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Selection: with tag downscaling [22 articles] 


Robust projections of Fire Weather Index in the Mediterranean using statistical downscaling

Climatic Change, Vol. 120, No. 1-2. (2013), pp. 229-247,


The effect of climate change on wildfires constitutes a serious concern in fire-prone regions with complex fire behavior such as the Mediterranean. The coarse resolution of future climate projections produced by General Circulation Models (GCMs) prevents their direct use in local climate change studies. Statistical downscaling techniques bridge this gap using empirical models that link the synoptic-scale variables from GCMs to the local variables of interest (using e.g. data from meteorological stations). In this paper, we investigate the application of statistical ...


Downscaling future climate scenarios to fine scales for hydrologic and ecological modeling and analysis

Ecological Processes In Ecological Processes, Vol. 1, No. 1. (2012), pp. 2-15,


[Introduction] Evaluating the environmental impacts of climate change on water resources and biological components of the landscape is an integral part of hydrologic and ecological investigations, and the resultant land and resource management in the twenty-first century. Impacts of both climate and simulated hydrologic parameters on ecological processes are relevant at scales that reflect the heterogeneity and complexity of landscapes. At present, simulations of climate change available from global climate models [GCMs] require downscaling for hydrologic or ecological applications. [Methods] Using statistically ...


Regional climate hindcast simulations within EURO-CORDEX: evaluation of a WRF multi-physics ensemble

Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 8, No. 3. (16 March 2015), pp. 603-618,


In the current work we present six hindcast WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting model) simulations for the EURO-CORDEX (European Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment) domain with different configurations in microphysics, convection and radiation for the time period 1990–2008. All regional model simulations are forced by the ERA-Interim reanalysis and have the same spatial resolution (0.44°). These simulations are evaluated for surface temperature, precipitation, short- and longwave downward radiation at the surface and total cloud cover. The analysis of the WRF ensemble ...


Regional climate modeling on European scales: a joint standard evaluation of the EURO-CORDEX RCM ensemble

Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 7, No. 4. (10 July 2014), pp. 1297-1333,


EURO-CORDEX is an international climate downscaling initiative that aims to provide high-resolution climate scenarios for Europe. Here an evaluation of the ERA-Interim-driven EURO-CORDEX regional climate model (RCM) ensemble is presented. The study documents the performance of the individual models in representing the basic spatiotemporal patterns of the European climate for the period 1989–2008. Model evaluation focuses on near-surface air temperature and precipitation, and uses the E-OBS data set as observational reference. The ensemble consists of 17 simulations carried out by seven ...


The simulation of European heat waves from an ensemble of regional climate models within the EURO-CORDEX project

Climate Dynamics, Vol. 41, No. 9-10. (2013), pp. 2555-2575,

EURO-CORDEX: new high-resolution climate change projections for European impact research

Regional Environmental Change, Vol. 14, No. 2. (2014), pp. 563-578,


A new high-resolution regional climate change ensemble has been established for Europe within the World Climate Research Program Coordinated Regional Downscaling Experiment (EURO-CORDEX) initiative. The first set of simulations with a horizontal resolution of 12.5 km was completed for the new emission scenarios RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 with more simulations expected to follow. The aim of this paper is to present this data set to the different communities active in regional climate modelling, impact assessment and adaptation. The EURO-CORDEX ensemble results have been ...


Downscaling European species atlas distributions to a finer resolution: implications for conservation planning

Global Ecology and Biogeography, Vol. 14, No. 1. (1 January 2005), pp. 17-30,


[Aim] One of the limitations to using species’ distribution atlases in conservation planning is their coarse resolution relative to the needs of local planners. In this study, a simple approach to downscale original species atlas distributions to a finer resolution is outlined. If such a procedure yielded accurate downscaled predictions, then it could be an aid to using available distribution atlases in real-world local conservation decisions. [Location]  Europe. [Methods]  An iterative procedure based on generalized additive modelling is used to downscale original ...


Impacts of uncertainties in European gridded precipitation observations on regional climate analysis

Int. J. Climatol., Vol. 37, No. 1. (1 March 2017), pp. 305-327,


Gridded precipitation data sets are frequently used to evaluate climate models or to remove model output biases. Although precipitation data are error prone due to the high spatio-temporal variability of precipitation and due to considerable measurement errors, relatively few attempts have been made to account for observational uncertainty in model evaluation or in bias correction studies. In this study, we compare three types of European daily data sets featuring two Pan-European data sets and a set that combines eight very high-resolution ...


The role of regional climate projections in managing complex socio-ecological systems

Regional Environmental Change, Vol. 15, No. 1. (2015), pp. 1-12,


Climate is one of many factors to be considered in adapting systems to environmental and societal change and often it is not the most important factor. Moreover, given considerable model inadequacies, irreducible uncertainties, and poor accessibility to model output, we may legitimately ask whether or not regional climate projections ought to have a central role in guiding climate change adaptation decisions. This question is addressed by analysing the value of regional downscaled climate model output in the management of complex socio-ecological ...

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An appraisal of downscaling methods used in climate change research

WIREs Clim Change, Vol. 6, No. 3. (1 March 2015), pp. 301-319,


The term ‘downscaling’ refers to the process of translating information from global climate model simulations to a finer spatial resolution. There are numerous methods by which this translation of information can occur. For users of downscaled information, it is important to have some understanding of the properties of different methods (in terms of their capabilities and limitations to convey the change signal, as simulated by the global model), as these dictate the type of applications that the downscaled information can be ...


Guidelines for use of climate scenarios developed from statistical downscaling methods



[Excerpt: introduction] The climate change information required for many impact studies is of a spatial scale much finer than that provided by global or regional climate models. The ensuing problems for impact assessment have been recognised for a long time (Kim et al., 1984; Gates, 1985; Robinson and Finkelstein, 1989; Lamb, 1987; Smith and Tirpak, 1989; Cohen, 1990). Global climate models (GCMs) have resolutions of hundreds of kilometres whilst regional climate models (RCMs) may be as fine as tens of kilometres. However, many impact applications require ...


Downscaling global circulation model outputs: the delta method

No. Decision and Policy Analysis Working Paper N. 1. (2010)


There has been significant scientific discord over what the best resolution for forecasting the impacts of climate change on agriculture and biodiversity is. Several researchers (particularly climatic researchers) state that original GCM (General Circulation Model) resolution should be kept in order to manage, understand and not bias or alter uncertainties produced by GCMs themselves; however, a coarse resolution of 100 or 200km (or even more) is simply not practical for assessing agricultural landscapes, particularly in the tropics, where orographic and climatic ...


Linking climate change modelling to impacts studies: recent advances in downscaling techniques for hydrological modelling

International Journal of Climatology, Vol. 27, No. 12. (October 2007), pp. 1547-1578,


There is now a large published literature on the strengths and weaknesses of downscaling methods for different climatic variables, in different regions and seasons. However, little attention is given to the choice of downscaling method when examining the impacts of climate change on hydrological systems. This review paper assesses the current downscaling literature, examining new developments in the downscaling field specifically for hydrological impacts. Sections focus on the downscaling concept; new methods; comparative methodological studies; the modelling of extremes; and the ...


Stochastic downscaling of numerical climate model simulations

Environmental Modelling & Software, Vol. 13, No. 3-4. (October 1998), pp. 325-331,


Interest in stochastic downscaling has grown from the inability of general circulation models (GCMs) and limited area models (LAMs) to reproduce observed daily precipitation statistics at local and regional scales under present climate conditons. Although GCMs and LAMs perform reasonably well in simulating synoptic atmospheric fields, they tend to over-estimate the frequency and under-estimate the intensity of daily precipitation. This paper describes the application of a nonhomogeneous hidden Markov model (NHMM) fitted to observed atmospheric and precipitation data to a LAM ...


Evaluating the utility of dynamical downscaling in agricultural impacts projections

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 111, No. 24. (17 June 2014), pp. 8776-8781,


Interest in estimating the potential socioeconomic costs of climate change has led to the increasing use of dynamical downscaling—nested modeling in which regional climate models (RCMs) are driven with general circulation model (GCM) output—to produce fine-spatial-scale climate projections for impacts assessments. We evaluate here whether this computationally intensive approach significantly alters projections of agricultural yield, one of the greatest concerns under climate change. Our results suggest that it does not. We simulate US maize yields under current and future CO2 concentrations ...


Reply to Harwood et al.: Thermophilization estimation is robust to the scale of species distribution data

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 111, No. 13. (01 April 2014), pp. E1166-E1166,


We recently assessed plant community responses to macroclimate warming across European and North American temperate forests (1). To do so, we inferred the temperature preferences of understory species from distribution data by means of ecological niche, or species distribution models (SDMs). Harwood et al. (2) propose that subcanopy temperatures, instead of gridded climate data, should have been used in our analyses. Despite exciting ongoing advances in the downscaling of microclimates from macroclimatic data, Harwood et al.’s suggestion is, at present, simply ...


(INRMM-MiD internal record) List of keywords of the INRMM meta-information database - part 11

(February 2014)
Keywords: doronicum-hungaricum   doronicum-orientale   dothistroma-pini   dothistroma-septosporum   downscaling   dracaena-draco   dracaena-drago   drinking-water   drought-stress   drought-tolerance   droughts   dry-summers   dry-years   dryas-octopetala   dryocoetus-autographus   dryocopus-martius   dss   dublin-core   duplicated-entry-to-be-removed   durio-zibethinus   dutch-elm   dutch-elm-disease   dynamic-data-driven-application-system   dynamic-downscaling   dynamic-programming   dynamic-vegetation-models   e-obs   e-rusle   early-dissemination   early-medieval   earth-observation   earth-system   earthquakes   east-africa   east-china-see   east-europe   ebola   ecological-change   ecological-corridor   ecological-footprint   ecological-networks   ecological-restoration   ecological-zones   ecology   economic-impacts   economic-value   economics   economy-bias   ecophysiology   ecoprovinces   ecosystem   ecosystem-change   ecosystem-conservation   ecosystem-decline   ecosystem-disservices   ecosystem-functions   ecosystem-heterogeneity   ecosystem-invasibility   ecosystem-management   ecosystem-processes   ecosystem-resilience   ecosystem-services   ecotype   edge-effect   edible-plants   editorial   editorial-policy   education   eemian   efdac   effective-gene-flow   effectiveness   effects   efficienct   effis   eficp   efics   efsa   efsa-scientific-opinion   egypt   el-nino   elaeagnus-angustifolia   elatobium-abietinum   elderberry-wine   electronics   elevation   elisa   ellenberg-climatic-quotient   ellenberg-numbers   elm-phloem-necrosis   elsevier   emergency-events   emergency-management   emergent-engineering   emergent-property   empetrum-nigrum   empirical-equation   emulation   end-of-history-bias   inrmm-list-of-tags  


List of indexed keywords within the transdisciplinary set of domains which relate to the Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management (INRMM). In particular, the list of keywords maps the semantic tags in the INRMM Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD). [\n] The INRMM-MiD records providing this list are accessible by the special tag: inrmm-list-of-tags ( ). ...


A global forest growing stock, biomass and carbon map based on FAO statistics

Silva Fennica, Vol. 42, No. 3. (2008), pp. 387-396


Currently, information on forest biomass is available from a mixture of sources, including in-situ measurements, national forest inventories, administrative-level statistics, model outputs and regional satellite products. These data tend to be regional or national, based on different methodologies and not easily accessible. One of the few maps available is the Global Forest Resources Assessment (FRA) produced by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO 2005) which contains aggregated country-level information about the growing stock, biomass and carbon stock ...


A comparison of statistical and dynamical downscaling of winter precipitation over complex terrain

J. Climate In Journal of Climate, Vol. 25, No. 1. (19 July 2011), pp. 262-281,


Abstract Statistical downscaling is widely used to improve spatial and/or temporal distributions of meteorological variables from regional and global climate models. This downscaling is important because climate models are spatially coarse (50?200 km) and often misrepresent extremes in important meteorological variables, such as temperature and precipitation. However, these downscaling methods rely on current estimates of the spatial distributions of these variables and largely assume that the small-scale spatial distribution will not change significantly in a modified climate. In this study the ...


Downscaling of global climate models for flood frequency analysis: where are we now?

Hydrol. Process., Vol. 16, No. 6. (2002), pp. 1137-1150,


The issues of downscaling the results from global climate models (GCMs) to a scale relevant for hydrological impact studies are examined. GCM outputs, typically at a spatial resolution of around 3° latitude and 4° longitude, are currently not considered reliable at time scales shorter than 1 month. Continuous rainfall-runoff modelling for flood regime assessment requires input at the daily or even hourly time-step. A review of the different methodologies suggested in the literature to downscale GCM results at smaller spatial and ...


Globally downscaled climate projections for assessing the conservation impacts of climate change

Ecological Applications, Vol. 20, No. 2. (March 2010), pp. 554-565,


ssessing the potential impacts of 21st-century climate change on species distributions and ecological processes requires climate scenarios with sufficient spatial resolution to represent the varying effects of climate change across heterogeneous physical, biological, and cultural landscapes. Unfortunately, the native resolutions of global climate models (usually approximately 2° × 2° or coarser) are inadequate for modeling future changes in, e.g., biodiversity, species distributions, crop yields, and water resources. Also, 21st-century climate projections must be debiased prior to use, i.e., corrected for systematic ...


Spatial scale affects bioclimate model projections of climate change impacts on mountain plants

Global Change Biology, Vol. 14, No. 5. (1 May 2008), pp. 1089-1103,


Plant species have responded to recent increases in global temperatures by shifting their geographical ranges poleward and to higher altitudes. Bioclimate models project future range contractions of montane species as suitable climate space shifts uphill. The species–climate relationships underlying such models are calibrated using data at either ‘macro’ scales (coarse resolution, e.g. 50 km × 50 km, and large spatial extent) or ‘local’ scales (fine resolution, e.g. 50 m × 50 m, and small spatial extent), but the two approaches have not been compared. This ...

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Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management - Meta-information Database.

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Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD).
This database integrates a dedicated meta-information database in CiteULike (the CiteULike INRMM Group) with the meta-information available in Google Scholar, CrossRef and DataCite. The Altmetric database with Article-Level Metrics is also harvested. Part of the provided semantic content (machine-readable) is made even human-readable thanks to the DCMI Dublin Core viewer. Digital preservation of the meta-information indexed within the INRMM-MiD publication records is implemented thanks to the Internet Archive.
The library of INRMM related pubblications may be quickly accessed with the following links.
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Full-text and abstracts of the publications indexed by the INRMM meta-information database are copyrighted by the respective publishers/authors. They are subject to all applicable copyright protection. The conditions of use of each indexed publication is defined by its copyright owner. Please, be aware that the indexed meta-information entirely relies on voluntary work and constitutes a quite incomplete and not homogeneous work-in-progress.
INRMM-MiD was experimentally established by the Maieutike Research Initiative in 2008 and then improved with the help of several volunteers (with a major technical upgrade in 2011). This new integrated interface is operational since 2014.