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Selection: with tag diversity [56 articles] 


Tree diversity reduces pest damage in mature forests across Europe

Biology Letters, Vol. 12, No. 4. (27 April 2016), 20151037,


Forest pest damage is expected to increase with global change. Tree diversity could mitigate this impact, but unambiguous demonstration of the diversity–resistance relationship is lacking in semi-natural mature forests. We used a network of 208 forest plots sampled along two orthogonal gradients of increasing tree species richness and latitudes to assess total tree defoliation in Europe. We found a positive relationship between tree species richness and resistance to insect herbivores: overall damage to broadleaved species significantly decreased with the number of ...


Beyond pairwise mechanisms of species coexistence in complex communities

Nature, Vol. 546, No. 7656. (31 May 2017), pp. 56-64,


The tremendous diversity of species in ecological communities has motivated a century of research into the mechanisms that maintain biodiversity. However, much of this work examines the coexistence of just pairs of competitors. This approach ignores those mechanisms of coexistence that emerge only in diverse competitive networks. Despite the potential for these mechanisms to create conditions under which the loss of one competitor triggers the loss of others, we lack the knowledge needed to judge their importance for coexistence in nature. ...


Scale-dependent complementarity of climatic velocity and environmental diversity for identifying priority areas for conservation under climate change

Global Change Biology (March 2017),


As most regions of the earth transition to altered climatic conditions, new methods are needed to identify refugia and other areas whose conservation would facilitate persistence of biodiversity under climate change. We compared several common approaches to conservation planning focused on climate resilience over a broad range of ecological settings across North America and evaluated how commonalities in the priority areas identified by different methods varied with regional context and spatial scale. Our results indicate that priority areas based on different ...


System of Systems - the meaning of of

System of Systems Engineering In 2006 IEEE/SMC International Conference on System of Systems Engineering, Vol. 0 (10 July 2006), pp. 118-123,


We present distinguishing characteristics (i.e. autonomy, belonging, connectivity, diversity, and emergence), that can help us to recognize or to realize a System of Systems (SoS). The principle differentiation that we make between a thing being either a 'system' or a SoS focuses on the nature of a system's composition. We will distinctly define this set of distinguishing characteristics which will include a set of cross references from our literature research where we believe others are articulating our chosen differentiating characteristics. We ...


Hybrid incompatibility caused by an epiallele

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 114, No. 14. (04 April 2017), pp. 3702-3707,


[Significance] Deleterious mutations in different copies of a duplicated gene pair have the potential to cause hybrid incompatibility between diverging subpopulations, contributing to reproductive isolation and speciation. This study demonstrates a case of epigenetic gene silencing rather than pseudogene creation by mutation, contributing to a lethal gene combination on hybridization of two ecotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana. Our findings provide direct evidence that naturally occurring epigenetic variation can contribute to incompatible hybrid genotypes, reducing gene flow between subtypes of the same species. [Abstract] Hybrid incompatibility ...


Multitrait successional forest dynamics enable diverse competitive coexistence

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 114, No. 13. (28 March 2017), pp. E2719-E2728,


[Significance] Walking through any forest, one is struck by the variety of plant forms coexisting. Given that all plants compete for the same basic resources, why is there not a single winner? Our study shows that when key ingredients common to all forests are accounted for—including disturbance events, competition for light, and two widely observed trait-based tradeoffs—models of niche differentiation predict forests of considerably greater diversity than was previously thought possible. In particular, our model accurately predicts the proliferation of species occupying ...


Robust modelling of the impacts of climate change on the habitat suitability of forest tree species

Keywords: abies-alba   array-of-factors   artificial-neural-networks   bioclimatic-predictors   change-factor   climate-change   data-uncertainty   diversity   environmental-modelling   europe   extrapolation-uncertainty   featured-publication   forest-resources   free-scientific-knowledge   free-scientific-software   free-software   fuzzy   gdal   genetic-diversity   geospatial   geospatial-semantic-array-programming   gnu-bash   gnu-linux   gnu-octave   habitat-suitability   integration-techniques   mastrave-modelling-library   maximum-habitat-suitability   modelling-uncertainty   multiplicity   peseta-series   python   regional-climate-models   relative-distance-similarity   robust-modelling   semantic-array-programming   semantic-constraints   semantics   spatial-disaggregation   sres-a1b   supervised-training   unsupervised-training  


[::] In Europe, forests play a strategic multifunctional role, serving economic, social and environmental purposes. However, their complex interaction with climate change is not yet well understood. [::] The JRC PESETA project series proposes a consistent multi-sectoral assessment of the impacts of climate change in Europe. [::] Within the PESETA II project, a robust methodology is introduced for modelling the habitat suitability of forest tree species (2071-2100 time horizon). [::] Abies alba (the silver fir) is selected as case study: a main European tree ...


  1. European Commission, 2013. Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions - A new EU forest strategy: for forests and the forest based sector. No. COM(2013) 659 final. Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament. , INRMM-MiD:12642065 .
  2. European Commission, 2013. Commission staff working document accompanying the document: Communication from the commission to

Individuals and the variation needed for high species diversity in forest trees

Science, Vol. 327, No. 5969. (25 February 2010), pp. 1129-1132,


In the past, explanations for high species diversity have been sought at the species level. Theory shows that coexistence requires substantial differences between species, but species-level data rarely provide evidence for such differences. Using data from forests in the southeastern United States, I show here that variation evident at the individual level provides for coexistence of large numbers of competitors. Variation among individuals within populations allows species to differ in their distributions of responses to the environment, despite the fact that ...


Resolving the biodiversity paradox

Ecology Letters, Vol. 10, No. 8. (August 2007), pp. 647-659,


The paradox of biodiversity involves three elements, (i) mathematical models predict that species must differ in specific ways in order to coexist as stable ecological communities, (ii) such differences are difficult to identify, yet (iii) there is widespread evidence of stability in natural communities. Debate has centred on two views. The first explanation involves tradeoffs along a small number of axes, including ‘colonization-competition’, resource competition (light, water, nitrogen for plants, including the ‘successional niche’), and life history (e.g. high-light growth vs. ...


Multispecies coalescent delimits structure, not species

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 114, No. 7. (14 February 2017), pp. 1607-1612,


[Significance] Despite its widespread application to the species delimitation problem, our study demonstrates that what the multispecies coalescent actually delimits is structure. The current implementations of species delimitation under the multispecies coalescent do not provide any way for distinguishing between structure due to population-level processes and that due to species boundaries. The overinflation of species due to the misidentification of general genetic structure for species boundaries has profound implications for our understanding of the generation and dynamics of biodiversity, because any ecological ...


Viewing forests through the lens of complex systems science

Ecosphere, Vol. 5, No. 1. (January 2014), art1,


Complex systems science provides a transdisciplinary framework to study systems characterized by (1) heterogeneity, (2) hierarchy, (3) self-organization, (4) openness, (5) adaptation, (6) memory, (7) non-linearity, and (8) uncertainty. Complex systems thinking has inspired both theory and applied strategies for improving ecosystem resilience and adaptability, but applications in forest ecology and management are just beginning to emerge. We review the properties of complex systems using four well-studied forest biomes (temperate, boreal, tropical and Mediterranean) as examples. The lens of complex systems ...


Keep it complex

Nature, Vol. 468, No. 7327. (23 December 2010), pp. 1029-1031,


When knowledge is uncertain, experts should avoid pressures to simplify their advice. Render decision-makers accountable for decisions, says Andy Stirling. ...


Partial connectivity increases cultural accumulation within groups

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, No. 11. (15 March 2016), pp. 2982-2987,


[Significance] The remarkable ecological success of the human species has been attributed to our capacity to overcome environmental challenges through the development of complex technologies. Complex technologies are typically beyond the inventive capacities of individuals and result from a population process by which innovations are gradually added to existing cultural traits across many generations. Recent work suggests that a population’s ability to develop technologies is positively affected by its size and connectedness. Here, we present an experiment demonstrating that partially connected groups ...


Evolution: why some groups have more species

Nature, Vol. 537, No. 7620. (14 September 2016), pp. 282-282,


[Excerpt] [...] Across the tree of life, some groups have many more species than others. To find out why, Joshua Scholl and John Wiens at the University of Arizona in Tucson collated published data on the number of species and their phylogenetic relationships in each group of living organisms. Contrary to some hypotheses, older groups did not have more species than young groups. Instead, the authors found that the balance of speciation and extinction over time, known as the diversification rate, determined ...


Diversification rates and species richness across the Tree of Life

Proceedings of the Royal Society B, Vol. 283, No. 1838. (14 September 2016), 20161334,


Species richness varies dramatically among clades across the Tree of Life, by over a million-fold in some cases (e.g. placozoans versus arthropods). Two major explanations for differences in richness among clades are the clade-age hypothesis (i.e. species-rich clades are older) and the diversification-rate hypothesis (i.e. species-rich clades diversify more rapidly, where diversification rate is the net balance of speciation and extinction over time). Here, we examine patterns of variation in diversification rates across the Tree of Life. We address how rates ...


The precision problem in conservation and restoration

Trends in Ecology & Evolution (2016),


Within the varied contexts of environmental policy, conservation of imperilled species populations, and restoration of damaged habitats, an emphasis on idealized optimal conditions has led to increasingly specific targets for management. Overly-precise conservation targets can reduce habitat variability at multiple scales, with unintended consequences for future ecological resilience. We describe this dilemma in the context of endangered species management, stream restoration, and climate-change adaptation. Inappropriate application of conservation targets can be expensive, with marginal conservation benefit. Reduced habitat variability can limit ...


Progress in wilderness fire science: embracing complexity

Journal of Forestry (May 2016), pp. 373-383,


Wilderness has played an invaluable role in the development of wildland fire science. Since Agee's review of the subject 15 years ago, tremendous progress has been made in the development of models and data, in understanding the complexity of wildland fire as a landscape process, and in appreciating the social factors that influence the use of wilderness fire. Regardless of all we have learned, though, the reality is that fire remains an extraordinarily complex process with variable effects that create essential ...


The bio-economy concept and knowledge base in a public goods and farmer perspective

Bio-based and Applied Economics, Vol. 1, No. 1. (2012), pp. 47-63


Currently an industrial perspective dominates the EU policy framework for a European bio-economy. The Commission’s proposal on the bio-economy emphasises greater resource-efficiency, largely within an industrial perspective on global economic competitiveness, benefiting capital-intensive industries at higher levels of the value chain. However a responsible bio-economy must initially address the sustainable use of resources. Many farmers are not only commodity producers but also providers of quality food and managers of the eco-system. A public goods-oriented bio-economy emphasises agro-ecological methods, organic and low ...


The effect of species geographical distribution estimation methods on richness and phylogenetic diversity estimates

International Journal of Geographical Information Science, Vol. 26, No. 11. (1 November 2012), pp. 2097-2109,


Diversity assessments are widely used in various fields of knowledge and rely on good estimates of species distribution. There are several methods available to estimate species distribution and the effect of using them is not clearly understood. In this research, we assess the effect of species distributions derived from four geographical distribution estimation methods on derived species richness and phylogenetic diversity (PD). We used the following four most common approaches to determine species geographical distributions: (1) range-wide occurrences are records of ...


Anthropogenic disturbance and tree diversity in Montane Rain Forests in Chiapas, Mexico

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 154, No. 1-2. (15 November 2001), pp. 311-326,


We studied the influence of anthropogenic disturbance on forest structure and composition in the highly populated Montane Rain Forests of northern Chiapas, Mexico. We evaluated species richness, basal area and stem density on 81 circular plots (0.1 ha each) along a categorical disturbance gradient due to forest extraction, livestock grazing, and fires. A total of 116 tree species (>5 cm DBH) were recorded in three major forest types recognized by TWINSPAN. The three forest types were: Quercus–Podocarpus Forest (QPF), Pinus–Quercus–Liquidambar Forest (PQLF), and ...


Tree neighbourhood matters - Tree species composition drives diversity-productivity patterns in a near-natural beech forest

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 335 (January 2015), pp. 225-234,


[Highlights] [::] We test tree diversity–productivity relationships in a temperate beech forest. [::] Beech and hornbeam trees grew faster in more diverse neighbourhoods. [::] Complementarity effects were driven by differences in species’ competitive strengths. [::] Small scale admixture with patches of different species promotes tree growth. [Abstract] European beech forest with a variable admixture is one of the most important forest types in Central Europe. Growing evidence has demonstrated the positive effect of increased biodiversity on vital forest ecosystem functions and services such as productivity and nutrient ...


Understorey plant species richness and composition in metropolitan forest archipelagos: effects of forest size, adjacent land use and distance to the edge

Global Ecology and Biogeography, Vol. 15, No. 1. (January 2006), pp. 50-62,


[Aim] To address the relative role of adjacent land use, distance to forest edge, forest size and their interactions on understorey plant species richness and composition in perimetropolitan forests. [Location] The metropolitan area of Barcelona, north-eastern Spain. [Methods]  Twenty sampling sites were distributed in two forest size-categories: small forest patches (8–90 ha) and large forest areas (> 18,000 ha). For each forest-size category, five sites were placed adjacent to crops and five sites adjacent to urban areas. Vascular plant species were recorded and human ...


How does forest landscape structure explain tree species richness in a Mediterranean context?

Biodiversity and Conservation In Biodiversity and Conservation, Vol. 17, No. 5. (1 May 2008), pp. 1227-1240,


Although the strong relationship between vegetation and climatic factors is widely accepted, other landscape composition and configuration characteristics could be significantly related with vegetation diversity patterns at different scales. Variation partitioning was conducted in order to analyse to what degree forest landscape structure, compared to other spatial and environmental factors, explained forest tree species richness in 278 UTM 10 × 10 km cells in the Mediterranean region of Catalonia (NE Spain). Tree species richness variation was decomposed through linear regression into three groups of ...


Spatial and temporal heterogeneity of species diversity in a Mediterranean ecosystem following fire

International Journal of Wildland Fire, Vol. 7, No. 4. (1997), 307,


This study examines species richness, species diversity (H'-Shannon-Weiner Index) and species dominance (C- Simpson-Index) in a Mediterranean ecosystem as a function of time elapsed since fire and the extent to which micro-climate regulates these indexes after wildfire occurrence. The study was conducted in an eastern Mediterranean ecosystem (Israel) over three consecutive years. About 400 ha of a mixed oak - pine forest burned in the summer of 1983 and part of it also suffered from a repeat fire in the summer ...


Vegetation cover and species richness after recurrent forest fires in the Eastern Mediterranean ecosystem of Mount Carmel, Israel

Science of The Total Environment (February 2016),


[Highlights] [::] Vegetation cover changes after recurrent fires, and serve as a good indicator of fire influence. [::] In most fire-damaged areas dominant cover was composed from shrubs and dwarf-shrubs. [::] Tree cover was severely damaged after recurrent fires, and showed drastic decrease. [::] Species richness increased mainly in the first decade after the recurrent fires, and decreased when the forest canopy began to close. [::] Fire recurrence with short intervals (4–6 years) may lower the rehabilitated processes of the ecosystem and change its equilibrium. [Abstract] Fire is ...


Landslide-facilitated species diversity in a beech-dominant forest

Ecological Research In Ecological Research, Vol. 28, No. 1. (4 November 2013), pp. 29-41,


To evaluate the extent to which landslides affect community dynamics and consequent species diversity in a beech-dominated forest, differences in the composition and size structure of tree species were compared between landslide and adjacent stable (control) stands. Demography and changes in size were compared between the two stands over a 5-year period about 60 years after a landslide. In the control stand, replacement occurred even amongst late-successional species, with beech ( Fagus crenata )—the most dominant species—increasing in relative abundance. In ...


A meta-analysis of the effect of forest management for timber on understory plant species diversity in temperate forests

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 303 (September 2013), pp. 81-90,


[Highlights] [::] We synthesized data from 100 studies to examine understory response to forest harvesting. [::] Across all studies there was no significant effect from timber harvesting on understory richness. [::] Selection harvesting had a positive effect on understory species richness. [::] Even-aged silvicultural treatments showed effects after 50 years or more, while early successional stages did not. [::] Thinning treatments had no effect on understory richness. [Abstract] Many studies have examined affects of forest management—particularly regeneration treatments—for timber on understory plant diversity. These studies taken independently show ...


Strong paleoclimatic legacies in current plant functional diversity patterns across Europe

Ecology and Evolution, Vol. 6, No. 10. (1 May 2016), pp. 3405-3416,


Numerous studies indicate that environmental changes during the late Quaternary have elicited long-term disequilibria between species diversity and environment. Despite its importance for ecosystem functioning, the importance of historical environmental conditions as determinants of FD (functional diversity) remains largely unstudied. We quantified the geographic distributions of plant FD (richness and dispersion) across Europe using distribution and functional trait information for 2702 plant species. We then compared the importance of historical and contemporary factors to determine the relevance of past conditions as ...


Root exudates drive interspecific facilitation by enhancing nodulation and N2 fixation

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, No. 23. (07 June 2016), pp. 6496-6501,


[Significance] Plant diversity often leads to an increase in ecosystem productivity, but the underpinning mechanisms remain poorly understood. We found that faba bean/maize intercropping enhances productivity, nodulation, and N2 fixation of faba bean through interspecific root interactions. We provide a mechanism explaining how maize promotes N2 fixation of faba bean, where root exudates from maize increase root hair deformation and nodulation in faba bean, double exudation of flavonoids (signaling compounds for rhizobia), and up-regulate the expression of a chalcone–flavanone isomerase gene involved ...


Climate modulates the effects of tree diversity on forest productivity

Journal of Ecology (1 December 2015), pp. n/a-n/a,


[Summary] [::] Despite growing evidence that, on average, diverse forests tend to be more productive than species-poor ones, individual studies often report strongly contrasting relationships between tree species richness and above-ground wood production (AWP). In the attempt to reconcile these apparently inconsistent results, we explored whether the strength and shape of AWP–diversity relationships shifts along spatial and temporal environmental gradients in forests across Europe. [::] We used tree ring data from a network of permanent forest plots distributed at six sites across Europe ...


Temporal stability in forest productivity increases with tree diversity due to asynchrony in species dynamics

Ecology Letters, Vol. 17, No. 12. (1 December 2014), pp. 1526-1535,


Theory predicts a positive relationship between biodiversity and stability in ecosystem properties, while diversity is expected to have a negative impact on stability at the species level. We used virtual experiments based on a dynamic simulation model to test for the diversity–stability relationship and its underlying mechanisms in Central European forests. First our results show that variability in productivity between stands differing in species composition decreases as species richness and functional diversity increase. Second we show temporal stability increases with increasing ...


Stabilizing effects of diversity on aboveground wood production in forest ecosystems: linking patterns and processes

Ecology Letters, Vol. 17, No. 12. (1 December 2014), pp. 1560-1569,


Both theory and evidence suggest that diversity stabilises productivity in herbaceous plant communities through a combination of overyielding, species asynchrony and favourable species interactions. However, whether these same processes also promote stability in forest ecosystems has never been tested. Using tree ring data from permanent forest plots across Europe, we show that aboveground wood production is inherently more stable through time in mixed-species forests. Faster rates of wood production (i.e. overyielding), decreased year-to-year variation in productivity through asynchronous responses of species ...


The global spectrum of plant form and function

Nature, Vol. 529, No. 7585. (23 December 2015), pp. 167-171,


[Headlines] The authors found that the key elements of plant form and function, analysed at global scale, are largely concentrated into a two-dimensional plane indexed by the size of whole plants and organs on the one hand, and the construction costs for photosynthetic leaf area, on the other. [Abstract] Earth is home to a remarkable diversity of plant forms and life histories, yet comparatively few essential trait combinations have proved evolutionarily viable in today’s terrestrial biosphere. By analysing worldwide variation in six major traits ...


Toward a trophic theory of species diversity

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 112, No. 37. (15 September 2015), pp. 11415-11422,
Keywords: biodiversity   diversity   ecology   evolution  


Efforts to understand the ecological regulation of species diversity via bottom-up approaches have failed to yield a consensus theory. Theories based on the alternative of top-down regulation have fared better. Paine’s discovery of keystone predation demonstrated that the regulation of diversity via top-down forcing could be simple, strong, and direct, yet ecologists have persistently failed to perceive generality in Paine’s result. Removing top predators destabilizes many systems and drives transitions to radically distinct alternative states. These transitions typically involve community reorganization ...


Tree diversity reduces herbivory by forest insects

Ecology Letters, Vol. 10, No. 9. (1 September 2007), pp. 835-848,
Keywords: abies-balsamea   acalitus-rudis   albizia-guachapele   alsophila-pometaria   amblypelta-cocophaga   atta-cephalotes   betula-pendula   biodiversity   callophylum-brasiliense   cardiaspina-fiscella   cecidomyiidae   choristoneura-fumiferana   choristoneura-spp   chrysoptharta-bimaculata   corylus-avellana   curculio-elephas   dendroctonus-frontalis   dipteryx-panamensis   diversity   euclystis-spp   forest-pests   forest-resources   genipa-americana   hylobius-abietis   hypsipyla-robusta   lepidoptera   lymantria-dispar   matsucoccus-feytaudi   milicia-excelsa   myzocallis-coryli   neuroterus-spp   phyllobius-argentatus   phyllonorycter-spp   phytolyma-lata   picea-abies   picea-glauca   picea-sitchensis   pinus-densiflora   pinus-nigra-laricio   pinus-pinaster   pinus-strobus   pinus-sylvestris   pinus-taeda   pissodes-strobi   plant-pests   populus-angustifolia   pseudotsuga-menziesii   quercus-petraea   quercus-rotundifolia   quercus-suber   rhyacionia-frustrana   sonneratia-apetala   stigmella-spp   stryphnodendron-microstachyum   thaumetopoea-pytiocampa   thecodiplosis-japonensis   toona-ciliata   virola-koschnyi   vochysia-ferruginea   vochysia-guatemalensis   zeuzera-conferta  


Biodiversity loss from plant communities is often acknowledged to affect primary production but little is known about effects on herbivores. We conducted a meta-analysis of a worldwide data set of 119 studies to compare herbivory in single-species and mixed forests. This showed a significant reduction of herbivory in more diverse forests but this varied with the host specificity of insects. In diverse forests, herbivory by oligophagous species was virtually always reduced, whereas the response of polyphagous species was variable. Further analyses ...


Landscape structure effects on forest plant diversity at local scale: Exploring the role of spatial extent

Ecological Complexity, Vol. 21 (March 2015), pp. 44-52,


[Highlights] [::] Landscape structure effects on plant diversity were assessed at different scales. [::] Multiple regression models and variance partitioning techniques were applied. [::] The predictive power of the model increases with increasing extent. [::] Landscape structure explains a large part of variance in forest specialist species. [::] The medium extent combines high variance explained and the low collinearity. [Abstract] Since landscape attributes show different patterns at different spatial extents, it is fundamental to identify how the relation between landscape structure and plant species diversity at local scale ...


Intraspecific variations in dispersal ability of saproxylic beetles in fragmented forest patches

Oecologia In Oecologia (2014), pp. 1-10,


The extrapolation of metapopulation concepts to saproxylic insects suggests that the occupancy of forest patches and the colonization of ephemeral deadwood substrates are driven by micro-evolutionary processes that are related to adaptive plasticity and intraspecific sex-dependent polymorphism of dispersal traits. We hypothesized that forest fragmentation could favor more mobile individuals within populations, but little empirical data have been published on the potentially sex-biased response of insect populations to habitat availability. We selected 88 fragmented woodlots in two European agricultural landscapes to ...


A question of origin: Where and how to collect seed for ecological restoration

Basic and Applied Ecology, Vol. 11, No. 4. (June 2010), pp. 300-311,


Native plant species are routinely planted or sown in ecological restoration projects, but successful establishment and survival depend on where and how seeds are collected. Research suggests that it is important to use locally adapted seeds. Local populations often show a home-site advantage and non-local genotypes may be maladapted to local environmental conditions. Furthermore, intraspecific hybridisation of local and non-local genotypes may have a negative impact on the genetic structure of local populations via mechanisms such as outbreeding depression. Many species ...


Quantifying biodiversity: procedures and pitfalls in the measurement and comparison of species richness

Ecology Letters, Vol. 4, No. 4. (22 July 2001), pp. 379-391,


Species richness is a fundamental measurement of community and regional diversity, and it underlies many ecological models and conservation strategies. In spite of its importance, ecologists have not always appreciated the effects of abundance and sampling effort on richness measures and comparisons. We survey a series of common pitfalls in quantifying and comparing taxon richness. These pitfalls can be largely avoided by using accumulation and rarefaction curves, which may be based on either individuals or samples. These taxon sampling curves contain ...


Density-dependent mortality and the latitudinal gradient in species diversity

Nature, Vol. 417, No. 6890. (13 June 2002), pp. 732-735,


Ecologists have long postulated that density-dependent mortality maintains high tree diversity in the tropics1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. If species experience greater mortality when abundant, then more rare species can persist1, 2, 7, 8, 9. Agents of density-dependent mortality (such as host-specific predators, and pathogens) may be more prevalent or have stronger effects in tropical forests, because they are not limited by climatic factors1, 2, 3, 4, 5. If so, decreasing density-dependent mortality with increasing latitude could partially explain the ...


Range wide versus local patterns of genetic diversity in hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L.)

Conservation Genetics In Conservation Genetics, Vol. 6, No. 2. (March 2005), pp. 259-273,


A study based on AFLP markers was conducted to characterise the present population genetic structure of Carpinus betulus in Europe and to formulate guidelines for the use of this species in plantations on a local scale in Flanders. High within-population diversity and little (but significant) genetic differentiation were detected at both Flemish and European scales. However, there was a pattern of isolation by distance only at the European scale. Within-population gene diversity, a new rarefaction-based measure of number of genotypes (‘band ...


Climate change, connectivity and conservation decision making: back to basics

Journal of Applied Ecology, Vol. 46, No. 5. (October 2009), pp. 964-969,


The challenge of climate change forces us to re-examine the assumptions underlying conservation planning. [\n] Increasing ‘connectivity’ has emerged as the most favoured option for conservation in the face of climate change. [\n] We argue that the importance of connectivity is being overemphasized: quantifying the benefits of connectivity per se is plagued with uncertainty, and connectivity can be co-incidentally improved by targeting more concrete metrics: habitat area and habitat quality. [::Synthesis and applications] Before investing in connectivity projects, conservation practitioners should ...


The links between human error diversity and software diversity: implications for fault diversity seeking

Science of Computer Programming (March 2014),


Software diversity is known to improve fault tolerance in N-version software systems by independent development. As the leading cause of software faults, human error is considered an important factor in diversity seeking. However, there is little scientific research focusing on how to seek software fault diversity based on human error mechanisms. A literature review was conducted to extract factors that may differentiate people with respect to human error-proneness. In addition, we constructed a conceptual model of the links between human error ...


(INRMM-MiD internal record) List of keywords of the INRMM meta-information database - part 10

(February 2014)
Keywords: database   dataset   dating   dddas   de-facto-standard   dead-wood   debris   debris-floods   debris-flows   deciduous   deciduous-forest   decision-making   decision-making-procedure   decision-support-system   decline   decline-effect   decline-symptomology   deep-reproducible-research   deep-uncertainty   definition   deforestation   degenerated-soil   deglaciation   degradation   degradation-velocity   dehesas   delonix-regia   democracy   dendrochronology   dendroctonus   dendroctonus-frontalis   dendroctonus-micans   dendroctonus-ponderosae   dendroctonus-pseudotsugae   dendroecology   dendrology   denmark   density-related-behaviour   deposition   derived-data   desalinisation   description   desertification   deserts   design-diversity   devil-in-details   diabetes   diabetes-mellitus   diagram-data   diameter-differentiation   dictionary   die-off   dieback   diesel   differentiation   digital-preservation   digital-society   dimensional-analysis   dimensionality-reduction   dimensionless   dioryctria-splendidella   diospyros-kaki   diospyros-spp   diospyros-virginiana   diplodia-pinea   diprion-pini   dipteryx-panamensis   direct-reciprocity   disaster-recovery   disaster-response   disasters   discharge   disciplinary-barrier   disconcerting-learning   discount-rate   disease   diseases   disjunction   dispersal   dispersal-limitation   dispersal-models   dissent   distance-analysis   distance-correlation   distilled-gin   distribution   distribution-limit   disturbance-ecology   disturbance-interactions   disturbances   diversity   django   dna   dna-fingerprinting   dobrogea   dodonaea-viscosa   dormancy   dormouse   inrmm-list-of-tags  


List of indexed keywords within the transdisciplinary set of domains which relate to the Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management (INRMM). In particular, the list of keywords maps the semantic tags in the INRMM Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD). [\n] The INRMM-MiD records providing this list are accessible by the special tag: inrmm-list-of-tags ( ). ...


Vegetation diversity and vertical structure as indicators of forest disturbance

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 195, No. 3. (July 2004), pp. 341-354,


Plant species composition and vertical structure of oak-mixed Atlantic woodlands differing on disturbance regime were studied in the Basque Country, northern Spain. Four different disturbance groups were considered depending on the time since last thinning and the presence/absence of grazers. Plant species cover varied among disturbance groups for 17 out of the total 47 species present in the study area. In general, disturbance by clear-cutting favoured the cover of Betula alba, Castanea sativa and Quercus robur. The shrub species most affected ...


Inter-relationships between treeline position, species diversity, land use and climate change in the Central Scandes Mountains of Norway

Global Ecology and Biogeography Letters, Vol. 6, No. 6. (November 1997), 419,


Vegetation samples collected along altitudinal transects through the treeline ecotone in the central Scandes Mountains, Norway, were used to analyse the relationships between species diversity, species turnover and the performance of the tree layer. The study area has a long history of extensive grazing by domestic animals. The floristic composition showed a continuous change along the boreal-alpine gradient. The number of species was more or less constant throughout 600 altitudinal m centred around the treeline, and the floristic similarity between neighbouring ...


Agricultural landscape simplification does not consistently drive insecticide use

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 110, No. 38. (17 September 2013), pp. 15330-15335,


[Significance] Increases in agricultural production have greatly altered land-use patterns, often resulting in simplified landscapes composed of large monocultures separated by fragments of natural lands. It is thought that these simplified landscapes enable agricultural insect pests to thrive due to an absence of predators and abundant food, necessitating greater insecticide use. Despite the logic of this theory, empirical support is lacking. Using a multiyear analysis it becomes clear that the presence and direction of the relationship between landscape simplification and insecticide use ...


Does fire increase the spatial heterogeneity of bird communities in Mediterranean landscapes?

Ibis, Vol. 145, No. 2. (1 April 2003), pp. 307-317,


The occurrence of large burnt areas has increased considerably in southern Europe in recent years. In order to design management plans to prevent large wildfires while preserving biodiversity, understanding of the ways in which birds respond to these fires is required. We investigated the spatial variability of both avifauna and habitat structure in three zones: unburnt, burnt in 1982, and burnt in 1994. The habitat structure of the unburnt zone was the most variable spatially. However, bird species composition between sampling ...


Landscape ecology: what is the state of the science?

Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, Vol. 36, No. 1. (2005), pp. 319-344,


Landscape ecology focuses on the reciprocal interactions between spatial pattern and ecological processes, and it is well integrated with ecology. The field has grown rapidly over the past 15 years. The persistent influence of land-use history and natural disturbance on contemporary ecosystems has become apparent. Development of pattern metrics has largely stabilized, and they are widely used to relate landscape pattern to ecological responses. Analyses conducted at multiple scales have demonstrated the importance of landscape pattern for many taxa, and spatially ...


The effects of wildfires on wood-eating beetles in deciduous forests on the southern slope of the Swiss Alps

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 187, No. 1. (January 2004), pp. 85-103,


The effect of fires on Cerambycidae, Buprestidae and Lucanidae were studied at 23 sites within a chestnut forest in southern Switzerland. We compared six unburnt sites, two freshly burnt sites, eight sites which burned once at different times in the last 30 years, and seven sites where fires occurred repeatedly in the last 30 years. The diversity and the species composition of the three xylobiont families were related to various ecological variables at two levels of spatial scale, a small scale ...

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Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD).
This database integrates a dedicated meta-information database in CiteULike (the CiteULike INRMM Group) with the meta-information available in Google Scholar, CrossRef and DataCite. The Altmetric database with Article-Level Metrics is also harvested. Part of the provided semantic content (machine-readable) is made even human-readable thanks to the DCMI Dublin Core viewer. Digital preservation of the meta-information indexed within the INRMM-MiD publication records is implemented thanks to the Internet Archive.
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