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Selection: with tag data-transformation-modelling [81 articles] 

 

A procedure to obtain a refined European land use/cover map

  
Journal of Land Use Science, Vol. 8, No. 3. (September 2013), pp. 255-283, https://doi.org/10.1080/1747423x.2012.667450

Abstract

Available land use/cover maps differ in their spatial extent and in their thematic, spatial, and temporal resolutions. Due to the costs of producing such maps, there is usually a trade-off between spatial extent and resolution. The only European-wide, consistent, and multi-temporal land use/cover dataset available is the CORINE Land Cover (CLC) map. Despite the value and usefulness of CLC, its minimum mapping unit (MMU) of 25 hectares considerably limits its applications at large scales of analysis. Our objective was to improve ...

 

A new European settlement map from optical remotely sensed data

  
IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, Vol. 9, No. 5. (May 2016), pp. 1978-1992, https://doi.org/10.1109/jstars.2015.2485662

Abstract

An application of a general methodology for processing very high-resolution imagery to produce a European Settlement Map (ESM) in support of policy-makers is presented. The process mapped around 10 million km2 of the European continent. The input image data are satellite SPOT-5/6 pan-sharpened multispectral images of 2.5- and 1.5-m spatial resolution, respectively. This is the first time that remote sensing technology demonstrates capability to produce a continental information layer using 2.5-m input images. Moreover, it is the highest resolution continental map ...

 

Enhancing the WorldClim data set for national and regional applications

  
Science of The Total Environment, Vol. 625 (June 2018), pp. 1628-1643, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.12.258

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] Regional adaptation of climate surfaces and future scenarios at fine resolution [::] Computationally efficient enhancement of WorldClim resources [::] Use of enhanced climatic data to estimate erosivity and species range shift [::] Use of climate data adapted to the geographical extent of the analysis [Abstract] Climatic change in the last few decades has had a widespread impact on both natural and human systems, observable on all continents. Ecological and environmental models using climatic data often rely on gridded data, such as WorldClim. The main aim ...

 

Operating procedure for the production of the global human settlement layer from Landsat data of the epochs 1975, 1990, 2000, and 2014

  
Vol. 27741 EN (2016), https://doi.org/10.2788/253582

Abstract

A new global information baseline describing the spatial evolution of the human settlements in the past 40 years is presented. It is the most spatially global detailed data available today dedicated to human settlements, and it shows the greatest temporal depth. The core processing methodology relies on a new supervised classification paradigm based on symbolic machine learning. The information is extracted from Landsat image records organized in four collections corresponding to the epochs 1975, 1990, 2000, and 2014. The experiment reported ...

 

Land cover mapping from remotely sensed and auxiliary data for harmonized official statistics

  
ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information, Vol. 7, No. 4. (21 April 2018), 157, https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7040157

Abstract

This paper describes a general framework alternative to the traditional surveys that are commonly performed to estimate, for statistical purposes, the areal extent of predefined land cover classes across Europe. The framework has been funded by Eurostat and relies on annual land cover mapping and updating from remotely sensed and national GIS-based data followed by area estimation. Map production follows a series of steps, namely data collection, change detection, supervised image classification, rule-based image classification, and map updating/generalization. Land cover area ...

 

Geostatistical tools to map the interaction between development aid and indices of need

  
No. 49. (2018)

Abstract

In order to meet and assess progress towards global sustainable development goals (SDGs), an improved understanding of geographic variation in population wellbeing indicators such as health status, wealth and access to resources is crucial, as the equitable and efficient allocation of international aid relies on knowing where funds are needed most. Unfortunately, in many low-income countries, detailed, reliable and timely information on the spatial distribution and characteristics of intended aid recipients are rarely available. Furthermore, lack of information on the past ...

 

cffdrs: an R package for the Canadian Forest Fire Danger Rating System

  
Ecological Processes, Vol. 6, No. 1. (31 January 2017), 5, https://doi.org/10.1186/s13717-017-0070-z

Abstract

[Introduction] The Canadian Forest Fire Danger Rating System (CFFDRS) is a globally known wildland fire risk assessment system, and two major components, the fire weather index system and the fire behavior prediction system, have been extensively used both nationally and internationally to aid operational wildland fire decision making. [Methods] In this paper, we present an overview of an R package cffdrs, which is developed to calculate components of the CFFDRS, and highlight some of its functionality. In particular, we demonstrate how these functions could ...

 

Forest fire danger extremes in Europe under climate change: variability and uncertainty

  
Keywords: adaptation   array-of-factors   biodiversity   biodiversity-impacts   burnt-area   climate-change   climate-extremes   communicating-uncertainty   data-transformation-modelling   data-uncertainty   downscaling   droughts   dynamic-system   ecosystem-resilience   emergent-property   euro-cordex   europe   extreme-events   extreme-weather   fire-damage   fire-danger-rating   fire-management   fire-weather-index   forest-fires   forest-management   forest-pests   forest-resources   free-scientific-software   geospatial   geospatial-semantic-array-programming   human-behaviour   humidity   ipcc-scenarios   mastrave-modelling-library   mitigation   modelling-uncertainty   no-analog-pattern   peseta-series   precipitation   rcp85   resilience   resilience-vs-resistance   review   robust-modelling   science-policy-interface   science-society-interface   scientific-communication   semantic-array-programming   spatial-pattern   species-richness   species-specific-effects   temperature   vegetation-changes   wildfires   wind  

Abstract

Forests cover over a third of the total land area of Europe. In recent years, large forest fires have repeatedly affected Europe, in particular the Mediterranean countries. Fire danger is influenced by weather in the short term, and by climate when considering longer time intervals. In this work, the emphasis is on the direct influence on fire danger of weather and climate. [\n] For climate analysis at the continental scale, a daily high-emission scenario (RCP 8.5) was considered up to the end ...

References

  1. de Rigo, D., Bosco, C., San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., Houston Durrant, T., Barredo, J. I., Strona, G., Caudullo, G., Di Leo, M., Boca, R., 2016. Forest resources in Europe: an integrated perspective on ecosystem services, disturbances and threats. In: San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., de Rigo, D., Caudullo, G., Houston Durrant, T., Mauri, A. (Eds.), European Atlas of Forest Tree Species. Publ. Off. EU, Luxembourg, pp. e015b50+. https://w3id.org/mtv/FISE-Comm/v01/e015b50 .
  2. Alberdi Asensio, I., Baycheva-Merger, T., Bouvet, A., Bozzano,
 

A new fully gap-free time series of land surface temperature from MODIS LST data

  
Remote Sensing, Vol. 9, No. 12. (20 December 2017), 1333, https://doi.org/10.3390/rs9121333

Abstract

Temperature time series with high spatial and temporal resolutions are important for several applications. The new MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) collection 6 provides numerous improvements compared to collection 5. However, being remotely sensed data in the thermal range, LST shows gaps in cloud-covered areas. We present a novel method to fully reconstruct MODIS daily LST products for central Europe at 1 km resolution and globally, at 3 arc-min. We combined temporal and spatial interpolation, using emissivity and elevation as covariates ...

 

The drought code component of the Canadian forest fire behavior system

  
Vol. 1316 (1972)

Abstract

Development of the Drought Code component of the Canadian Forest Fire Behavior System is described. The scale of available moisture used in the original Stored Moisture Index developed for coastal British Columbia was transformed to one of cumulative drying and incorporated as a component of the National Index. Drought Code values are related to availability of surface water, and to fire behavior and effects. Procedures are developed for improving estimated starting values, taking into account the carry-over of drought from the ...

 

Bridging national and reference definitions for harmonizing forest statistics

  
Forest Science (June 2012), pp. 214-223, https://doi.org/10.5849/forsci.10-067

Abstract

Harmonization is the process of making information and estimates comparable across administrative borders. The degree to which harmonization succeeds depends on many factors, including the conciseness of the definitions, the availability and quality of data, and the methods used to convert an estimate according to a local definition to an estimate according to the reference definition. Harmonization requires the availability and use of common reference definitions and methods for converting from estimates based on national definitions to estimates based on reference ...

 

Upscaling species richness and abundances in tropical forests

  
Science Advances, Vol. 3, No. 10. (18 October 2017), e1701438, https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.1701438

Abstract

The quantification of tropical tree biodiversity worldwide remains an open and challenging problem. More than two-fifths of the number of worldwide trees can be found either in tropical or in subtropical forests, but only ≈0.000067% of species identities are known. We introduce an analytical framework that provides robust and accurate estimates of species richness and abundances in biodiversity-rich ecosystems, as confirmed by tests performed on both in silico–generated and real forests. Our analysis shows that the approach outperforms other methods. In ...

 

To model or not to model, that is no longer the question for ecologists

  
Ecosystems, Vol. 20, No. 2. (2017), pp. 222-228, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10021-016-0068-x

Abstract

Here, I argue that we should abandon the division between “field ecologists” and “modelers,” and embrace modeling and empirical research as two powerful and often complementary approaches in the toolbox of 21st century ecologists, to be deployed alone or in combination depending on the task at hand. As empirical research has the longer tradition in ecology, and modeling is the more recent addition to the methodological arsenal, I provide both practical and theoretical reasons for integrating modeling more deeply into ecosystem ...

 

Describing wildland surface fuel loading for fire management: a review of approaches, methods and systems

  
International Journal of Wildland Fire, Vol. 22, No. 1. (2013), 51, https://doi.org/10.1071/wf11139

Abstract

Wildland fuelbeds are exceptionally complex, consisting of diverse particles of many sizes, types and shapes with abundances and properties that are highly variable in time and space. This complexity makes it difficult to accurately describe, classify, sample and map fuels for wildland fire research and management. As a result, many fire behaviour and effects software prediction systems use a generalised description of fuels to simplify data collection and entry into various computer programs. There are several major fuel description systems currently ...

 

Europe’s Joint Research Centre, although improving, must think bigger

  
Nature, Vol. 550, No. 7674. (3 October 2017), pp. 8-8, https://doi.org/10.1038/550008a

Abstract

External report criticizes lack of exploratory research. [Excerpt] The European Union’s Joint Research Centre (JRC) uses the label EU Science Hub now. Whether the rebranding will increase its profile is one question. What science gets done inside this hub is another. In response to that query, there is some positive news. It is doing what it should be, and doing it well: collecting scientific and technical evidence in support of EU policies. That’s according to the report of an external evaluation released ...

 

Retrieval of forest fuel moisture content using a coupled radiative transfer model

  
Environmental Modelling & Software, Vol. 95 (September 2017), pp. 290-302, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsoft.2017.06.006

Abstract

Forest fuel moisture content (FMC) dynamics are paramount to assessing the forest wildfire risk and its behavior. This variable can be retrieved from remotely sensed data using a radiative transfer model (RTM). However, previous studies generally treated the background of forest canopy as soil surface while ignored the fact that the soil may be covered by grass canopy. In this study, we focused on retrieving FMC of such forestry structure by coupling two RTMs: PROSAIL and PRO-GeoSail. The spectra of lower ...

 

Resampling methods for meta-model validation with recommendations for evolutionary computation

  
Evolutionary Computation, Vol. 20, No. 2. (16 February 2012), pp. 249-275, https://doi.org/10.1162/evco_a_00069

Abstract

Meta-modeling has become a crucial tool in solving expensive optimization problems. Much of the work in the past has focused on finding a good regression method to model the fitness function. Examples include classical linear regression, splines, neural networks, Kriging and support vector regression. This paper specifically draws attention to the fact that assessing model accuracy is a crucial aspect in the meta-modeling framework. Resampling strategies such as cross-validation, subsampling, bootstrapping, and nested resampling are prominent methods for model validation and ...

 

Combining multiple classifiers: an application using spatial and remotely sensed information for land cover type mapping

  
Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 74, No. 3. (December 2000), pp. 545-556, https://doi.org/10.1016/s0034-4257(00)00145-0

Abstract

This article discusses two new methods for increasing the accuracy of classifiers used land cover mapping. The first method, called the product rule, is a simple and general method of combining two or more classification rules as a single rule. Stacked regression methods of combining classification rules are discussed and compared to the product rule. The second method of increasing classifier accuracy is a simple nonparametric classifier that uses spatial information for classification. Two data sets used for land cover mapping ...

 

Bagging ensemble selection for regression

  
In AI 2012: Advances in Artificial Intelligence, Vol. 7691 (2012), pp. 695-706, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-35101-3_59

Abstract

Bagging ensemble selection (BES) is a relatively new ensemble learning strategy. The strategy can be seen as an ensemble of the ensemble selection from libraries of models (ES) strategy. Previous experimental results on binary classification problems have shown that using random trees as base classifiers, BES-OOB (the most successful variant of BES) is competitive with (and in many cases, superior to) other ensemble learning strategies, for instance, the original ES algorithm, stacking with linear regression, random forests or boosting. Motivated by ...

 

Bagging ensemble selection

  
In AI 2011: Advances in Artificial Intelligence, Vol. 7106 (2011), pp. 251-260, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-25832-9_26

Abstract

Ensemble selection has recently appeared as a popular ensemble learning method, not only because its implementation is fairly straightforward, but also due to its excellent predictive performance on practical problems. The method has been highlighted in winning solutions of many data mining competitions, such as the Netflix competition, the KDD Cup 2009 and 2010, the UCSD FICO contest 2010, and a number of data mining competitions on the Kaggle platform. In this paper we present a novel variant: bagging ensemble selection. ...

 

2D Euclidean distance transform algorithms: a comparative survey

  
ACM Computing Surveys, Vol. 40, No. 1. (February 2008), pp. 1-44, https://doi.org/10.1145/1322432.1322434

Abstract

The distance transform (DT) is a general operator forming the basis of many methods in computer vision and geometry, with great potential for practical applications. However, all the optimal algorithms for the computation of the exact Euclidean DT (EDT) were proposed only since the 1990s. In this work, state-of-the-art sequential 2D EDT algorithms are reviewed and compared, in an effort to reach more solid conclusions regarding their differences in speed and their exactness. Six of the best algorithms were fully implemented ...

 

A general algorithm for computing distance transforms in linear time

  
Mathematical Morphology and its Applications to Image and Signal Processing In Mathematical Morphology and its Applications to Image and Signal Processing, Vol. 18 (2000), pp. 331-340, https://doi.org/10.1007/0-306-47025-x_36

Abstract

A new general algorithm for computing distance transforms of digital images is presented. The algorithm consists of two phases. Both phases consist of two scans, a forward and a backward scan. The first phase scans the image column-wise, while the second phase scans the image row-wise. Since the computation per row (column) is independent of the computation of other rows (columns), the algorithm can be easily parallelized on shared memory computers. The algorithm can be used for the computation of the ...

 

Detecting long-range correlations with detrended fluctuation analysis

  
Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Vol. 295, No. 3-4. (June 2001), pp. 441-454, https://doi.org/10.1016/s0378-4371(01)00144-3

Abstract

We examine the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), which is a well-established method for the detection of long-range correlations in time series. We show that deviations from scaling which appear at small time scales become stronger in higher orders of DFA, and suggest a modified DFA method to remove them. The improvement is necessary especially for short records that are affected by non-stationarities. Furthermore, we describe how crossovers in the correlation behavior can be detected reliably and determined quantitatively and show how ...

 

Hole-filled SRTM for the globe Version 4

  
In CGIAR Consortium for Spatial Information (CGIAR-CSI) (2008)

Abstract

[Excerpt: Introduction] The SRTM digital elevation data provided on this site has been processed to fill data voids, and to facilitate it’s ease of use by a wide group of potential users. This data is provided in an effort to promote the use of geospatial science and applications for sustainable development and resource conservation in the developing world. Digital elevation models (DEM) for the entire globe, covering all of the countries of the world, are available for download on this site. [\n] The ...

 

Smooth interpolation of scattered data by local thin plate splines

  
Computers & Mathematics with Applications, Vol. 8, No. 4. (1982), pp. 273-281, https://doi.org/10.1016/0898-1221(82)90009-8

Abstract

An algorithm and the corresponding computer program for solution of the scattered data interpolation problem is described. Given points (xk, yk, fk), k = 1,…,N a locally defined function F(x, y) which has the property F(xk, yk) = fk, k = 1,…,N is constructed. The algorithm is based on a weighted sum of locally defined thin plate splines, and yields an interpolation function which is differentiable. The program is available from the author. ...

 

Connecting models, data, and concepts to understand fragmentation's ecosystem-wide effects

  
Ecography, Vol. 40, No. 1. (January 2017), pp. 1-8, https://doi.org/10.1111/ecog.02974

Abstract

[Excerpt: Conclusions] The body of experimental and theoretical work that has accumulated on the problem of habitat fragmentation has slowly matured over the years, and this Special Issue highlights this growth. Yet, it also provides a springboard to the new frontiers in fragmentation research. These areas include in particular the interplay between evolutionary and metacommunity dynamics with fragments, and this interface should be the subject of inquiry that integrates theory, experiment, and observation with resources at hand. New large-scale, experimental research should ...

 

Multivariate binary discrimination by the kernel method

  
Biometrika, Vol. 63, No. 3. (1 December 1976), pp. 413-420, https://doi.org/10.1093/biomet/63.3.413

Abstract

An extension of the kernel method of density estimation from continuous to multivariate binary spaces is described. Its simple nonparametric nature together with its consistency properties make it an attractive tool in discrimination problems, with some advantages over already proposed parametric counterparts. The method is illustrated by an application to a particular medical diagnostic problem. Simple extensions of the method to categorical data and to data of mixed binary and continuous form are indicated. ...

 

Can one take the logarithm or the sine of a dimensioned quantity or a unit? Dimensional analysis involving transcendental functions

  
Journal of Chemical Education, Vol. 88, No. 1. (1 January 2011), pp. 67-70, https://doi.org/10.1021/ed1000476

Abstract

The fate of dimensions of dimensioned quantities that are inserted into the argument of transcendental functions such as logarithms, exponentiation, trigonometric, and hyperbolic functions is discussed. Emphasis is placed on common misconceptions that are not often systematically examined in undergraduate courses of physical sciences. The argument of dimensional inhomogeneity of the terms of a Taylor expansion of a transcendental function presented in some nonpeer-reviewed popular Internet sites is shown to be false. ...

 

Bias correction of the ENSEMBLES high-resolution climate change projections for use by impact models: evaluation on the present climate

  
Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 116, No. D16. (18 August 2011), https://doi.org/10.1029/2011jd015934

Abstract

A statistical bias correction technique is applied to a set of high-resolution climate change simulations for Europe from 11 state-of-the-art regional climate models (RCMs) from the project ENSEMBLES. Modeled and observed daily values of mean, minimum and maximum temperature and total precipitation are used to construct transfer functions for the period 1961–1990, which are then applied to the decade 1991–2000, where the results are evaluated. By using a large ensembles of model runs and a long construction period, we take into ...

 

Bias correction of the ENSEMBLES high resolution climate change projections for use by impact models: analysis of the climate change signal

  
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 117, No. D17. (16 September 2012), D17110, https://doi.org/10.1029/2012jd017968

Abstract

A statistical bias correction technique is applied to twelve high-resolution climate change simulations of temperature and precipitation over Europe, under the SRES A1B scenario, produced for the EU project ENSEMBLES. The bias correction technique is based on a transfer function, estimated on current climate, which affects the whole Probability Distribution Function (PDF) of variables, and which is assumed constant between the current and future climate. The impact of bias correction on 21st Century projections, their inter-model variability, and the climate change ...

 

Wildfire modeling in GRASS GIS

  
(April 2014)

Abstract

[Description] This paper introduces implementation of wildfire modeling tool for GRASS GIS named r.fire.spread based on existing r.ros and r.spread modules which were reviewed as part of this project. The new tools was tested in the Lewis Mountain study area in Shenandoah National Park in Virginia and compared to an actual fire which happened in the area in April 2006. [Excerpt: Introduction] The core of wildre spread modeling in GRASS GIS [Neteler et al. 2012] consists of two modules r.ros and r.spread [Xu 1994]. ...

References

  1. Anderson, H.E., 1982. Aids to determining fuel models for estimating fire behavior. In: The Bark Beetles, Fuels, and Fire Bibliography, p.143. http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/pubs_int/int_gtr122.pdf , INRMM-MiD:12114185 .
  2. Clements, C.B., Perna, R., Jang, M., Lee, D., Patel, M., Street, S., Zhong, S., Goodrick, S., Li, J., Potter, B.E., Bian, X., 2007. Observing the dynamics of wildland grass fires: FireFlux-A field validation experiment. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 88(9), 1369-1382. https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-88-9-1369 .
 

A global 1-km consensus land-cover product for biodiversity and ecosystem modelling

  
Global Ecology and Biogeography, Vol. 23, No. 9. (1 September 2014), pp. 1031-1045, https://doi.org/10.1111/geb.12182

Abstract

[Aim] For many applications in biodiversity and ecology, existing remote sensing-derived land-cover products have limitations due to among-product inconsistency and their typically non-continuous nature. Here we aim to help address these shortcomings by generating a 1-km resolution global product that provides scale-integrated and accuracy-weighted consensus land-cover information on an approximately continuous scale. [Location] Global. [Methods] Using a generalized classification scheme and an accuracy-based integration approach, we integrated four global land-cover products. We evaluated the performance of this product compared with inputs for estimating subpixel 30-m resolution ...

 

Multi-scale land-use disaggregation modelling: concept and application to EU countries

  
Environmental Modelling & Software, Vol. 82 (August 2016), pp. 183-217, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsoft.2016.04.028

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] Development of a scale independent model to disaggregate land use data. [::] Generate high resolution maps for crops cultivated in EU-28. [::] Validation of model results by comparison with detailed survey data. [Abstract] Changes of carbon stocks in agricultural soils, emissions of greenhouse gases from agriculture, and the delivery of ecosystem services of agricultural landscapes depend on combinations of land-use, livestock density, farming practices, climate and soil types. Many environmental processes are highly non-linear. If the analysis of the environmental impact is based on ...

 

An integrated pan-tropical biomass map using multiple reference datasets

  
Global Change Biology, Vol. 22, No. 4. (April 2016), pp. 1406-1420, https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.13139

Abstract

We combined two existing datasets of vegetation aboveground biomass (AGB) (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 108, 2011, 9899; Nature Climate Change, 2, 2012, 182) into a pan-tropical AGB map at 1-km resolution using an independent reference dataset of field observations and locally calibrated high-resolution biomass maps, harmonized and upscaled to 14 477 1-km AGB estimates. Our data fusion approach uses bias removal and weighted linear averaging that incorporates and spatializes the biomass patterns ...

 

Topographic position and landforms analysis

  
In ESRI International User Conference (2001)

Abstract

[Excerpt: Introduction] Many physical and biological processes acting on the landscape are highly correlated with topographic position: a hilltop, valley bottom, exposed ridge, flat plain, upper or lower slope, and so on. Examples of these processes include soil erosion and deposition; hydrological balance and response; wind exposure; and cold air drainage. These biophysical attributes in turn are key predictors of habitat suitability, community composition, and species distribution and abundance. This poster presents an algorithm, implemented in GRID, for generating a multi-scale Topographic Position Index, classifying this index into slope position and ...

 

Landform classification for site evaluation and forest planning: integration between scientific approach and traditional concept

  
Sains Malaysiana, Vol. 43, No. 3. (2014), pp. 349-358

Abstract

In this paper, we present an automated classification method of landform elements using an application of SAGA GIS software. The spatial assessment was done on the Yambaru forest area (YFA) in the northernmost part of Okinawa Island, Japan. This task is performed through the detailed elevation grid analyses from DTM of YFA with a spatial scale of 10 × 10 m2 supported by The Geospatial Information Authority of Japan. The classification has ten classes; high ridges, midslope ridges, upland drainage, upper ...

 

Binless strategies for estimation of information from neural data

  
Physical Review E, Vol. 66, No. 5. (11 November 2002), 051903, https://doi.org/10.1103/physreve.66.051903

Abstract

We present an approach to estimate information carried by experimentally observed neural spike trains elicited by known stimuli. This approach makes use of an embedding of the observed spike trains into a set of vector spaces, and entropy estimates based on the nearest-neighbor Euclidean distances within these vector spaces [L. F. Kozachenko and N. N. Leonenko, Probl. Peredachi Inf. 23, 9 (1987)]. Using numerical examples, we show that this approach can be dramatically more efficient than standard bin-based approaches such as ...

 

A tutorial on independent component analysis

  
(11 Apr 2014)

Abstract

Independent component analysis (ICA) has become a standard data analysis technique applied to an array of problems in signal processing and machine learning. This tutorial provides an introduction to ICA based on linear algebra formulating an intuition for ICA from first principles. The goal of this tutorial is to provide a solid foundation on this advanced topic so that one might learn the motivation behind ICA, learn why and when to apply this technique and in the process gain an introduction to this exciting field of active research. [Excerpt: ...

 

Resource disambiguator for the web: extracting biomedical resources and their citations from the scientific literature

  
PLoS ONE, Vol. 11, No. 1. (5 January 2016), e0146300, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0146300

Abstract

The NIF Registry developed and maintained by the Neuroscience Information Framework is a cooperative project aimed at cataloging research resources, e.g., software tools, databases and tissue banks, funded largely by governments and available as tools to research scientists. Although originally conceived for neuroscience, the NIF Registry has over the years broadened in the scope to include research resources of general relevance to biomedical research. The current number of research resources listed by the Registry numbers over 13K. The broadening in scope ...

 

The integration of land change modeling framework FUTURES into GRASS GIS 7

  
In Free and Open Source Software for Geospatial - Open innovation for Europe, Vol. 12 (2015), pp. 21-24

Abstract

Many valuable models and tools developed by scientists are often inaccessible to their potential users because of non-existent sharing infrastructure or lack of documentation. Case in point is the FUTure Urban-Regional Environment Simulation (FUTURES), a patch-based land change model for generating scenario-based regional forecasts of urban growth pattern. Despite a high- impact publication, few scientists, planners, or policy makers have adopted FUTURES due to complexity in use and lack of direct access. We seek to address these issues by integrating FUTURES into GRASS GIS, a free and open source ...

References

  1. Bivand, R. (2007). Using the R–Grass interface. OSGeo Journal, 1, 36-38.
  2. Chemin, Y Petras, V., Petrasova, A., Landa, M., Gebbert, S., Zambelli, P., Neteler, M., Löwe, P., Di Leo, M. (2015). GRASS GIS: a peer-reviewed scientific platform and future research repository. Geophysical Research Abstracts 17, 8314+. INRMM-MiD:13544126
  3. Di Leo, M., de Rigo, D., Rodriguez-Aseretto, D., Bosco, C., Petroliagkis, T., Camia, A., San-Miguel-Ayanz, J. (2013). Dynamic data driven ensemble for wildfire behaviour
 

Is my species distribution model fit for purpose? Matching data and models to applications

  
Global Ecology and Biogeography, Vol. 24, No. 3. (February 2015), pp. 276-292, https://doi.org/10.1111/geb.12268

Abstract

Species distribution models (SDMs) are used to inform a range of ecological, biogeographical and conservation applications. However, users often underestimate the strong links between data type, model output and suitability for end-use. We synthesize current knowledge and provide a simple framework that summarizes how interactions between data type and the sampling process (i.e. imperfect detection and sampling bias) determine the quantity that is estimated by a SDM. We then draw upon the published literature and simulations to illustrate and evaluate the ...

Visual summary

 

The pathologies of big data

  
Commun. ACM, Vol. 52, No. 8. (August 2009), pp. 36-44, https://doi.org/10.1145/1536616.1536632

Abstract

Scale up your datasets enough and your apps come undone. What are the typical problems and where do the bottlenecks surface? ...

 

Ecological relevance of performance criteria for species distribution models

  
Ecological Modelling, Vol. 221, No. 16. (10 August 2010), pp. 1995-2002, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2010.04.017

Abstract

Species distribution models have often been developed based on ecological data. To develop reliable data-driven models, however, a sound model training and evaluation procedures are needed. A crucial step in these procedures is the assessment of the model performance, with as key component the applied performance criterion. Therefore, we reviewed seven performance criteria commonly applied in presence–absence modelling (the correctly classified instances, Kappa, sensitivity, specificity, the normalised mutual information statistic, the true skill statistic and the odds ratio) and analysed their ...

 

Data-based mechanistic modelling of environmental, ecological, economic and engineering systems

  
Environmental Modelling and Software, Vol. 13, No. 2. (April 1998), pp. 105-122, https://doi.org/10.1016/s1364-8152(98)00011-5

Abstract

Mathematical modelling in the natural and engineering sciences is most often dominated by a philosophy of deterministic reductionism. Moreover, many of the ‘simulation' models that emerge from this approach to modelling are very large and so difficult to identify, estimate (i.e. calibrate) and validate in rigorous statistical terms. In this situation, it seems sensible to consider alternative modelling strategies which overtly acknowledge these data-based modelling difficulties and address the very real problems of calibration and validation associated with the dynamic modelling ...

 

Forest fires and adaptation options in Europe

  
Regional Environmental Change, Vol. 16, No. 1. (2016), pp. 21-30, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10113-014-0621-0

Abstract

This paper presents a quantitative assessment of adaptation options in the context of forest fires in Europe under projected climate change. A standalone fire model (SFM) based on a state-of-the-art large-scale forest fire modelling algorithm is used to explore fuel removal through prescribed burnings and improved fire suppression as adaptation options. The climate change projections are provided by three climate models reflecting the SRES A2 scenario. The SFM’s modelled burned areas for selected test countries in Europe show satisfying agreement with ...

 

Architecture of Environmental Risk Modelling: for a faster and more robust response to natural disasters

  
In 3rd Conference of Computational Interdisciplinary Sciences (2014), pp. 46-57

Abstract

Demands on the disaster response capacity of the European Union are likely to increase, as the impacts of disasters continue to grow both in size and frequency. This has resulted in intensive research on issues concerning spatially-explicit information and modelling and their multiple sources of uncertainty. Geospatial support is one of the forms of assistance frequently required by emergency response centres along with hazard forecast and event management assessment. Robust modelling of natural hazards requires dynamic simulations under an array of ...

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Spatiotemporal patterns of observed bark beetle-caused tree mortality in British Columbia and the western United States

  
Ecological Applications, Vol. 22, No. 7. (October 2012), pp. 1876-1891, https://doi.org/10.1890/11-1785.1

Abstract

Outbreaks of aggressive bark beetle species cause widespread tree mortality, affecting timber production, wildlife habitat, wildfire, forest composition and structure, biogeochemical cycling, and biogeophysical processes. As a result, agencies responsible for forest management in the United States and British Columbia conduct aerial surveys to map these forest disturbances. Here we combined aerial surveys from British Columbia (2001–2010) and the western conterminous United States (1997–2010), produced 1-km2 grids of the area of crown mortality from bark beetle attack, and analyzed spatial and ...

 

Cyberinfrastructure vision for 21st century discovery

  
No. NSF 07-28. (2007)

Abstract

[Executive summary] NSF’s Cyberinfrastructure Vision for 21st Century Discovery is presented in a set of interrelated chapters that describe the various challenges and opportunities in the complementary areas that make up cyberinfrastructure: computing systems, data, information resources, networking, digitally enabled-sensors, instruments, virtual organizations, and observatories, along with an interoperable suite of software services and tools. This technology is complemented by the interdisciplinary teams of professionals that are responsible for its development, deployment and its use in transformative approaches to scientific and ...

 

Process-based modeling of species' distributions: What limits temperate tree species' range boundaries?

  
Ecology, Vol. 88, No. 9. (September 2007), pp. 2280-2291, https://doi.org/10.1890/06-1591.1

Abstract

Niche-based models are widely used to understand what environmental factors determine species' distributions, but they do not provide a clear framework to study the processes involved in defining species' ranges. Here we used a process-based model to identify these processes and to assess the potential distribution of 17 North American boreal/temperate tree species. Using input of only climate and soil properties, the model reproduced the 17 species' distributions accurately. Our results allowed us to identify the climatic factors as well as ...

 

Supplementary materials for: a proposal for an integrated modelling framework to characterise habitat pattern

  
(2014)

Abstract

In Estreguil et al. (Environ Modell Softw 52, 176-191, 2014), an integrated modelling framework is proposed to characterise habitat pattern. The modelling approach is there exemplified by deriving a set of twelve indices aggregated into four categories: general landscape composition, habitat morphology, edge interface and connectivity. The easy and reproducible computability is ensured with the integrated use of publicly available software (GUIDOS free-download software, Conefor free software) and of newly programmed tools. A statistical analysis is then conducted using classical linear ...

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