more stringent climate policy, which takes the form ...


European briefings - Climate change impacts and adaptation

In SOER 2015 - The European environment - state and outlook 2015 (18 February 2015)


Global climate change impacts Europe in many ways, including: changes in average and extreme temperature and precipitation, warmer oceans, rising sea level and shrinking snow and ice cover on land and at sea. These have led to a range of impacts on ecosystems, socio-economic sectors and human health. Adaptation to the observed and projected impacts in coming decades is needed, complementary to global climate mitigation actions. The EU strategy on adaptation to climate change supports national adaptation strategies and other actions in ...


  1. European Environment Agency, 2012. Climate change, impacts and vulnerability in Europe 2012 - An indicator-based report. EEA Report No 12/2012, European Environment Agency, Copenhagen, Denmark.
  2. IPCC, 2013. Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Working Group I Contribution to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Stocker, T. F., Qin, D., Plattner, G.-K., et al. (eds)., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.

Economic impacts of climate change on agriculture: the AgMIP approach

Journal of Applied Remote Sensing, Vol. 9, No. 1. (2015), pp. 097099-097099,


The current paper investigates the long-term global impacts on crop productivity under different climate scenarios using the AgMIP approach (Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project). The paper provides horizontal model intercomparison from 11 economic models as well as a more detailed analysis of the simulated effects from the Common Agricultural Policy Regionalized Impact (CAPRI) model to systematically compare its performance with other AgMIP models and specifically for the Chinese agriculture. CAPRI is a comparative static partial equilibrium model extensively used for ...


Land transport systems under climate change: a macroeconomic assessment of adaptation measures for the case of Austria

No. GEP 2015-01. (2015)


In the light of climate change, transport systems become increasingly stressed by extreme weather and gradual climatic changes, resulting in direct costs which arise in the affected sector as well as indirect costs due to economic spill-over effects. To attenuate these costs, sector specific adaptation measures are needed, raising the question of the net-benefits of adaptation at a macroeconomic level. However, despite their importance such assessments of impacts and adaptation at the macro-level are scarce and coarse in their implementation. This ...


  1. Aaheim, A., Amundsen, H., Dokken, T., Wei, T., 2012. Impacts and adaptation to climate change in European economies. Global Environmental Change 22, 959–968.
  2. Aaheim, A., Gopalakrishnan, R., Chaturvedi, R.K., Ravindranath, N.H., Sagadevan, A.D., Sharma, N., Wei, T., 2011. A macroeconomic analysis of adaptation to climate change impacts on forests in India. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 16, 229–245.
  3. Abrell, J., 2010. Regulating CO2 emissions of transportation in Europe:

Climate change may cause severe loss in the economic value of European forest land

Nature Climate Change, Vol. 3, No. 3. (23 September 2012), pp. 203-207,


European forests, covering more than 2 million km2 or 32% of the land surface1, are to a large extent intensively managed and support an important timber industry. Climate change is expected to strongly affect tree species distribution within these forests2, 3. Climate and land use are undergoing rapid changes at present4, with initial range shifts already visible5. However, discussions on the consequences of biome shifts have concentrated on ecological issues6. Here we show that forecasted changes in temperature and precipitation may have severe ...


The global impacts of extreme sea-level rise: a comprehensive economic assessment

Environmental and Resource Economics (2015), pp. 1-29,


This paper investigates the world-wide economic cost of rapid sea-level rise of the kind that could be caused by accelerated ice flow from the West Antarctic and/or the Greenland ice sheets. Such an event would have direct impacts on economic activities located near the coastline and indirect impacts further inland. Using data from the DIVA model on sea floods, river floods, land loss, salinisation and forced migration, we analyse the effects of these damages in a computable general equilibrium model for ...


  1. Aaheim A, Amundsen H, Dokken T, Ericson T, Wei T (2012) Impacts and adaptation to climate change in European economies. Glob Environ Change 22:959–968
  2. Armington PS (1969) A theory of demand for products distinguished by place of production. Int Monet Fund staff Pap 16(1):159–176
  3. Bentley C, Thomas R, Velicogna I (2007) Ice sheets, chapter 6A in global outlook for snow and ice. UNEP
  4. Bosello F, Roson R, Tol

Development of a methodology for the analysis of socio-economic impact of forest fires in Europe

In The 5th International Wildland Fire Conference (May 2011)

Consequences of Climate Change Damages for Economic Growth - A Dynamic Quantitative Assessment

OECD Economics Department Working Papers, Vol. 2014 (June 2014), 1135,


This report focuses on the effects of climate change impacts on economic growth. Simulations with the OECD’s dynamic global general equilibrium model ENV-Linkages assess the consequences of a selected number of climate change impacts in the various world regions at the macroeconomic and sectoral level. This is complemented with an assessment of very long-run implications, using the AD-RICE model. The analysis finds that the effect of climate change impacts on annual global GDP is projected to increase over time, leading to ...


  1. Agrawala, S. and S. Fankhauser (2008), “Economic Aspects of Adaptation to Climate Change”, OECD Publishing.
  2. Agrawala, S., F. Bosello, C. Carraro, E. De Cian, E. Lanzi, K.C. De Bruin and R.B. Dellink (2011), “Plan or React? Analysis of adaptation costs and benefits using Integrated Assessment Models”, Climate Change Economics, Vol. 2(3), pp. 175-208.
  3. Berrittella, M., Bigano, A., Roson, R. and R.S.J. Tol (2006), “A general equilibrium analysis of climate change

Consequences of climate change damages for economic growth

OECD Economics Department Working Papers, Vol. 2014, No. 1135. (2014)


This report focuses on the effects of climate change impacts on economic growth. Simulations with the OECD’s dynamic global general equilibrium model ENV-Linkages assess the consequences of a selected number of climate change impacts in the various world regions at the macroeconomic and sectoral level. This is complemented with an assessment of very long-run implications, using the AD-RICE model. The analysis finds that the effect of climate change impacts on annual global GDP is projected to increase over time, leading to ...


  1. Agrawala, S. and S. Fankhauser (2008), “Economic Aspects of Adaptation to Climate Change”, OECD Publishing.
  2. Agrawala, S., F. Bosello, C. Carraro, E. De Cian, E. Lanzi, K.C. De Bruin and R.B. Dellink (2011), “Plan or React? Analysis of adaptation costs and benefits using Integrated Assessment Models”, Climate Change Economics, Vol. 2(3), pp. 175-208.
  3. Berrittella, M., Bigano, A., Roson, R. and R.S.J. Tol (2006), “A general equilibrium analysis of climate change

Computer support for environmental impact assessment: proceedings of the IFIP TC5/WG5.11 Working Conference on Computer Support for Environmental Impact Assessment, CSEIA 93, Como, Italy, 6-8 October, 1993



Any choice with a significant impact on the environment should, in principle, be the outcome of a political process reflecting the social preferences of everyone involved. Unfortunately, this ideal procedure requires a level of time and money that does not justify its application for planning each specific intervention. Different methods, mainly derived from traditional investment analyses, have been proposed for providing a rational basis for environmental decisions that cannot be analysed through a public debate. These methods have proved inadequate, however, ...


Increasing stress on disaster-risk finance due to large floods

Nature Climate Change, Vol. 4, No. 4. (2 March 2014), pp. 264-268,


Recent major flood disasters have shown that single extreme events can affect multiple countries simultaneously1, 2, 3, which puts high pressure on trans-national risk reduction and risk transfer mechanisms4, 5, 6. So far, little is known about such flood hazard interdependencies across regions7, 8 and the corresponding joint risks at regional to continental scales1, 9. Reliable information on correlated loss probabilities is crucial for developing robust insurance schemes5 and public adaptation funds10, and for enhancing our understanding of climate change impacts9, ...


Characterised and Projected Costs of Nonindigenous Species in Canada

Biological Invasions In Biological Invasions, Vol. 8, No. 1. (January 2006), pp. 45-59,


Biological invasions by nonindigenous species (NIS) can have adverse effects on economically important goods and services, and sometimes result in an ‘invisible tax’ on natural resources (e.g. reduced yield). The combined economic costs of NIS may be significant, with implications for environmental policy and resource management; yet economic impact assessments are rare at a national scale. Impacts of nuisance NIS may be direct (e.g. loss of hardwood trees) or indirect (e.g. alteration of ecosystem services provided by growing hardwoods). Moreover, costs ...


Integrating tipping points into climate impact assessments

Climatic Change In Climatic Change, Vol. 117, No. 3. (29 August 2013), pp. 585-597,


There is currently a huge gulf between natural scientists’ understanding of climate tipping points and economists’ representations of climate catastrophes in integrated assessment models (IAMs). In particular, there are multiple potential tipping points and they are not all low-probability events; at least one has a significant probability of being passed this century under mid-range (2–4 °C) global warming, and they cannot all be ruled out at low (<2 °C) warming. In contrast, the dominant framing of climate catastrophes in IAMs, and in critiques ...


Physical and economic consequences of climate change in Europe

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 108, No. 7. (15 February 2011), pp. 2678-2683,


Quantitative estimates of the economic damages of climate change usually are based on aggregate relationships linking average temperature change to loss in gross domestic product (GDP). However, there is a clear need for further detail in the regional and sectoral dimensions of impact assessments to design and prioritize adaptation strategies. New developments in regional climate modeling and physical-impact modeling in Europe allow a better exploration of those dimensions. This article quantifies the potential consequences of climate change in Europe in four ...


Climate impacts in Europe - The JRC PESETA II project

edited by J. C. Ciscar


The objective of the JRC PESETA II project is to gain insights into the sectoral and regional patterns of climate change impacts in Europe by the end of this century. The study uses a large set of climate model runs and impact categories (ten impacts: agriculture, energy, river floods, droughts, forest fires, transport infrastructure, coasts, tourism, habitat suitability of forest tree species and human health). The project integrates biophysical direct climate impacts into a macroeconomic economic model, which enables the comparison ...


  1. Aaheim, A., Amundsen, H., Dokken, T., Wei, T., 2012. Impacts and Adaptation to Climate Change in European Economies. Global Environmental Change 22(4), 959-968. .
  2. Alley, R.B., Whillans, I.M., 1991. Changes in the West Antarctic ice sheet. Science 254 (5034), 959–963. .
  3. Anstey, J., Davini, P., Gray, L., Woollings, T., 2012. Multi-model analysis of winter blocking and tropospheric jet variability: The roles of horizontal and vertical resolution. Submitted to J.

In new report, IPCC gets more specific about warming risks

Science, Vol. 344, No. 6179. (4 April 2014), pp. 21-21,


The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's (IPCC's) 31 March report on climate impacts and adaptation echoes many of the concerns raised by the last edition, issued in 2007. It says that climate change is already affecting human communities, agriculture, and natural ecosystems—and impacts are likely to grow in the future. But the report breaks with the past in drawing on an emerging body of social science to identify eight major risks posed by climate change, and to inform an extensive discussion ...


Update on the environmental and economic costs associated with alien-invasive species in the United States

Ecological Economics, Vol. 52, No. 3. (29 February 2005), pp. 273-288,


Invading alien species in the United States cause major environmental damages and losses adding up to almost $120 billion per year. There are approximately 50,000 foreign species and the number is increasing. About 42% of the species on the Threatened or Endangered species lists are at risk primarily because of alien-invasive species. ...


(INRMM-MiD internal record) List of keywords of the INRMM meta-information database - part 11

(February 2014)
Keywords: doronicum-hungaricum   doronicum-orientale   dothistroma-pini   dothistroma-septosporum   downscaling   dracaena-draco   dracaena-drago   drinking-water   drought-stress   drought-tolerance   droughts   dry-summers   dry-years   dryas-octopetala   dryocoetus-autographus   dryocopus-martius   dss   dublin-core   duplicated-entry-to-be-removed   durio-zibethinus   dutch-elm   dutch-elm-disease   dynamic-data-driven-application-system   dynamic-downscaling   dynamic-programming   dynamic-vegetation-models   e-obs   e-rusle   early-dissemination   early-medieval   earth-observation   earth-system   earthquakes   east-africa   east-china-see   east-europe   ebola   ecological-change   ecological-corridor   ecological-footprint   ecological-networks   ecological-restoration   ecological-zones   ecology   economic-impacts   economic-value   economics   economy-bias   ecophysiology   ecoprovinces   ecosystem   ecosystem-change   ecosystem-conservation   ecosystem-decline   ecosystem-disservices   ecosystem-functions   ecosystem-heterogeneity   ecosystem-invasibility   ecosystem-management   ecosystem-processes   ecosystem-resilience   ecosystem-services   ecotype   edge-effect   edible-plants   editorial   editorial-policy   education   eemian   efdac   effective-gene-flow   effectiveness   effects   efficienct   effis   eficp   efics   efsa   efsa-scientific-opinion   egypt   el-nino   elaeagnus-angustifolia   elatobium-abietinum   elderberry-wine   electronics   elevation   elisa   ellenberg-climatic-quotient   ellenberg-numbers   elm-phloem-necrosis   elsevier   emergency-events   emergency-management   emergent-engineering   emergent-property   empetrum-nigrum   empirical-equation   emulation   end-of-history-bias   inrmm-list-of-tags  


List of indexed keywords within the transdisciplinary set of domains which relate to the Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management (INRMM). In particular, the list of keywords maps the semantic tags in the INRMM Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD). [\n] The INRMM-MiD records providing this list are accessible by the special tag: inrmm-list-of-tags ( ). ...


The consequence of tree pests and diseases for ecosystem services

Science, Vol. 342, No. 6160. (15 November 2013), 1235773,


[Structured Abstract] [::Background] Trees are major components of many terrestrial ecosystems and are grown in managed plantations and orchards to provide a variety of economically important products, including timber, pulp, fiber, and food. They are subject to a wide range of pests and diseases, of which the most important causative agents are viruses, bacteria, fungi, oomycetes, and insect herbivores. Research on tree pests and diseases has had a historical focus on trees of direct economic importance. However, some epidemics and infestations have damaged ...


How risk management can prevent future wildfire disasters in the wildland-urban interface

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 111, No. 2. (14 January 2014), pp. 746-751,


[Significance] Recent wildfire events throughout the world have highlighted the consequences of residential development in the wildland-urban interface (WUI) including hundreds to thousands of homes burned during a single wildfire to, more tragically, firefighter and homeowner fatalities. Despite substantial investments in modifying wildland fuels near populated areas, losses appear to be increasing. In this article, we examine the conditions under which WUI wildfire disasters occur and introduce a wildfire risk assessment framework. By using this framework, we examine how prefire mitigation ...


Invasive alien species in the food chain: advancing risk assessment models to address climate change, economics and uncertainty

NeoBiota, Vol. 18 (13 September 2013), pp. 1-7,


[Excerpt] Economic globalization depends on the movement of people and goods between countries. As these exchanges increase, so does the potential for translocation of harmful pests, weeds, and pathogens capable of impacting our crops, livestock and natural resources (Hulme 2009), with concomitant impacts on global food security (Cook et al. 2011). [\n] Potential invasions by alien species create a dilemma for nations that engage in international trade. On one hand, free trade may provide new markets for producers, cheaper and more diverse ...


  1. Baker, R.H.A., Benninga, J., Bremmer, J., Brunel, S., Dupin, M., Eyre, D., Ilieva, Z., Jarošík, V., Kehlenbeck, H., Kriticos, D.J., Makowski, D., Pergl, J., Reynaud, P., Robinet, C., Soliman, T., Van der Werf, W., Worner, S.P., 2012. A decision support scheme for mapping endangered areas in pest risk analysis. EPPO Bulletin 42, 65-73.
  2. Baker, R.H.A., Eyre, D., Brunel, S., 2013. Matching methods to produce maps for pest risk analysis to resources. In: Kriticos, D.J.,

Rapid growth in CO2 emissions after the 2008–2009 global financial crisis

Nature Climate Change, Vol. 2, No. 1. (4 December 2011), pp. 2-4,


Global carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion and cement production grew 5.9% in 2010, surpassed 9 Pg of carbon (Pg C) for the first time, and more than offset the 1.4% decrease in 2009. The impact of the 2008–2009 global financial crisis (GFC) on emissions has been short-lived owing to strong emissions growth in emerging economies, a return to emissions growth in developed economies, and an increase in the fossil-fuel intensity of the world economy. ...


Climate change 2007 : impacts, adaptation and vulnerability : Working Group II contribution to the Fourth Assessment Report of the IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

by Tarekegn Abeku, Pamela Abuodha, Francis Adesina, Neil Adger, John Agard, Pramod Aggarwal, Maureen Agnew, Micheline Agoli-Agbo, Shardul Agrawala, Will Agricole, Qazi Ahmad, Rais Akhtar, Mozaharul Alam, Joseph Alcamo, Abdelkader Allali, Jean Andrey, Oleg Anisimov, Yurij Anokhin, John Antle, Miguel Araujo, Julie Arblaster, Nigel Arnell, Jun Asanuma, Julius Atlhopheng, Samar Attaher, Shiv Attri, Walter Baethgen, Manzhu Bao, Chris Barlow, Bryson Bates, Punsalmaa Batima, Susanne Becken, Paul Beggs, Martin Beniston, Frans Berkhout, Richard Betts, Suruchi Bhadwal, Bonizella Biagini, Marco Bindi, Richard Black, Michel Boko, William Bond, Lahouari Bounoua, Keith Brander, Antoinette Brenkert, Lino Briguglio, Abigail Bristow, Michael Brklacich, Nick Brooks, Barbara Brown, Sarah Burch, Virginia Burkett, Ian Burton, Sandy Cairncross, Terry Callaghan, Josep Canadell, Osvaldo Canziani, Timothy Carter, Gino Casassa, Dan Cayan, Jean-Paul Ceron, Lynda Chambers, Netra Chhetri, Torben Christensen, Bernard Clot, Jorge Codignotto, Stewart Cohen, Anthony Coleman, Cecilia Conde, Ulisses Confalonieri, Jan Corfee-Morlot, Roman Corobov, Isabelle Côté, Patricia Craig, Judith Cranage, Rex V. Cruz, David Cruz Choque, Edmundo de Alba Alcaraz, Jacqueline de Chazal, John de Ronde, Mike Demuth, Fatima Denton, Sophie des Clers, Robert Devoy, Oagile Dikinya, Andrew F. Dlugolecki, Petra Döll, Thomas Downing, Pauline Dube, Ghislain Dubois, Matt Dunn, Mark Dyurgerov, William Easterling, Kristie Ebi, Martin Edwards, Seita Emori, Brenna Enright, Francisco Estrada, Nicole Estrella, Pete Falloon, Daidu Fan, Samuel Fankhauser, Christopher Field, Adam Finkel, Andreas Fischlin, Blair Fitzharris, Donald Forbes, James Ford, Bernard Francou, Christopher Furgal, Hans-Martin Füssel, Carlos Gay Garcia, Christos Giannakopoulos, Simone Gigli, Juan C. Giménez, Andrew Githeko, Mukiri Githendu, Brij Gopal, Vivien Gornitz, Stefan Gossling, Phil Graham, Donna Green, Antoine Guisan, Dimitrios Gyalistras, Wilfreid Haeberli, Simon Hales, Jim Hall, Stephane Hallegatte, Alan Hamlet, Clair Hanson, Hideo Harasawa, Nicholas Harvey, Maria Hauengue, John Hay, Deborah Hemming, Roderick Henderson, Kevin Hennessy, Anne Henshaw, Karim Hilmi, Alistair Hobday, Ove Hoegh-Guldberg, Yasushi Honda, Christopher Hope, Mark Howden, Terence Hughes, Lesley Hughes, Saleemul Huq, Guy Hutton, Ana Iglesias, Anton Imeson, Sirajul Islam, Mostafa Jafari, Tony Janetos, Erik Jeppesen, Simon Jetté-Nantel, Blanca E. Jimenez, Roger Jones, Gregory Jones, Hui Ju, Pavel Kabat, Lucka Kajfež-Bogataj, Milind Kandlikar, Manmohan Kapshe, David Karoly, Georg Kaser, Klaus Keller, Gavin Kenny, Wulf Killmann, Darren King, Andrei Kirilenko, Tord Kjellstrom, Richard Klein, Christian Körner, Paul Kovacs, Sari Kovats, Zbigniew Kundzewicz, Petro Lakyda, Murari Lal, Joseph Lam, Rodel Lasco, Rik Leemans, Penehuro Lefale, Maria-Carmen Lemos, Nancy Lewis, Shuangcheng Li, Congxian Li, Tran V. Lien, Erda Lin, Chunzhen Liu, Diana Liverman, Irene Lorenzoni, Geoff Love, Jason Lowe, Xianfu Lu, Wolfgang Lucht, Nick Lunn, Zhuguo Ma, Dena Mac Mynowski, Terry Mader, Christopher Magadza, Graciela Magrin, David Major, Elizabeth Malone, Susan Mann, Harvey Marchant, José Marengo, Anil Markandya, Eric Martin, Michael Mastrandrea, Luis J. Mata, Glenn McGregor, Kathleen McInnes, Roger McLean, Linda Mearns, Mahmoud Medany, Bettina Menne, Annette Menzel, Guy Midgley, Kathleen Miller, Scott Mills, Evan Mills, Nobuo Mimura, Charles K. Minns, Monirul Q. Mirza, Alison Misselhorn, Patricia Morellato, Ana R. Moreno, José Moreno, John Morton, Linda Mortsch, Susanne Moser, Tushar Moulik, Robert Muir-Wood, Gustavo Nagy, Taito Nakalevu, Mark Nearing, Ron Neilson, Frederick Nelson, Peter Neofotis, Isabelle Niang, Robert Nicholls, Nguyen H. Ninh, Carlos Nobre, Belá Nováky, Leonard Nurse, Mark Nuttall, Anthony Nyong, Karen O’Brien, Brian O’Neill, Catherine O’Reilly, Imoh Obioh, Anthony Ogbonna, Taikan Oki, Jørgen Olesen, Michael Oppenheimer, Balgis Osman, Hubert N. Ouaga, Gianna Palmer, Jean Palutikof, Faizal Parish, Martin Parry, Anthony Patt, Anand Patwardhan, Jonathan Patz, Rolph Payet, Tristan Pearce, Martin Pêcheux, Guy Penny, Rosa Perez, Christopher Pfeiffer, Christian Pfister, Barrie Pittock, Jeff Price, Terry Prowse, Christel Prudhomme, Juan Pulhin, Roger Pulwarty, Sachooda Ragoonaden, Atiq Rahman, Samuel Rawlins, Tim Reeder, James Reist, Boris Revich, Richard Richels, John Robinson, Xavier Rodo, Rafael Rodriguez Acevedo, Patricia Romero Lankao, Terry Root, George Rose, Cynthia Rosenzweig, Mark Rounsevell, Steve Running, Kimmo Ruosteenoja, Susanne Rupp-Armstrong, David Sailor, Yoshiki Saito, Jim Salinger, Mark Saunders, Josef Schmidhuber, Stephen Schneider, Roland Schulze, Michael Scott, Daniel Scott, Roger Sedjo, Bernard Seguin, Graham Sem, Serguei Semenov, Zekai Sen, Ashok Sharma, Igor Shiklomanov, Arun Shreshtha, Priyadarshi Shukla, Anatoly Shvidenko, Barry Smit, Kirk Smith, Joel Smith, William Solecki, Jean-Francois Soussana, Tim Sparks, Tom Spencer, John Stone, Kate Studd, Avelino Suarez, John Sweeney, Ramadjita Tabo, Kiyoshi Takahashi, Juan Tarazona, Anna Taylor, Claudia Tebaldi, Renoj Thayyen, Madeleine Thomson, Wilfred Thuiller, Christina Tirado, Alexander Todorov, Richard Tol, Ferenc Toth, Maria Travasso, Piotr Tryjanowski, Francesco Tubiello, Carol Turley, Nick van de Giesen, Jelle van Minnen, Henk van Schaik, Detlef van Vuuren, Jean-Pascal van Ypersele, Jef Vandenberghe, David Vaughan, Andrei Velichko, Marta Vicarelli, Hjalmar Vilhjalmsson, Alicia Villamizar, Katherine Vincent, David Viner, Coleen Vogel, John Walsh, Johanna Wandel, Rachel Warren, Richard Warrick, Richard Washington, Paul Watkiss, Ellen Wiegandt, Tom Wilbanks, Robert Wilby, Tanja Wolf, Johanna Wolf, Poh P. Wong, Colin Woodroffe, Rosalie Woodruff, Alistair Woodward, Fred Wrona, Qigang Wu, Shaohong Wu, Farhana Yamin, Pius Yanda, Gary Yohe, Ricardo Zapata-Marti, Qiaomin Zhang, Gina Ziervogel, Monika Zurek


Climate Change 2007 – Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability provides the most comprehensive and up-to-date scientific assessment of the impacts of climate change, the vulnerability of natural and human environments, and the potential for response through adaptation. The report: • evaluates evidence that recent observed changes in climate have already affected a variety of physical and biological systems and concludes that these effects can be attributed to global warming; • makes a detailed assessment of the impacts of future climate change and sea-level rise ...


Climate change, impacts and vulnerability in Europe 2012: an indicator-based report

EEA Report, Vol. 12 (2012)


[Excerpt]Executive summary. Key messages • Climate change (increases in temperature, changes in precipitation and decreases in ice and snow) is occurring globally and in Europe; some of the observed changes have established records in recent years. • Observed climate change has already led to a wide range of impacts on environmental systems and society; further climate change impacts are projected for the future. • Climate change can increase existing vulnerabilities and deepen socio‐economic imbalances in Europe. • Damage ...


Why software fails [software failure]

IEEE Spectr. In Spectrum, IEEE, Vol. 42, No. 9. (06 September 2005), pp. 42-49,


Most IT experts agree that software failures occur far more often than they should despite the fact that, for the most part, they are predictable and avoidable. It is unfortunate that most organizations don't see preventing failure as an urgent matter, even though that view risks harming the organization and maybe even destroying it. Because software failure has tremendous implications for business and society, it is important to understand why this attitude persists. ...


The Real Cost of Software Errors

IEEE Security & Privacy Magazine In Security & Privacy, IEEE, Vol. 7, No. 2. (March 2009), pp. 87-90,


Software is no longer creeping into every aspect of our lives - it's already there. In fact, failing to recognize just how much everything we do depends on software functioning correctly makes modern society vulnerable to software errors. ...


Climate impacts in Europe: an integrated economic assessment

In Impacts World 2013 - International Conference on Climate Change Effects (May 2013), pp. 87-96,


The JRC PESETA II study integrates the consequences of several separate climate change impacts into a macroeconomic CGE model. This enables comparison of the different impacts based on common metrics (household welfare and economic activity). The study uses a large set of climate model runs (twelve) and impact categories (agriculture, energy demand, river floods, sea-level rise, forest fires, transport infrastructure). The results show that there is a wide dispersion of impacts across EU regions, with strong geographical asymmetries, depending on the specific ...


  1. Brown,S., Nicholls, R.J., Vafeidis, A., Hinkel, J., Watkiss, P., 2011. The Impacts and Economic Costs of Sea Level Rise in Europe and the Costs and Benefits of Adaptation. Summary of Results from the EC RTD ClimateCost Project. In Watkiss, P., (Editor), 2011. The ClimateCost Project. Final Report. Volume 1: Europe. Published by the Stockholm Environment Institute, Sweden, 2011. ISBN 978-91-86125-35-6.
  2. Camia, A., Libertà, G., San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., 2012. Modelling impacts of climate change on forest

Coping with global climate change: strategies, policies and measures for the tourism industry



The importance of the tourism industry is increasing globally, and many tourist destinations owe their growing success to the availability of natural resources: guaranteed sunshine during the summer season, or snow during wintertime. However, rising temperatures and other indirect impacts of climate change will more than likely alter the ecosystems of many worldwide destinations. In some regions, the Alps for example, the future of tourism products such as skiing will be threatened. It is for this reason that Alpine tourism industry, ...


The hidden cost of wildfires: economic valuation of health effects of wildfire smoke exposure in Southern California

Journal of Forest Economics, Vol. 18, No. 1. (January 2012), pp. 14-35,


There is a growing concern that human health impacts from exposure to wildfire smoke are ignored in estimates of monetized damages from wildfires. Current research highlights the need for better data collection and analysis of these impacts. Using unique primary data, this paper quantifies the economic cost of health effects from the largest wildfire in Los Angeles County's modern history. A cost of illness estimate is $9.50 per exposed person per day. However, theory and empirical research consistently find that this ...


Let’s limit the effect of software patents, since we can’t eliminate them

Wired In Solutions to the Software Patent Problem, Vol. 20, No. 11. (November 2012)


Patents threaten every software developer, and the patent wars we have long feared have broken out. Software developers and software users – which in our society, is most people – need software to be free of patents. The patents that threaten us are often called “software patents,” but that term is misleading. Such patents are not about any specific program. Rather, each patent describes some practical idea, and says that anyone carrying out the idea can be sued. So it’s clearer to ...


The Economic Effects of Climate Change

Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol. 23, No. 2. (April 2009), pp. 29-51,


I review the literature on the economic impacts of climate change, an externality that is unprecedentedly large, complex, and uncertain. Only 14 estimates of the total damage cost of climate change have been published, a research effort that is in sharp contrast to the urgency of the public debate and the proposed expenditure on greenhouse gas emission reduction. These estimates show that climate change initially improves economic welfare. However, these benefits are sunk. Impacts would be predominantly negative later in the ...


The value of the reservoir services gained with soil conservation

Land Economics, Vol. 83, No. 3. (01 August 2007), pp. 285-301,


To evaluate the impact of soil conservation on reservoir services, we extend replacement cost theory to cases where reservoir benefits are restored or preserved for multiple years. The framework is used to value the effect that a marginal change in soil erosion has on current and future reservoir benefits. Results show that, across the 2,111 U.S watersheds, a one-ton reduction in soil erosion provides benefits ranging from zero to $1.38. Furthermore, in a policy application, the lower soil erosion level in ...

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