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Selection: with tag cost-benefit-analysis [21 articles] 


The real cost of energy

Nature, Vol. 553, No. 7682. (2017), pp. S145-S147,


All energy production has environmental and societal effects. But calculating them — and pricing energy accordingly — is no easy task. [Excerpt] [...] Electricity production is rife with externalities. Mining for raw materials often causes water pollution, habitat destruction and socio-economic harm. Burning coal pollutes the air, sickening and killing people, and introduces toxic mercury into the aquatic food chain. Nuclear-power plants require the clean-up and maintenance of radioactive materials after decommissioning. Energy production uses water, sometimes at the expense of agriculture and ...


The economic possibilities of conservation

The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 27, No. 3. (01 May 1913), pp. 497-519,


[Excerpt] It is desirable to confine the idea of conservation to its original application to natural resources. Even in this sense the concept as developed in the conservation movement comprises several distinct purposes, which are not clearly separated in the popular mind. In the first place, it expresses a demand for a fair distribution of the natural resources not yet alienated. [\n] [...] The real heart of the conservation problem presents an issue which taxes the resources of economic theory to the utmost. ...


Environmental tipping points significantly affect the cost−benefit assessment of climate policies

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 112, No. 15. (14 April 2015), pp. 4606-4611,


[Significance] Most current cost−benefit analyses of climate change suggest global climate policy should be relatively weak. However, relatively few studies account for the market or nonmarket impacts of passing environmental tipping points that cause abrupt and irreversible damages. We use a stochastic dynamic model of the climate and economy to quantify the effect of tipping points on climate change policy. We show that environmental tipping points can profoundly alter cost−benefit analysis, justifying a much more stringent climate policy, which takes the form ...


Collapse of cooperation in evolving games

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 111, No. 49. (9 December 2014), pp. 17558-17563,


[Significance] This study offers a new perspective on an age-old question: When does cooperation emerge in populations? Two-player games used to study this question produce an array of counterintuitive results. And yet a consensus has emerged that, in an evolving population, cooperation tends to triumph over cheating––through reciprocity and generosity. But, what happens when players can influence not only their tendencies to cooperate, but also the rewards they reap for cooperation? We analyze coevolution of strategies and payoffs and find that, ...


Monetary valuation of ecosystem services: it matters to get the timeline right

Ecological Economics, Vol. 95 (November 2013), pp. 231-235,


In the abundant literature dealing with the monetary valuation, or monetization, of ecosystem services (MES), with very few exceptions, the concept is presented as having emerged in 1997. In fact, there is a long history, starting in the late fifties but largely ignored, of sustained attempts to assign monetary values to nature's services. These early efforts encountered many conceptual and methodological roadblocks, which could not be resolved and led a number of researchers to argue that monetary valuation was not a ...


Using and improving the social cost of carbon

Science, Vol. 346, No. 6214. (05 December 2014), pp. 1189-1190,


The social cost of carbon (SCC) is a crucial tool for economic analysis of climate policies. The SCC estimates the dollar value of reduced climate change damages associated with a one-metric-ton reduction in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Although the conceptual basis, challenges, and merits of the SCC are well established, its use in government cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is relatively new. In light of challenges in constructing the SCC, its newness in government regulation, and the importance of updating, we propose an ...


Fat-Tailed Uncertainty in the Economics of Catastrophic Climate Change

Review of Environmental Economics and Policy, Vol. 5, No. 2. (01 July 2011), pp. 275-292,


In this article, I revisit some basic issues concerning structural uncertainty and catastrophic climate change. My target audience here are general economists, so this article could also be viewed as a somewhat less technical exposition that supplements my previous work. Using empirical examples, I argue that it is implausible that low-probability, high-negative impact events would not much influence an economic analysis of climate change. I then try to integrate the empirical examples and the theory together into a unified package with ...


Putting cost-benefit analysis in its place: rethinking regulatory review

University of Miami Law Review, Vol. 65 (2011), 335


Policymakers need to reassess the role of cost-benefit analysis (CBA) in regulatory review. Although it remains a valuable tool, a number of pressing current problems do not fit well into the CBA paradigm. In particular, climate change, nuclear accident risks, and the preservation of biodiversity can have very long-run impacts that may produce catastrophic and irreversible effects. This article seeks to put cost-benefit analysis in its place by demonstrating both its strengths and its limitations. The Obama Administration should rethink the ...


Embedded value systems in sustainability assessment tools and their implications

Journal of Environmental Management, Vol. 91, No. 8. (22 August 2010), pp. 1613-1622,


This paper explores the implications that arise with the selection of specific sustainability evaluation tools. Sustainability evaluation tools are conceptualized in this paper as value articulating institutions and as such their choice is a far from a trivial matter. In fact their choice can entail various ethical and practical repercussions. However, in most cases the choice of the evaluation tool is made by the analyst(s) without taking into consideration the values of the affected stakeholders. By choosing the analytical tool the ...


A critical review of reductionist approaches for assessing the progress towards sustainability

Environmental Impact Assessment Review, Vol. 28, No. 4-5. (May 2008), pp. 286-311,


The increasing prominence of Sustainable Development as a policy objective has initiated a debate on appropriate frameworks and tools that will both provide guidance for a shift towards sustainability as well as a measure, preferably quantitative, of that shift. Sustainability assessment has thus the challenging task of capturing, addressing and suggesting solutions for a diverse set of issues that affect stakeholders with different values and span over different spatial and temporal scales. However sustainability assessment is still not a mature framework ...


Pricing the priceless: cost-benefit analysis of environmental protection

University of Pennsylvania Law Review, Vol. 150, No. 5. (May 2002), pp. 1553-1584,


[Introduction] Many analytical approaches to setting environmental standards require some consideration of costs and benefits. Even technology- based regulation, maligned by cost-benefit enthusiasts as the worst form of regulatory excess, typically entails consideration of economic costs. Cost-benefit analysis differs, however, from other analytical approaches in the following respect: it demands that the advantages and disadvantages of a regulatory policy be reduced, as far as possible, to numbers, and then further reduced to dollars and cents. In this feature of cost-benefit analysis ...


The economic value of human life

American Journal of Public Health and the Nations Health, Vol. 57, No. 11. (November 1967), pp. 1954-1966,


To establish the economic value of a human life, lifetime earnings discounted at a 4 per cent rate are presented by age, sex, color, and education. These estimates are intended for use by economists, program planners, and others. Various specific findings are reported. ...


(INRMM-MiD internal record) List of keywords of the INRMM meta-information database - part 8

(February 2014)
Keywords: coldwaves   coleophora-laricella   collaborative-design   collection   collective-intelligence   colli-euganei   collinearity   colombia   colophospermum-mopane   color-photos   colorado   colutea-arborescens   combretum-imberbe   combustion-emission   command-line   common-bird-index   common-name-alder   common-name-ash   common-name-beech   common-name-yew   communicating-uncertainty   community   community-modelling   community-structure   community-structures   comparison   competition   complexes   complexity   complexity-vs-uncertainty   component-based   compsidia-populnea   compsilura-concinnata   computational-science   computational-science-automation   computer-science   cone-crop   conefor-sensinode   conflicts   congo   coniferales   coniferophyta   coniferopsida   conifers   connectivity   conocarpus-erectus   consensus   conservation   conservation-biology   conservation-strategies   console   constrained-innovation   constrained-spatial-multi-frequency-analysis   context-aware   continental-scale   continuity   control-problem   controversial-monetarisation   conyza-canadensis   cooperation   coppice   coppice-forest   coppice-sessile-oak   coppice-stools   copyleft   cordia-boissieri   cordia-sebestena   cork   cornus-florida   cornus-mas   cornus-nuttallii   cornus-officinalis   cornus-sanguinea   cornus-spp   coroebus-florentinus   correlation-analysis   correlative-approach   corridors   corrigenda   corroboration   corsica   corsican-nuthatch   corsican-pine   corylus-avellana   corylus-colurna   corylus-spp   corymbia-calophylla   cosmetic-use   cossus-cossus   cost-benefit-analysis   costal-dunes   costs   cotinus-coggygria   cotoneaster-integerrimus   cotoneaster-nebrodensis   cotoneaster-spp   cotton   couroupita-guianensis   cowania-mexicana   inrmm-list-of-tags  


List of indexed keywords within the transdisciplinary set of domains which relate to the Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management (INRMM). In particular, the list of keywords maps the semantic tags in the INRMM Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD). [\n] The INRMM-MiD records providing this list are accessible by the special tag: inrmm-list-of-tags ( ). ...


Pricing Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services: The Never-Ending Story

BioScience, Vol. 50, No. 4. (2000), pp. 347-355,[0347:pbaest];2


[Excerpt from the Conclusions] An impressive literature is available on environmental impact assessment and multiattribute analysis that documents the experience gained through 30 years of study and application. Nevertheless, these studies seem to be confined to the area of urban planning and are almost completely ignored by present-day economists as well as by many ecologists. Somewhere between the assignment of a zero value to biodiversity (the old-fashioned but still used practice, in which environmental impacts are viewed as externalities to be ...


Determining benefits and costs for future generations

Science, Vol. 341, No. 6144. (26 July 2013), pp. 349-350,


In economic project analysis, the rate at which future benefits and costs are discounted relative to current values often determines whether a project passes the benefit-cost test. This is especially true of projects with long time horizons, such as those to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Whether the benefits of climate policies, which can last for centuries, outweigh the costs, many of which are borne today, is especially sensitive to the rate at which future benefits are discounted. This is also ...


Uncertainties in landscape analysis and ecosystem service assessment

Journal of Environmental Management (January 2013),


Landscape analysis and ecosystem service assessment have drawn increasing concern from research and application at the landscape scale. Thanks to the continuously emerging assessments as well as studies aiming at evaluation method improvement, policy makers and landscape managers have an increasing interest in integrating ecosystem services into their decisions. However, the plausible assessments carry numerous sources of uncertainties, which regrettably tend to be ignored or disregarded by the actors or researchers. In order to cope with uncertainties and make them more ...


Precisely incorrect? Monetising the value of ecosystem services

Ecological Complexity, Vol. 7, No. 3. (September 2010), pp. 327-337,


Environmental scientists employ political and economic arguments to argue for the conservation of biodiversity and the maintenance of ecosystem services. However, the economic terminology has a number of connotations which makes its usefulness for the intended effect questionable. On the one hand, the basic assumptions underlying economic valuation are far from realistic and represent rather a caricature of human behaviour. On the other hand, the methods based on these assumptions are manifold and lead to wildly diverging results. Thus the calculated ...


The hidden cost of wildfires: economic valuation of health effects of wildfire smoke exposure in Southern California

Journal of Forest Economics, Vol. 18, No. 1. (January 2012), pp. 14-35,


There is a growing concern that human health impacts from exposure to wildfire smoke are ignored in estimates of monetized damages from wildfires. Current research highlights the need for better data collection and analysis of these impacts. Using unique primary data, this paper quantifies the economic cost of health effects from the largest wildfire in Los Angeles County's modern history. A cost of illness estimate is $9.50 per exposed person per day. However, theory and empirical research consistently find that this ...


Defining and classifying ecosystem services for decision making

Ecological Economics, Vol. 68, No. 3. (15 January 2009), pp. 643-653,


The concept of ecosystems services has become an important model for linking the functioning of ecosystems to human welfare. Understanding this link is critical for a wide-range of decision-making contexts. While there have been several attempts to come up with a classification scheme for ecosystem services, there has not been an agreed upon, meaningful and consistent definition for ecosystem services. In this paper we offer a definition of ecosystem services that is likely to be operational for ecosystem service research and ...


Democracy and sustainable development - What is the alternative to cost-benefit analysis?

Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management, Vol. 2, No. 2. (April 2006), pp. 182-190,


Cost–benefit analysis (CBA) is part of neoclassical economics, a specific paradigm, or theoretical perspective. In searching for alternatives to CBA, competing theoretical frameworks in economics appear to be a natural starting point. Positional analysis (PA) as an alternative to CBA is built on institutional theory and a different set of assumptions about human beings, organizations, markets, etc. Sustainable development (SD) is a multidimensional concept that includes social and ecological dimensions in addition to monetary aspects. If the political commitment to SD ...


Toward a different debate in environmental accounting: the cases of carbon and cost–benefit

Accounting, Organizations and Society, Vol. 34, No. 3-4. (April 2009), pp. 499-534,


Many champions of environmental accounting suggest that calculating and internalizing ‘externalities’ is the solution to environmental problems. Many critics of neoliberalism counter that the spread of market-like calculations into ‘non-market’ spheres, is, on the contrary, itself at the root of such problems. This article proposes setting aside this debate and instead closely examining the concrete conflicts, contradictions and resistances engendered by environmental accounting techniques and the perpetually incomplete efforts of accountants and their allies to overcome them. In particular, it explores ...

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Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD).
This database integrates a dedicated meta-information database in CiteULike (the CiteULike INRMM Group) with the meta-information available in Google Scholar, CrossRef and DataCite. The Altmetric database with Article-Level Metrics is also harvested. Part of the provided semantic content (machine-readable) is made even human-readable thanks to the DCMI Dublin Core viewer. Digital preservation of the meta-information indexed within the INRMM-MiD publication records is implemented thanks to the Internet Archive.
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Full-text and abstracts of the publications indexed by the INRMM meta-information database are copyrighted by the respective publishers/authors. They are subject to all applicable copyright protection. The conditions of use of each indexed publication is defined by its copyright owner. Please, be aware that the indexed meta-information entirely relies on voluntary work and constitutes a quite incomplete and not homogeneous work-in-progress.
INRMM-MiD was experimentally established by the Maieutike Research Initiative in 2008 and then improved with the help of several volunteers (with a major technical upgrade in 2011). This new integrated interface is operational since 2014.