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Seven myths of risk

Risk Management In Risk Management, Vol. 7, No. 2. (01 April 2005), pp. 7-17,


Communication between experts and the public has turned out to be unusually difficult in the field of risk research. These difficulties are closely connected to a series of recalcitrant misconceptions of risk and its social preconditions. In this paper, seven of the most pernicious myths of risk are exposed, namely: first, that ‘risk’ must have a single, well-defined meaning; second, that the severity of risks should be judged according to probability-weighted averages of the severity of their outcomes; third, that decisions ...



In NIST/SEMATECH e-Handbook of Statistical Methods (2012),


[Excerpt: Definitions of order statistics and ranks] For a series of measurements Y1, …, YN, denote the data ordered in increasing order of magnitude by Y〈1〉, …, Y〈N〉. These ordered data are called order statistics. If Y〈j〉 is the order statistic that corresponds to the measurement Yᵢ, then the rank for Yᵢ is j; i.e., [::] Y〈j〉 ∼ Yᵢ, rᵢ=j. [Definition of percentiles] Order statistics provide a way of estimating proportions of the data that should fall above and below a ...


Sample quantiles in statistical packages

The American Statistician, Vol. 50, No. 4. (1 November 1996), pp. 361-365,


There are a large number of different definitions used for sample quantiles in statistical computer packages. Often within the same package one definition will be used to compute a quantile explicitly, while other definitions may be used when producing a boxplot, a probability plot, or a QQ plot. We compare the most commonly implemented sample quantile definitions by writing them in a common notation and investigating their motivation and some of their properties. We argue that there is a need to ...


Fuzziness vs. probability

International Journal of General Systems, Vol. 17, No. 2-3. (June 1990), pp. 211-240,


Fuzziness is explored as an alternative to randomness for describing uncertainty. The new sets-as-points geometric view of fuzzy sets is developed. This view identifies a fuzzy set with a point in a unit hypercube and a nonfuzzy set with a vertex of the cube. Paradoxes of two-valued logic and set theory, such as Russell's paradox, correspond to the midpoint of the fuzzy cube. The fundamental questions of fuzzy theory—How fuzzy is a fuzzy set? How much is one fuzzy set a ...


Building confidence in climate model projections: an analysis of inferences from fit

WIREs Clim Change, Vol. 8, No. 3. (1 May 2017), n/a,


Climate model projections are used to inform policy decisions and constitute a major focus of climate research. Confidence in climate projections relies on the adequacy of climate models for those projections. The question of how to argue for the adequacy of models for climate projections has not gotten sufficient attention in the climate modeling community. The most common way to evaluate a climate model is to assess in a quantitative way degrees of ‘model fit’; that is, how well model results ...


System-of-Systems engineering management: a review of modern history and a path forward

IEEE Systems Journal, Vol. 2, No. 4. (18 December 2008), pp. 484-499,


As our knowledge of system of systems (SoS) has grown and evolved, so has our understanding of how to engineer and manage them. In systems engineering, we develop architectures and frameworks to bring meaning to this kind of uncertainty, but for SoS engineering (SoSE) we are still in search of how we can structure this understanding. In this paper, we review the SoS literature to illustrate the need to create an SoSE management framework based on the demands of constant technological ...


System of Systems - the meaning of of

System of Systems Engineering In 2006 IEEE/SMC International Conference on System of Systems Engineering, Vol. 0 (10 July 2006), pp. 118-123,


We present distinguishing characteristics (i.e. autonomy, belonging, connectivity, diversity, and emergence), that can help us to recognize or to realize a System of Systems (SoS). The principle differentiation that we make between a thing being either a 'system' or a SoS focuses on the nature of a system's composition. We will distinctly define this set of distinguishing characteristics which will include a set of cross references from our literature research where we believe others are articulating our chosen differentiating characteristics. We ...


Transdisciplinary global change research: the co-creation of knowledge for sustainability

Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, Vol. 5, No. 3-4. (September 2013), pp. 420-431,


[Highlights] [::] A new framework for integrated, transdisciplinary global change research for sustainability is introduced. [::] From a practical perspective three different dimensions of integration (scientific, international and sectoral) are discussed. [::] Co-design of research agendas and co-production of knowledge are discussed as necessary integration approaches to address Future Earth research challenges. [Abstract] The challenges formulated within the Future Earth framework set the orientation for research programmes in sustainability science for the next ten years. Scientific disciplines from natural and social science will collaborate both among ...


Annex III: glossary

In Climate Change 2013: the physical science basis - Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2013), pp. 1447-1465


[Excerpt] This glossary defines some specific terms as the Lead Authors intend them to be interpreted in the context of this report. Red, italicized words indicate that the term is defined in the Glossary. [\n] [...] ...


Fine-grain modeling of species’ response to climate change: holdouts, stepping-stones, and microrefugia

Trends in Ecology & Evolution, Vol. 29, No. 7. (July 2014), pp. 390-397,


[Highlights] [::] Understanding of microclimates may revolutionize climate change biology. [::] Microrefugia will be rare under future climate change. [::] Conservation strategies should focus on managing holdouts and stepping stones. [Abstract] Microclimates have played a critical role in past species range shifts, suggesting that they could be important in biological response to future change. Terms are needed to discuss these future effects. We propose that populations occupying microclimates be referred to as holdouts, stepping stones and microrefugia. A holdout is a population that persists in a ...


Niches and distributional areas: concepts, methods, and assumptions

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 106, No. Supplement 2. (17 November 2009), pp. 19644-19650,


Estimating actual and potential areas of distribution of species via ecological niche modeling has become a very active field of research, yet important conceptual issues in this field remain confused. We argue that conceptual clarity is enhanced by adopting restricted definitions of “niche” that enable operational definitions of basic concepts like fundamental, potential, and realized niches and potential and actual distributional areas. We apply these definitions to the question of niche conservatism, addressing what it is that is conserved and showing ...


What does ecological modelling model? A proposed classification of ecological niche models based on their underlying methods

Ecological Modelling, Vol. 222, No. 8. (01 April 2011), pp. 1343-1346,


Species distribution model is the term most frequently used in ecological modelling, but other authors used instead predictive habitat distribution model or species-habitat models. A consensual ecological modelling terminology that avoids misunderstandings and takes into account the ecological niche theory does not exist at present. Moreover, different studies differ in the type of niche that is represented by similar distribution models. I propose to use as standard ecological modelling terminology the terms “ecological niche”, “potential niche”, “realized niche” models (for modelling ...


Keep it complex

Nature, Vol. 468, No. 7327. (23 December 2010), pp. 1029-1031,


When knowledge is uncertain, experts should avoid pressures to simplify their advice. Render decision-makers accountable for decisions, says Andy Stirling. ...


Management of risks in natural disasters: a systematic review of the literature on NATECH events

Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, Vol. 44 (November 2016), pp. 347-359,


NATECH events have produced great impacts in different parts of the world, and have become a matter of great relevance to modern society. Although the probability of such events occurring is low, they have major impacts and a high level of complexity in terms of risk management, because they are the result of cascading events. In this article, a systematic review of the literature on NATECH events is conducted which presents analysis based on a survey of the specific articles on ...


Habitat, environment and niche: what are we modelling?

Oikos, Vol. 115, No. 1. (October 2006), pp. 186-191,


The terms 'habitat', 'environment' and 'niche' are used inconsistently, and with some confusion, within the ecological literature on species distribution and abundance modelling. Here I suggest interrelated working definitions of these terms whereby the concept of habitat remains associated with descriptive/correlative analyses of the environments of organisms, while the niche concept is reserved for mechanistic analyses. To model the niche mechanistically, it is necessary to understand the way an organism's morphology, physiology, and especially behaviour, determine the kinds of environment it ...


Meta-ecosystems: a theoretical framework for a spatial ecosystem ecology

Ecology Letters, Vol. 6, No. 8. (August 2003), pp. 673-679,


This contribution proposes the meta-ecosystem concept as a natural extension of the metapopulation and metacommunity concepts. A meta-ecosystem is defined as a set of ecosystems connected by spatial flows of energy, materials and organisms across ecosystem boundaries. This concept provides a powerful theoretical tool to understand the emergent properties that arise from spatial coupling of local ecosystems, such as global source–sink constraints, diversity–productivity patterns, stabilization of ecosystem processes and indirect interactions at landscape or regional scales. The meta-ecosystem perspective thereby has ...


The metacommunity concept: a framework for multi-scale community ecology

Ecology Letters, Vol. 7, No. 7. (04 June 2004), pp. 601-613,


The metacommunity concept is an important way to think about linkages between different spatial scales in ecology. Here we review current understanding about this concept. We first investigate issues related to its definition as a set of local communities that are linked by dispersal of multiple potentially interacting species. We then identify four paradigms for metacommunities: the patch-dynamic view, the species-sorting view, the mass effects view and the neutral view, that each emphasizes different processes of potential importance in metacommunities. These ...


INSPIRE data specification on geographical grid systems – Technical guidelines 3.1



[Excerpt] [:Interoperability of Spatial Data Sets and Services - General Executive Summary] The challenges regarding the lack of availability, quality, organisation, accessibility, and sharing of spatial information are common to a large number of policies and activities and are experienced across the various levels of public authority in Europe. In order to solve these problems it is necessary to take measures of coordination between the users and providers of spatial information. The Directive 2007/2/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council adopted on 14 March 2007 ...


Involve social scientists in defining the Anthropocene

Nature, Vol. 540, No. 7632. (7 December 2016), pp. 192-193,


The causes of Earth's transition are human and social, write Erle Ellis and colleagues, so scholars from those disciplines must be included in its formalization. ...


The 2002 glossary of forest fire management terms



[Excerpt: Preface] This glossary gives definitions of terms most commonly used in Canada in the field of forest fire management. It also includes terms that are commonly found in forest fire management literature, although not all of these terms are widely used in field operations at this time. The main purpose of the glossary is to provide a means of achieving a common understanding of the vocabulary used in forest fire management and to promote the use of standard terminology among forest fire agencies across the ...



In The development dictionary: a guide to knowledge as power (2010), pp. 228-242
edited by Wolfgang Sachs


[Excerpt] ‘Resource’ originally implied life. Its root is the Latin verb surgere, which evoked the image of a spring that continually rises from the ground. Like a spring, a ‘re-source’ rises again and again, even if it has repeatedly been used and consumed. The concept thus highlighted nature’s power of self-regeneration and called attention to her prodigious creativity. Moreover, it implied an ancient idea about the relationship between humans and nature: that the earth bestows gifts on humans who, in turn, are well advised to show diligence in ...


The FAIR Guiding Principles for scientific data management and stewardship

Scientific Data, Vol. 3 (15 March 2016), 160018,


There is an urgent need to improve the infrastructure supporting the reuse of scholarly data. A diverse set of stakeholders—representing academia, industry, funding agencies, and scholarly publishers—have come together to design and jointly endorse a concise and measureable set of principles that we refer to as the FAIR Data Principles. The intent is that these may act as a guideline for those wishing to enhance the reusability of their data holdings. Distinct from peer initiatives that focus on the human scholar, ...


Changing the resilience paradigm

Nature Climate Change, Vol. 4, No. 6. (28 May 2014), pp. 407-409,


Resilience management goes beyond risk management to address the complexities of large integrated systems and the uncertainty of future threats, especially those associated with climate change. [Excerpt] In summary, risk analysis and risk management based on probabilistic quantitative methods have been widely adopted and have been useful for dealing with foreseeable and calculable stress situations. Benchmarks and thresholds for risk analysis are built into the regulations and policies of organizations and nations; however, this approach is no longer sufficient to address the ...


How does BGS classify landslides?

In Engineering geology (2016)


[Excerpt] The classification of landslides by the BGS currently follows the scheme based on Varnes (1978) and Cruden & Varnes (1996). The scheme terminology is also that suggested by the Unesco Working Party on the 'World Landslide Inventory' (WP/WLI 1990, 1993). [\n] The main classification criteria are: [::] type of movement (falls, topples, slides spreads, flows) [::] type of material involved in the movement (rock, debris, earth) [\n] Combining movement and material type terms enables an appropriately descriptive landslide name to be formulated. Naming can ...

Visual summary


Social semantics: altruism, cooperation, mutualism, strong reciprocity and group selection

Journal of Evolutionary Biology, Vol. 20, No. 2. (1 March 2007), pp. 415-432,


From an evolutionary perspective, social behaviours are those which have fitness consequences for both the individual that performs the behaviour, and another individual. Over the last 43 years, a huge theoretical and empirical literature has developed on this topic. However, progress is often hindered by poor communication between scientists, with different people using the same term to mean different things, or different terms to mean the same thing. This can obscure what is biologically important, and what is not. The potential for ...


Define the Anthropocene in terms of the whole Earth

Nature, Vol. 536, No. 7616. (17 August 2016), pp. 251-251,


Researchers must consider human impacts on entire Earth systems and not get trapped in discipline-specific definitions, says Clive Hamilton. [Excerpt] The Anthropocene was conceived by Earth-system scientists to capture the very recent rupture in Earth’s history arising from the impact of human activity on the Earth system as a whole. Read that again. Take special note of the phrases ‘very recent rupture’ and ‘the Earth system as a whole’. Understanding the Anthropocene, and what humanity now confronts, depends on a firm grasp of ...


Licences named authority lists

(October 2015)


[Excerpt] This table provides the European Commission Reuse Notice and a list of standard licences available internationally [Codes and concepts] [::Authority code] [::Status] current|deprecated [::Acronym] more specific than the authority code [::Label] full name of the licence [::Date of event] [::Description] [::] Date of description [::] Description [::] Provenance [::Predecessor] an authority code [::Successor] an authority code ...


Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management: minimal redefinition of a known challenge for environmental modelling

In Call for a shared research agenda toward scientific knowledge freedom (2012)


[Excerpt] How do we interpret and cope with the complex challenges of the changing global environment, culture and society? Among the many ways to do so, a key perspective considers the possibilities and limits of our Earth system as a whole. Mankind exploits Earth's resources to live, increasingly altering incredibly complex systems of systems. Over the centuries, our influence has grown in intensity and pervasivity, spanning at multiple scales over ecology, climate, transport and connectivity even among far (and until recently ...


Reproducible research can still be wrong: adopting a prevention approach

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 112, No. 6. (11 February 2015), pp. 1645-1646,


[Excerpt] Reproducibility—the ability to recompute results—and replicability—the chances other experimenters will achieve a consistent result—are two foundational characteristics of successful scientific research. Consistent findings from independent investigators are the primary means by which scientific evidence accumulates for or against a hypothesis. Yet, of late, there has been a crisis of confidence among researchers worried about the rate at which studies are either reproducible or replicable. To maintain the integrity of science research and the public’s trust in science, the scientific community ...

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Reversals of national fortune, and social science methodologies

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 111, No. 50. (16 December 2014), pp. 17709-17714,


Among non-European regions colonized by Europeans, regions that were relatively richer five centuries ago (like Mexico, Peru, and India) tend to be poorer today, while regions that originally were relatively poorer (like the United States, Chile, and Australia) tend now to be richer. Acemoglu, Johnson, and Robinson (abbreviated AJR) established the generality of this reversal of fortune. Chanda, Cook, and Putterman (abbreviated CCP) have now reanalyzed it, taking as a unit of analysis populations rather than geographic regions. That is, India's ...


Google Scholar pioneer on search engine’s future



[Excerpt] As the search engine approaches its 10th birthday, Nature speaks to the co-creator of Google Scholar. [...] By 'crawling' over the text of millions of academic papers, including those behind publishers' paywalls, it has transformed the way that researchers consult the literature online. In a Nature survey this year, some 60% of scientists said that they use the service regularly. Nature spoke with Anurag Acharya, who co-created the service and still runs it, about Google Scholar's history and what he ...


Establishing forest inventory reference definitions for forest and growing stock: a study towards common reporting

Silva Fennica, Vol. 42, No. 2. (2008),


International agreements such as the Kyoto protocol and Convention on Biological Diversity (1992), as well as, criteria and indicator processes require reports on the status of nations’ forests. Any comparison of the current status and trends of forest resources among nations presumes that the nations’ applied definitions and concepts produce comparable estimates of the status of forests. In spite of this, the FAO has already collected global information for 60 years and made noticeable efforts in creating common definitions, but forest ...


Sample Proportion

In MathWorld - A Wolfram Web Resource (2014)


[Excerpt] Let there be x successes out of n Bernoulli trials. The sample proportion is the fraction of samples which were successes, so p=x/n. ...


Unifying niche shift studies: insights from biological invasions

Trends in Ecology & Evolution, Vol. 29, No. 5. (7 August 2014), pp. 260-269,


[Highlights] [::] We propose a unifying framework for assessing niche shifts from empirical data. [::] We base it on a review of studies of niche changes during biological invasions. [::] It decomposes niche changes and accounts for environmental availability and analogy. [::] This unifying framework allows proper comparison of existing and future niche studies. [::] It can also guide management under global change and the design of niche change experiments. [Summary] Assessing whether the climatic niche of a species may change ...


(INRMM-MiD internal record) List of keywords of the INRMM meta-information database - part 10

(February 2014)
Keywords: database   dataset   dating   dddas   de-facto-standard   dead-wood   debris   debris-floods   debris-flows   deciduous   deciduous-forest   decision-making   decision-making-procedure   decision-support-system   decline   decline-effect   decline-symptomology   deep-reproducible-research   deep-uncertainty   definition   deforestation   degenerated-soil   deglaciation   degradation   degradation-velocity   dehesas   delonix-regia   democracy   dendrochronology   dendroctonus   dendroctonus-frontalis   dendroctonus-micans   dendroctonus-ponderosae   dendroctonus-pseudotsugae   dendroecology   dendrology   denmark   density-related-behaviour   deposition   derived-data   desalinisation   description   desertification   deserts   design-diversity   devil-in-details   diabetes   diabetes-mellitus   diagram-data   diameter-differentiation   dictionary   die-off   dieback   diesel   differentiation   digital-preservation   digital-society   dimensional-analysis   dimensionality-reduction   dimensionless   dioryctria-splendidella   diospyros-kaki   diospyros-spp   diospyros-virginiana   diplodia-pinea   diprion-pini   dipteryx-panamensis   direct-reciprocity   disaster-recovery   disaster-response   disasters   discharge   disciplinary-barrier   disconcerting-learning   discount-rate   disease   diseases   disjunction   dispersal   dispersal-limitation   dispersal-models   dissent   distance-analysis   distance-correlation   distilled-gin   distribution   distribution-limit   disturbance-ecology   disturbance-interactions   disturbances   diversity   django   dna   dna-fingerprinting   dobrogea   dodonaea-viscosa   dormancy   dormouse   inrmm-list-of-tags  


List of indexed keywords within the transdisciplinary set of domains which relate to the Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management (INRMM). In particular, the list of keywords maps the semantic tags in the INRMM Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD). [\n] The INRMM-MiD records providing this list are accessible by the special tag: inrmm-list-of-tags ( ). ...


Defining terms for integrated (multi-inter-trans-disciplinary) sustainability research

Sustainability, Vol. 3, No. 8. (26 July 2011), pp. 1090-1113,


Our contemporary social and ecological problems, including climate change, peak oil and food security, necessitate solutions informed by multiple backgrounds that singular disciplines seem unable to provide, and possibly, are even incapable of providing. The increasing occurrence of multi-, inter- and transdisciplinary (MIT) research projects speak to the recognition of that necessity. But as the literature and our own experiences bear out, just calling a project “beyond disciplinary” or integrated does not necessarily yield the intended outcomes or make progress toward ...


Radar backscatter is not a 'direct measure' of forest biomass

Nature Climate Change, Vol. 2, No. 8. (15 July 2012), pp. 556-557,


[Excerpt] Accurately mapping forest carbon now has important financial and livelihood implications for many smallholder farmers, businesses, investors, land-use projects and governments. The urgent need to reduce uncertainties in the carbon cycle, the increasing focus on global sustainable forestry, and the international agenda on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) has led to the creation of new communities clamouring for robust methods to map forest aboveground biomass (AGB). Satellite radar is often proposed as the best tool to overcome the ...

This page of the database may be cited as:
Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management - Meta-information Database.

Publication metadata

Bibtex, RIS, RSS/XML feed, Json, Dublin Core

Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD).
This database integrates a dedicated meta-information database in CiteULike (the CiteULike INRMM Group) with the meta-information available in Google Scholar, CrossRef and DataCite. The Altmetric database with Article-Level Metrics is also harvested. Part of the provided semantic content (machine-readable) is made even human-readable thanks to the DCMI Dublin Core viewer. Digital preservation of the meta-information indexed within the INRMM-MiD publication records is implemented thanks to the Internet Archive.
The library of INRMM related pubblications may be quickly accessed with the following links.
Search within the whole INRMM meta-information database:
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Full-text and abstracts of the publications indexed by the INRMM meta-information database are copyrighted by the respective publishers/authors. They are subject to all applicable copyright protection. The conditions of use of each indexed publication is defined by its copyright owner. Please, be aware that the indexed meta-information entirely relies on voluntary work and constitutes a quite incomplete and not homogeneous work-in-progress.
INRMM-MiD was experimentally established by the Maieutike Research Initiative in 2008 and then improved with the help of several volunteers (with a major technical upgrade in 2011). This new integrated interface is operational since 2014.