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Selection: with tag ecological-zones [45 articles] 


Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification

Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, Vol. 11, No. 5. (11 October 2007), pp. 1633-1644,


Although now over 100 years old, the classification of climate originally formulated by Wladimir Köppen and modified by his collaborators and successors, is still in widespread use. It is widely used in teaching school and undergraduate courses on climate. It is also still in regular use by researchers across a range of disciplines as a basis for climatic regionalisation of variables and for assessing the output of global climate models. Here we have produced a new global map of climate using ...


An ecoregion-based approach to protecting half the terrestrial realm

BioScience (14 April 2017),


We assess progress toward the protection of 50% of the terrestrial biosphere to address the species-extinction crisis and conserve a global ecological heritage for future generations. Using a map of Earth's 846 terrestrial ecoregions, we show that 98 ecoregions (12%) exceed Half Protected; 313 ecoregions (37%) fall short of Half Protected but have sufficient unaltered habitat remaining to reach the target; and 207 ecoregions (24%) are in peril, where an average of only 4% of natural habitat remains. We propose a ...


Generalized allometric volume and biomass equations for some tree species in Europe

In European Journal of Forest Research, Vol. 126, No. 2. (2007), pp. 157-166,


Since biomass is one of the key variables in ecosystem studies, widespread effort has aimed to facilitating its estimation. Numerous stand-specific volume and biomass equations are available, but these cannot be used for scaling up biomass to the regional level where several age-classes and structural types of stands coexist. Therefore simplified generalized volume and biomass equations are needed. In the present study, generalized biomass and volume regression equations were developed for the main tree species in Europe. These equations were based ...


Colchic and Hyrcanian forests of the Caucasus: similarities, differences and conservation status

Flora Mediterranea, Vol. 25, No. Special Issue. (26 November 2015),
Keywords: abies-nordmanniana   acer-insigne   acer-velutinum   albizzia-julibrissin   alnus-barbata   alnus-subcordata   ancient-forest   ancient-forest-plant-species   arachne-colchica   betula-litwinowii   betula-medwedewii   biodiversity   buxus-colchicus   buxus-hyrcana   carpinus-caucasica   castanea-sativa   caucasus   colchic-region   comparison   corylus-colchica   danae-racemosa   daphne-alboviana   daphne-pontica   dioscorea-caucasica   diospyros-lotus   ecological-zones   ecosystem-conservation   epigaea-gaultherioides   fagus-orientalis   forest-resources   gleditcia-caspica   hedera-colchica   hedera-pastuchovii   hypericum-androsaemum   hypericum-inodorum   hyrcanian-region   ilex-colchica   ilex-hyrcana   laurocerasus-officinalis   parrotia-persica   philadelphus-caucasicus   picea-orientalis   protected-areas   protection   pterocarya-fraxinifolia   quercus-castaneifolia   quercus-hartwissiana   quercus-imeretina   quercus-macranthera   quercus-pontica   rainforest   rhamnus-imeretina   rhododendron-caucasicum   rhododendron-ponticum   rhododendron-smirnowii   rhododendron-ungernii   ruscus-colchicus   ruscus-hyrcanus   sorbus-aucuparia   sorbus-caucasigena   sorbus-subfusca   species-richness   staphylea-colchica   temperate-forests   vaccinium-arctostaphylos   viburnum-orientale   zelkova-carpinifolia  


Along with high degree of vascular plant endemism (more than 25%) the existence of two refugia of the Tertiary flora – Colchic and Hyrcanian – are the most unique features of the Caucasus ecoregion. Likewise, Colchic and Hyrcanian forests are classified as temperate rainforests.There are certain physical-geographical and biological similarities and even more differences between Colchic and Hyrcanian regions, reflected on compositions of flora, types of vegetation zonation, as well as spectrums of vegetation formations. An “individualities” of these two unique nature phenomena definethe necessity of their ...


A climate-based model to predict potential treeline position around the globe

Alpine Botany, Vol. 124, No. 1. (2014), pp. 1-12,


In situ temperature measurements revealed that the position of the high-elevation treeline is associated with a minimum seasonal mean air temperature within a temperature-defined minimum season length across latitudes. Here, we build upon this experience and present the results of a global statistical analysis and a predictive model for low temperature treeline positions. We identified 376 natural treelines from satellite images across the globe, and searched for their closest climatic proxies using a climate database. The analysis included a snow and ...


Regional estimation of woodland moisture content by inverting Radiative Transfer Models

Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 132 (May 2013), pp. 59-70,


[Abstract] We inverted the PROSPECT and GEOSAIL Radiative Transfer Models (RTM) using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) data to retrieve Live Fuel Moisture Content (LFMC) in woodlands located in the peninsular territory of Spain. Ecological rules were used to parameterize the RTM. This approach reduces the probability of an ill-posed problem in the inversion of the selected RTMs, by rejecting unrealistic combinations of input parameters. Three species representatives of each region were used to derive the ecological rules: Quercus ilex L., Quercus ...


Biodiversity hotspots and major tropical wilderness areas: approaches to setting conservation priorities

Conservation Biology, Vol. 12, No. 3. (17 June 1998), pp. 516-520,


[Excerpt] [\n] [...] [\n] The present reassessment of the biodiversity hotspots approach began in 1996 and is still underway. Therefore, what we present here are some initial conclusions; a more detailed presentation will be available in the near future. Our analysis is based first and foremost on species numbers, using plants as the principal indicator of biological diversity (“plants” here means the members of the Plant Kingdom, represented worldwide by some 270,000 species [Raven & Johnson 1991]). Hotspots were identified by two main criteria: first plant endemism and then degree of threat. [\n] [...] [\n] Looking in more detail at the hotspots list, ...


The Global 200: a representation approach to conserving the Earth's most biologically valuable ecoregions

Conservation Biology, Vol. 12, No. 3. (17 June 1998), pp. 502-515,


[Excerpt] [\n] [...] The Global 200 is an effective tool for [::(1)] targeting distinctive biogeographic units of biodiversity and [::(2)] promoting ecosystem-level representation at global scales. [\n] The Global 200 broadens the goals of conservation from a primary focus on preserving species diversity to an encompassing view of habitat diversity, ecological processes, evolutionary phenomena, and adaptations of species to different environmental conditions around the world. In some cases, it also distinguishes representative ecoregions that are more intact than others, highlighting the best opportunities for long-term conservation. [\n] Like any effort to set priorities, the Global 200 cannot address all aspects of biodiversity ...


European atlas of forest tree species

Keywords: bioeconomy   chorology   classification   climate   constrained-spatial-multi-frequency-analysis   data-heterogeneity   data-integration   data-uncertainty   disasters   disturbances   ecological-zones   ecology   ecosystem-services   europe   floods   forest-fires   forest-pests   forest-resources   free-software   geospatial   geospatial-semantic-array-programming   gis   gnu-bash   gnu-linux   gnu-octave   habitat-suitability   integrated-modelling   integrated-natural-resources-modelling-and-management   integration-techniques   knowledge-integration   landslides   mastrave-modelling-library   modelling-uncertainty   open-data   paleoecology   relative-distance-similarity   reproducible-research   review   science-policy-interface   science-society-interface   semantic-array-programming   semantic-constraints   semantics   semap   software-uncertainty   soil-erosion   soil-resources   species-distribution   tree-species   uncertainty   water-resources   windstorm  


[Excerpt] The European Atlas of Forest Tree Species is the first comprehensive publication of such a unique and essential environmental resource, that is, our trees. Leading scientists and forestry professionals have contributed in the many stages of the production of this atlas, through the collection of ground data on the location of tree species, elaboration of the distribution and suitability maps, production of the photographic material and compilation of the different chapters. The European Atlas of Forest Tree Species is both ...


Changes of Holdridge life zone diversity in all of China over half a century

Ecological Modelling, Vol. 144, No. 2-3. (October 2001), pp. 153-162,


The research results show that diversity at the scale of Holdridge life zone observation has had a decreasing trend since the 1950s, and the ecological environment has become considerably unstable in China. The phenomena of unstable environment include continuous expansion of calamity areas since the 1950s, the seldom-seen flood that occurred in the summer of 1998 and the seldom-seen sand and dust weather that occurred in the spring of 2000. Both human activities and climate change are driving forces of the ...


Climatic change and the broad-scale distribution of terrestrial ecosystem complexes

Climatic Change In Climatic Change, Vol. 7, No. 1. (1 March 1985), pp. 29-43,


The broad-scale distribution of terrestrial ecosystem complexes is determined in large part by climate and can be altered by climatic change due to natural causes or due to human activities such as those leading to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration. Classifications that recognize the dependence of natural vegetation on climate provide one means of constructing maps to display the impact of climatic change on the geography of major vegetation zones. A world map of the Holdridge Life-Zone Classification, developed from approximately 8,000 ...


The Holdridge life zones of the conterminous United States in relation to ecosystem mapping

Journal of Biogeography, Vol. 26, No. 5. (September 1999), pp. 1025-1038,


[Aim] Our main goals were to develop a map of the life zones for the conterminous United States, based on the Holdridge Life Zone system, as a tool for ecosystem mapping, and to compare the map of Holdridge life zones with other global vegetation classification and mapping efforts. [Location] The area of interest is the forty-eight contiguous states of the United States. [Methods] We wrote a PERL program for determining life zones from climatic data and linked it to the image processing workbench ...


Life Zone Ecology



Holdridge's concept of 'life zones' as the major units of ecological classification is based on the relations between 'biotemperature' (the mean of the annual temperature between 0°and 30°C.), mean total annual precipitation and potential evapotranspiration ratio. This concept is developed in chapters dealing with the association, succession, the soil, the atmosphere, water, human ecology, land-use planning and productivity. An appendix contains 100 photos (J. A. Tosi Jr.) illustrating aspects of natural vegetation and land utilization in some life zones of Central ...


A classification of the biogeographical provinces of the world

Vol. 18 (1975)


[Excerpt: Foreword] This report was prepared for IUCN by Professor Miklos D.F. Udvardy, California State University, Sacramento, California, and it is being submitted to UNESCO as part of IUCN's contribution to the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Programme. This report is one of two submitted to UNESCO as part of UNESCO Contract No. 618.057. It is complementary to the report by Professor G. Carleton Ray, 'A Preliminary Classification of Coastal and Marine Environments', (IUCN 1975, Occasional Paper No. 14). [\n] Many people have contributed material or suggestions which were ...


Explanatory Supplement to Ecoregions Map of the Continents

Environmental Conservation, Vol. 16 (December 1989), pp. 307-309,


This explanatory note is intended to accompany the map included in this issue. The map is on a scale of 1:30,000,000 (1 cm = 300 km) and shows regional-scale ‘ecosystem’ units, or ecoregions, differentiated according to a scheme modified from J.M. Crowley (1967), and using climate and vegetation as indicators of the extent of each unit. The units are similar in concept to ‘ecobiomes’ as proposed by Polunin (1984). The map was developed following a proposal by Bailey & Hogg (1986) ...


Can recent pan-tropical biomass maps be used to derive alternative Tier 1 values for reporting REDD+ activities under UNFCCC?

Environmental Research Letters, Vol. 9 (2014), 124008,


The IPCC Guidelines propose 3 Tier levels for greenhouse gas monitoring within the forest land category with a hierarchical order in terms of accuracy, data requirements and complexity. Due to missing data and/or capacities, many developing countries, potentially interested in the reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation scheme, have to rely on Tier 1 default values with highest uncertainties. A possible way to increase the credibility of uncertain estimates is to apply a conservative approach, for which standard statistical information ...


Conterminous U.S. and Alaska Forest Type Mapping Using Forest Inventory and Analysis Data

Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing (November 2008), pp. 1379-1388,


Classification-trees were used to model forest type groups and forest types for the conterminous United States and Alaska. The predictor data were a geospatial data set with a spatial resolution of 250 m developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service (USFS). The response data were plot data from the USFS Forest Inventory and Analysis program. Overall accuracies for the conterminous U.S. for the forest type group and forest type were 69 percent (Kappa = 0.66) and 50 percent (Kappa ...


Global climate and the distribution of plant biomes

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, Vol. 359, No. 1450. (29 October 2004), pp. 1465-1476,


Biomes are areas of vegetation that are characterized by the same life-form. Traditional definitions of biomes have also included either geographical or climatic descriptors. This approach describes a wide range of biomes that can be correlated with characteristic climatic conditions, or climatic envelopes. The application of remote sensing technology to the frequent observation of biomes has led to a move away from the often subjective definition of biomes to one that is objective. Carefully characterized observations of life-form, by satellite, have been used to reconsider biome ...


Satellite observations of high northern latitude vegetation productivity changes between 1982 and 2008: ecological variability and regional differences

Environmental Research Letters, Vol. 6 (2011), 045501,


To assess ongoing changes in high latitude vegetation productivity we compared spatiotemporal patterns in remotely sensed vegetation productivity in the tundra and boreal zones of North America and Eurasia. We compared the long-term GIMMS (Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies) NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) to the more recent and advanced MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) NDVI data set, and mapped circumpolar trends in a gross productivity metric derived from the former. We then analyzed how temporal changes in productivity differed ...


Vegetation-microclimate feedbacks in woodland-grassland ecotones

Global Ecology and Biogeography, Vol. 22, No. 4. (April 2013), pp. 364-379,


[Aim] Climatic conditions exert a strong control on the geographic distribution of many woodland-to-grassland transition zones (or ‘tree lines’). Because woody plants have, in general, a weaker cold tolerance than herbaceous vegetation, their altitudinal or latitudinal limits are strongly controlled by cold sensitivity. While temperature controls on the dynamics of woodland–grassland ecotones are relatively well established, the ability of woody plants to modify their microclimate and to create habitat for seedling establishment and growth may involve a variety of processes that are ...


How temperature, precipitation and stand age control the biomass carbon density of global mature forests

Global Ecology and Biogeography, Vol. 23, No. 3. (March 2014), pp. 323-333,


[::Aim] To understand: (1) how temperature, precipitation and stand age control the above-ground biomass carbon density (BCDa) of mature forests and its macroecology patterns across latitudes; (2) the age threshold for old-growth forests at a global scale. [::Location] Global forests. [::Methods] We compiled a database (897 sites) of mature forests between 80 and 1200 years old. The site data include latitude, longitude, mean annual temperature, mean annual precipitation, forest type, stand age, BCDa, living biomass (above- and below-ground biomass) carbon density and total (living plus dead) ...


Forest growing stock volume of the northern hemisphere: Spatially explicit estimates for 2010 derived from Envisat ASAR

Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 168 (October 2015), pp. 316-334,


[Highlights] [::] Wall-to-wall estimates of forest growing stock volume (GSV) north of 10°N [::] Spatial distribution of GSV well reproduced in four biomes [::] Percent error of ASAR-derived GSV averages at provincial level: between 12% and 45%. [::] Underestimation for areas with GSV > 300 m3/ha and in fragmented forest landscapes [Abstract] This paper presents and assesses spatially explicit estimates of forest growing stock volume (GSV) of the northern hemisphere (north of 10°N) from hyper-temporal observations of Envisat Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) backscattered intensity using the ...


Application of consensus theory to formalize expert evaluations of plant species distribution models

Applied Vegetation Science, Vol. 17, No. 3. (1 July 2014), pp. 528-542,


[::Aim] Application of environmental envelope modelling (EEM) for conservation planning requires careful validation. Opinions of experts who have worked with species of interest in the field can be a valuable and independent information source to validate EEM because of their first-hand experience with species occurrence and absence. However, their use in model validation is limited because of the subjectivity of their feedback. In this study, we present a method on the basis of cultural consensus theory to formalize expert model evaluations. [::Methods] We ...


Greenhouse gas emissions from managed peat soils: is the IPCC reporting guidance realistic?

Mires and Peat, Vol. 8 (2011), 2


Drainage of peatlands leads to the decomposition of peat, resulting in substantial losses of carbon and nitrogen to the atmosphere. The conservation and restoration of peatlands can provide a major contribution to the mitigation of climate change. Improvements to guidance and capacity for reporting of greenhouse gas emissions from peatlands will be valuable in the context of the current negotiations towards a post-2012 climate agreement. This article evaluates IPCC approaches to greenhouse gas emissions from managed organic (peat) soils and presents ...


Fine-scale ecological and economic assessment of climate change on olive in the Mediterranean Basin reveals winners and losers

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 111, No. 15. (15 April 2014), pp. 5598-5603,


[Significance] Inability to determine reliably the direction and magnitude of change in natural and agro-ecosystems due to climate change poses considerable challenge to their management. Olive is an ancient ubiquitous crop having considerable ecological and socioeconomic importance in the Mediterranean Basin. We assess the ecological and economic impact of projected 1.8 °C climate warming on olive and its obligate pest, the olive fly. This level of climate warming will have varying impact on olive yield and fly infestation levels across the Mediterranean ...

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The structure, distribution, and biomass of the world's forests

Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, Vol. 44, No. 1. (2013), pp. 593-622,


Forests are the dominant terrestrial ecosystem on Earth. We review the environmental factors controlling their structure and global distribution and evaluate their current and future trajectory. Adaptations of trees to climate and resource gradients, coupled with disturbances and forest dynamics, create complex geographical patterns in forest assemblages and structures. These patterns are increasingly discernible through new satellite and airborne observation systems, improved forest inventories, and global ecosystem models. Forest biomass is a complex property affected by forest distribution, structure, and ecological ...


The Survival and Growth Rates of Woody Vegetation in the Man-Made Radějov Biocorridor During the Period of 1993 - 2012

European Countryside, Vol. 6, No. 2. (1 January 2014),


The first biocorridors were established in the territory of the Czech Republic in the 1990s. One of them, planted on a former agricultural land, was the Radějov biocorridor. This paper deals with the growth and development of trees and shrubs on three permanent research plots in 1993 - 2012. Repeated inventories of trees as well as monitoring of their biometrical parameters were carried out in both tree and shrub layers. The number of trees decreases with the increasing level of stand ...


Structural and distributional evaluation of forest ecosystems in Turkey

Journal of Environmental Biology, Vol. 31, No. 1. (2010), pp. 61-70


Turkey has very rich ecosystems and habitats in which various types of vegetation communities and fauna are found. These properties of Turkey depend on its geographical position, different climatic region, mountainous topographical conditions and climatic changes occurred during the Pleistocene. Several field works have been conducted during the period of 1975-2008. The field observations and analyses of data reveal that Turkey's forests can be divided into six main forest ecosystems (Black sea region, Marmara transitional region, Mediterranean region, Mediterranean transitional region, ...


Ecology and classification of forests in Turkey

Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 120 (March 2014), pp. 788-805,


Turkey possesses all types of parent materials or bedrocks like metamorphic, sedimentary and volcanic belonging to different geological era and periods. Some parent materials contain evaporitic sediments with salt, gypsum and high contents of alkaline materials which mostly prevent the growth of climax vegetation. The country has a rugged and high topography, related to tectonic movements, and volcanic activities which mainly occurred in Tertiary and Quaternary eras. The mountains are divided into three groups in terms of formation and ecological importance ...


Modeling potential distribution and carbon dynamics of natural terrestrial ecosystems: a case study of Turkey

Sensors, Vol. 7, No. 10. (11 October 2007), pp. 2273-2296,


We derived a simple model that relates the classification of biogeoclimatezones, (co)existence and fractional coverage of plant functional types (PFTs), and patternsof ecosystem carbon (C) stocks to long-term average values of biogeoclimatic indices in atime- and space-varying fashion from climate–vegetation equilibrium models. ProposedDynamic Ecosystem Classification and Productivity (DECP) model is based on the spatialinterpolation of annual biogeoclimatic variables through multiple linear regression (MLR)models and inverse distance weighting (IDW) and was applied to the entire Turkey of780,595 km2 on a 500 m ...


Modelling soil erosion at European scale: towards harmonization and reproducibility

Natural Hazards and Earth System Science, Vol. 15, No. 2. (4 February 2015), pp. 225-245,


Soil erosion by water is one of the most widespread forms of soil degradation. The loss of soil as a result of erosion can lead to decline in organic matter and nutrient contents, breakdown of soil structure and reduction of the water-holding capacity. Measuring soil loss across the whole landscape is impractical and thus research is needed to improve methods of estimating soil erosion with computational modelling, upon which integrated assessment and mitigation strategies may be based. Despite the efforts, the ...


North American terrestrial vegetation (second edition)



[Excerpt from Introduction] Chapters focus on the major plant formations of North America, but they also include information on many other, more local, vegetation types. The authors have devoted enough attention to each vegetation type discussed to give the reader details on vegetation structure, response to disturbance, community/environment relations, nutrient cycling and productivity, and autecological behavior of dominant species. ...


Applying Geospatial Semantic Array Programming for a reproducible set of bioclimatic indices in Europe

IEEE Earthzine, Vol. 7, No. 2. (2014), 877975,


Bioclimate-driven regression analysis is a widely used approach for modelling ecological niches and zonation. Although the bioclimatic complexity of the European continent is high, a particular combination of 12 climatic and topographic covariates was recently found able to reliably reproduce the ecological zoning of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) for forest resources assessment at pan-European scale, generating the first fuzzy similarity map of FAO ecozones in Europe. The reproducible procedure followed to derive this collection of ...

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Impacts of climate change on European forests and options for adaptation



[Excerpt] This study compiles and summarizes the existing knowledge about observed and projected impacts of climate change on forests in Europe and reviews options for forests and forestry to adapt to climate change. It has been commissioned by the Directorate General for Agriculture and Rural Development of the European Commission as an initial exploration of this complex issue. Forests are particularly sensitive to climate change, because the long life-span of trees does not allow for rapid adaptation to environmental changes. Adaptation ...


Climate change impacts, adaptive capacity, and vulnerability of European forest ecosystems

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 259, No. 4. (16 February 2010), pp. 698-709,


This study compiles and summarizes the existing knowledge about observed and projected impacts of climate change on forests in Europe. Forests will have to adapt not only to changes in mean climate variables but also to increased variability with greater risk of extreme weather events, such as prolonged drought, storms and floods. Sensitivity, potential impacts, adaptive capacity, and vulnerability to climate change are reviewed for European forests. The most important potential impacts of climate change on forest goods and services are ...


Modelling soil erosion at European scale: towards harmonization and reproducibility

Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences Discussions, Vol. 2, No. 4. (11 April 2014), pp. 2639-2680,


Soil erosion by water is one of the most widespread forms of soil degradation. The loss of soil as a result of erosion can lead to decline in organic matter and nutrient contents, breakdown of soil structure and reduction of the water holding capacity. Measuring soil loss across the whole landscape is impractical and thus research is needed to improve methods of estimating soil erosion with computational modelling, upon which integrated assessment and mitigation strategies may be based. Despite the efforts, ...


A climatic stratification of the environment of Europe

Global Ecology and Biogeography, Vol. 14, No. 6. (1 November 2005), pp. 549-563,


Aim  To produce a statistical stratification of the European environment, suitable for stratified random sampling of ecological resources, the selection of sites for representative studies across the continent, and to provide strata for modelling exercises and reporting. Location  A ‘Greater European Window’ with the following boundaries: 11° W, 32° E, 34° N, 72° N. Methods  Twenty of the most relevant available environmental variables were selected, based on experience from previous studies. Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to explain 88% of the variation into three ...


Carbon concentrations and stocks in forest soils of Europe

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 260, No. 3. (30 June 2010), pp. 262-277,


This study presents the results of a series of evaluations of a continent-wide soil database (EU/UN-ECE Level I) with the aim to estimate baseline soil carbon concentrations and stocks. The methodology included the biogeographic stratification of soil carbon measurements throughout Europe using climatic zones derived from the Soil Regions Map of Europe. The presented stock estimates range from 1.3 to 70.8 t C/ha for the O-layer, and from 11.3 to 126.3 t C/ha for the mineral soil 0–20 cm (Germany: 0–30 cm) (5 and 95 percentiles). Histosols ...


(INRMM-MiD internal record) List of keywords of the INRMM meta-information database - part 11

(February 2014)
Keywords: doronicum-hungaricum   doronicum-orientale   dothistroma-pini   dothistroma-septosporum   downscaling   dracaena-draco   dracaena-drago   drinking-water   drought-stress   drought-tolerance   droughts   dry-summers   dry-years   dryas-octopetala   dryocoetus-autographus   dryocopus-martius   dss   dublin-core   duplicated-entry-to-be-removed   durio-zibethinus   dutch-elm   dutch-elm-disease   dynamic-data-driven-application-system   dynamic-downscaling   dynamic-programming   dynamic-vegetation-models   e-obs   e-rusle   early-dissemination   early-medieval   earth-observation   earth-system   earthquakes   east-africa   east-china-see   east-europe   ebola   ecological-change   ecological-corridor   ecological-footprint   ecological-networks   ecological-restoration   ecological-zones   ecology   economic-impacts   economic-value   economics   economy-bias   ecophysiology   ecoprovinces   ecosystem   ecosystem-change   ecosystem-conservation   ecosystem-decline   ecosystem-disservices   ecosystem-functions   ecosystem-heterogeneity   ecosystem-invasibility   ecosystem-management   ecosystem-processes   ecosystem-resilience   ecosystem-services   ecotype   edge-effect   edible-plants   editorial   editorial-policy   education   eemian   efdac   effective-gene-flow   effectiveness   effects   efficienct   effis   eficp   efics   efsa   efsa-scientific-opinion   egypt   el-nino   elaeagnus-angustifolia   elatobium-abietinum   elderberry-wine   electronics   elevation   elisa   ellenberg-climatic-quotient   ellenberg-numbers   elm-phloem-necrosis   elsevier   emergency-events   emergency-management   emergent-engineering   emergent-property   empetrum-nigrum   empirical-equation   emulation   end-of-history-bias   inrmm-list-of-tags  


List of indexed keywords within the transdisciplinary set of domains which relate to the Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management (INRMM). In particular, the list of keywords maps the semantic tags in the INRMM Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD). [\n] The INRMM-MiD records providing this list are accessible by the special tag: inrmm-list-of-tags ( ). ...


Ensemble projections of wildfire activity and carbonaceous aerosol concentrations over the western United States in the mid-21st century

Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 77 (October 2013), pp. 767-780,


We apply ensemble projection for future wildfire using output from 15 GCMs. We develop and evaluate both regressions and a parameterization for fire predictions. We investigate the impacts of climate change on fuel load by the midcentury. We examine fire-induced changes in OC/BC by the midcentury. We estimate future wildfire activity over the western United States during the mid-21st century (2046–2065), based on results from 15 climate models following the A1B scenario. We develop fire prediction models by regressing meteorological variables ...


Terrestrial ecoregions of the world: a new map of life on Earth

BioScience, Vol. 51, No. 11. (01 November 2001), pp. 933-938,[0933:teotwa];2


A new global map of terrestrial ecoregions provides an innovative tool for conserving biodiversity ...


Continental-scale living forest biomass and carbon stock: a robust fuzzy ensemble of IPCC Tier 1 maps for Europe

IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology, Vol. 413 (2013), pp. 271-284,


Forest ecosystems play a key role in the global carbon cycle. Spatially explicit data and assessments of forest biomass and carbon are therefore crucial for designing and implementing effective sustainable forest management options and forest related policies. In this contribution, we present European-wide maps of forest biomass and carbon stock spatially disaggregated at 1km x 1km. The maps originated from a spatialisation improvement of the IPCC methodology for estimating the forest biomass at IPCC Tier 1 level (IPCC-T1). [\n] Using a categorical ...

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Global ecological zones for FAO forest reporting: 2010 update

Vol. 179 (2012)


The Global Forest Resources Assessment (FRA) of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) presents global and regional forest data by global ecological zone (GEZ). The GEZ spatial dataset used by FAO has developed over the years from covering only the tropical areas (1990) to the globe (2000). Due to the developments in remote sensing and the compiling of many spatial products relating to climate and land cover between 2000 and 2010, an update to the GEZ 2000 ...


Global ecological zoning for the Global Forest Resources Assessment 2000 - Final report

Vol. 56 (2001)
edited by Henk Simons


A global ecological zoning (GEZ) map and data base has been developed for the "Global Forest Resources Assessment 2000" (FRA 2000) conducted by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization. The underlying strategy for FRA’s ecological zoning closely reflects both the thematic and technical requirements of the map and the many operational constraints for implementation. Characteristics and components of the FAO EZ classification include the use of the Köppen-Trewartha system (1968), with some modifications, in combination with vegetation characteristics as a ...


A European map of living forest biomass and carbon stock

Reference Report by the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission. EUR - Scientific and Technical Research, Vol. 25730 (2012),


Forest ecosystems have a key role in the global carbon cycle and are considered large and persistent carbon sinks. The CO2 fixed by photosynthesis is one of the most important components of the carbon cycle, and forests play a determinant role in this process. Therefore, spatially explicit data and assessments of forest biomass and carbon is of paramount importance for the design and implementation of effective sustainable forest management options and forest related policies at the European level. The aim of ...

This page of the database may be cited as:
Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management - Meta-information Database.

Publication metadata

Bibtex, RIS, RSS/XML feed, Json, Dublin Core

Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD).
This database integrates a dedicated meta-information database in CiteULike (the CiteULike INRMM Group) with the meta-information available in Google Scholar, CrossRef and DataCite. The Altmetric database with Article-Level Metrics is also harvested. Part of the provided semantic content (machine-readable) is made even human-readable thanks to the DCMI Dublin Core viewer. Digital preservation of the meta-information indexed within the INRMM-MiD publication records is implemented thanks to the Internet Archive.
The library of INRMM related pubblications may be quickly accessed with the following links.
Search within the whole INRMM meta-information database:
Search only within the INRMM-MiD publication records:
Full-text and abstracts of the publications indexed by the INRMM meta-information database are copyrighted by the respective publishers/authors. They are subject to all applicable copyright protection. The conditions of use of each indexed publication is defined by its copyright owner. Please, be aware that the indexed meta-information entirely relies on voluntary work and constitutes a quite incomplete and not homogeneous work-in-progress.
INRMM-MiD was experimentally established by the Maieutike Research Initiative in 2008 and then improved with the help of several volunteers (with a major technical upgrade in 2011). This new integrated interface is operational since 2014.