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Selection: with tag controversial-monetarisation [23 articles] 


Meta-analysis of field experiments shows no change in racial discrimination in hiring over time

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 114, No. 41. (10 October 2017), pp. 10870-10875,


[Significance] Many scholars have argued that discrimination in American society has decreased over time, while others point to persisting race and ethnic gaps and subtle forms of prejudice. The question has remained unsettled due to the indirect methods often used to assess levels of discrimination. We assess trends in hiring discrimination against African Americans and Latinos over time by analyzing callback rates from all available field experiments of hiring, capitalizing on the direct measure of discrimination and strong causal validity of these ...


Helping a victim or helping the victim: altruism and identifiability

Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, Vol. 26, No. 1. (2003), pp. 5-16,


Although it has been claimed that people care more about identifiable than statistical victims, demonstrating this “identifiable victim effect” has proven difficult because identification usually provides information about a victim, and people may respond to the information rather than to identification per se. We show that a very weak form of identifiability—determining the victim without providing any personalizing information—increases caring. In the first, laboratory study, subjects were more willing to compensate others who lost money when the losers had already been ...


Forest value: more than commercial

Science, Vol. 354, No. 6319. (23 December 2016), pp. 1541-1541,


[Excerpt] [...] Postulating a positive relation between tree species richness and commercial value could potentially have adverse environmental consequences. For example, concluding that megadiverse tropical forests have innate commercial value would make it unnecessary to supplement this supposed value with rewards for landowners who preserve their native forests. Landowners might then continue to convert such forests to profitable monocultures [...] which have real commercial value. Species-rich forests indeed have an extremely high conservation and ecosystem service value, but their commercial value ...


Forest value: more than commercial - Response

Science, Vol. 354, No. 6319. (23 December 2016), pp. 1541-1542,


[Excerpt] Paul and Knoke address the commercial value and profitability of forest biodiversity, which differs fundamentally from the economic value that we outlined in our Research Article. [...] Our estimates pertain to the sole contribution of tree species diversity, as it exists today, to global forest productivity, from which the economic value accrues. Our analysis—which includes nonmarket values not commonly captured in commercial forestry but excludes the contribution of forest biodiversity to carbon sequestration, wildlife habitat, and aesthetic and cultural values—reflects ...



In The development dictionary: a guide to knowledge as power (2010), pp. 228-242
edited by Wolfgang Sachs


[Excerpt] ‘Resource’ originally implied life. Its root is the Latin verb surgere, which evoked the image of a spring that continually rises from the ground. Like a spring, a ‘re-source’ rises again and again, even if it has repeatedly been used and consumed. The concept thus highlighted nature’s power of self-regeneration and called attention to her prodigious creativity. Moreover, it implied an ancient idea about the relationship between humans and nature: that the earth bestows gifts on humans who, in turn, are well advised to show diligence in ...


The true loss caused by biodiversity offsets

Biological Conservation, Vol. 192 (December 2015), pp. 552-559,


Biodiversity offsets aim to achieve a “no-net-loss” of biodiversity, ecosystem functions and services due to development. The “no-net-less” objective assumes that the multi-dimensional values of biodiversity in complex ecosystems can be isolated from their spatial, evolutionary, historical, social, and moral context. We examine the irreplaceability of ecosystems, the limits of restoration, and the environmental values that claim to be compensated through ecosystem restoration. We discuss multiple ecological, instrumental, and non-instrumental values of ecosystems that should be considered in offsetting calculations. Considering ...


Pivotal cultural values of nature cannot be integrated into the ecosystem services framework

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 109, No. 46. (13 November 2012), pp. E3146-E3146,


[Excerpt] In a recent issue of PNAS, Daniel et al. (1) attempted to advance the integration of cultural values and cultural ecosystem services (ES) into the ES framework. Although I agree with the authors that cultural values are of eminent importance, I see two flaws in their argument. [\n]The range of cultural values correlating to ecological structures and functions is much more limited than they claim. Many cultural values attaching to the natural/cultivated environment cannot be addressed in this way. An area’s appropriateness for recreational activities ...


Where are cultural and social in ecosystem services? A framework for constructive engagement

BioScience, Vol. 62, No. 8. (01 August 2012), pp. 744-756,


A focus on ecosystem services (ES) is seen as a means for improving decisionmaking. In the research to date, the valuation of the material contributions of ecosystems to human well-being has been emphasized, with less attention to important cultural ES and nonmaterial values. This gap persists because there is no commonly accepted framework for eliciting less tangible values, characterizing their changes, and including them alongside other services in decisionmaking. Here, we develop such a framework for ES research and practice, addressing ...


Contingent valuation: from dubious to hopeless

Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol. 26, No. 4. (November 2012), pp. 43-56,


Approximately 20 years ago, Peter Diamond and I wrote an article for this journal analyzing contingent valuation methods. At that time Peter's view was contingent valuation was hopeless, while I was dubious but somewhat more optimistic. But 20 years later, after millions of dollars of largely govemment-research, 1 have concluded that Peter's earlier position was correct and that contingent valuation is hopeless. In this paper; I selectively review the continc valuation literature, focusing on empirical results. I find that three long-standing ...


Environmental tipping points significantly affect the cost−benefit assessment of climate policies

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 112, No. 15. (14 April 2015), pp. 4606-4611,


[Significance] Most current cost−benefit analyses of climate change suggest global climate policy should be relatively weak. However, relatively few studies account for the market or nonmarket impacts of passing environmental tipping points that cause abrupt and irreversible damages. We use a stochastic dynamic model of the climate and economy to quantify the effect of tipping points on climate change policy. We show that environmental tipping points can profoundly alter cost−benefit analysis, justifying a much more stringent climate policy, which takes the form ...


Monetary valuation of ecosystem services: it matters to get the timeline right

Ecological Economics, Vol. 95 (November 2013), pp. 231-235,


In the abundant literature dealing with the monetary valuation, or monetization, of ecosystem services (MES), with very few exceptions, the concept is presented as having emerged in 1997. In fact, there is a long history, starting in the late fifties but largely ignored, of sustained attempts to assign monetary values to nature's services. These early efforts encountered many conceptual and methodological roadblocks, which could not be resolved and led a number of researchers to argue that monetary valuation was not a ...


Mapping ecosystem service supply, demand and budgets

Ecological Indicators, Vol. 21 (October 2012), pp. 17-29,


[Abstract] Among the main effects of human activities on the environment are land use and resulting land cover changes. Such changes impact the capacity of ecosystems to provide goods and services to the human society. This supply of multiple goods and services by nature should match the demands of the society, if self-sustaining human–environmental systems and a sustainable utilization of natural capital are to be achieved. To describe respective states and dynamics, appropriate indicators and data for their quantification, including quantitative ...


Using and improving the social cost of carbon

Science, Vol. 346, No. 6214. (05 December 2014), pp. 1189-1190,


The social cost of carbon (SCC) is a crucial tool for economic analysis of climate policies. The SCC estimates the dollar value of reduced climate change damages associated with a one-metric-ton reduction in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Although the conceptual basis, challenges, and merits of the SCC are well established, its use in government cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is relatively new. In light of challenges in constructing the SCC, its newness in government regulation, and the importance of updating, we propose an ...


Business culture and dishonesty in the banking industry

Nature, Vol. 516, No. 7529. (19 November 2014), pp. 86-89,


Trust in others' honesty is a key component of the long-term performance of firms, industries, and even whole countries. However, in recent years, numerous scandals involving fraud have undermined confidence in the financial industry. Contemporary commentators have attributed these scandals to the financial sector's business culture, but no scientific evidence supports this claim. Here we show that employees of a large, international bank behave, on average, honestly in a control condition. However, when their professional identity as bank employees is rendered ...


Putting cost-benefit analysis in its place: rethinking regulatory review

University of Miami Law Review, Vol. 65 (2011), 335


Policymakers need to reassess the role of cost-benefit analysis (CBA) in regulatory review. Although it remains a valuable tool, a number of pressing current problems do not fit well into the CBA paradigm. In particular, climate change, nuclear accident risks, and the preservation of biodiversity can have very long-run impacts that may produce catastrophic and irreversible effects. This article seeks to put cost-benefit analysis in its place by demonstrating both its strengths and its limitations. The Obama Administration should rethink the ...


Embedded value systems in sustainability assessment tools and their implications

Journal of Environmental Management, Vol. 91, No. 8. (22 August 2010), pp. 1613-1622,


This paper explores the implications that arise with the selection of specific sustainability evaluation tools. Sustainability evaluation tools are conceptualized in this paper as value articulating institutions and as such their choice is a far from a trivial matter. In fact their choice can entail various ethical and practical repercussions. However, in most cases the choice of the evaluation tool is made by the analyst(s) without taking into consideration the values of the affected stakeholders. By choosing the analytical tool the ...


A critical review of reductionist approaches for assessing the progress towards sustainability

Environmental Impact Assessment Review, Vol. 28, No. 4-5. (May 2008), pp. 286-311,


The increasing prominence of Sustainable Development as a policy objective has initiated a debate on appropriate frameworks and tools that will both provide guidance for a shift towards sustainability as well as a measure, preferably quantitative, of that shift. Sustainability assessment has thus the challenging task of capturing, addressing and suggesting solutions for a diverse set of issues that affect stakeholders with different values and span over different spatial and temporal scales. However sustainability assessment is still not a mature framework ...


Pricing the priceless: cost-benefit analysis of environmental protection

University of Pennsylvania Law Review, Vol. 150, No. 5. (May 2002), pp. 1553-1584,


[Introduction] Many analytical approaches to setting environmental standards require some consideration of costs and benefits. Even technology- based regulation, maligned by cost-benefit enthusiasts as the worst form of regulatory excess, typically entails consideration of economic costs. Cost-benefit analysis differs, however, from other analytical approaches in the following respect: it demands that the advantages and disadvantages of a regulatory policy be reduced, as far as possible, to numbers, and then further reduced to dollars and cents. In this feature of cost-benefit analysis ...


The economic value of human life

American Journal of Public Health and the Nations Health, Vol. 57, No. 11. (November 1967), pp. 1954-1966,


To establish the economic value of a human life, lifetime earnings discounted at a 4 per cent rate are presented by age, sex, color, and education. These estimates are intended for use by economists, program planners, and others. Various specific findings are reported. ...


(INRMM-MiD internal record) List of keywords of the INRMM meta-information database - part 8

(February 2014)
Keywords: coldwaves   coleophora-laricella   collaborative-design   collection   collective-intelligence   colli-euganei   collinearity   colombia   colophospermum-mopane   color-photos   colorado   colutea-arborescens   combretum-imberbe   combustion-emission   command-line   common-bird-index   common-name-alder   common-name-ash   common-name-beech   common-name-yew   communicating-uncertainty   community   community-modelling   community-structure   community-structures   comparison   competition   complexes   complexity   complexity-vs-uncertainty   component-based   compsidia-populnea   compsilura-concinnata   computational-science   computational-science-automation   computer-science   cone-crop   conefor-sensinode   conflicts   congo   coniferales   coniferophyta   coniferopsida   conifers   connectivity   conocarpus-erectus   consensus   conservation   conservation-biology   conservation-strategies   console   constrained-innovation   constrained-spatial-multi-frequency-analysis   context-aware   continental-scale   continuity   control-problem   controversial-monetarisation   conyza-canadensis   cooperation   coppice   coppice-forest   coppice-sessile-oak   coppice-stools   copyleft   cordia-boissieri   cordia-sebestena   cork   cornus-florida   cornus-mas   cornus-nuttallii   cornus-officinalis   cornus-sanguinea   cornus-spp   coroebus-florentinus   correlation-analysis   correlative-approach   corridors   corrigenda   corroboration   corsica   corsican-nuthatch   corsican-pine   corylus-avellana   corylus-colurna   corylus-spp   corymbia-calophylla   cosmetic-use   cossus-cossus   cost-benefit-analysis   costal-dunes   costs   cotinus-coggygria   cotoneaster-integerrimus   cotoneaster-nebrodensis   cotoneaster-spp   cotton   couroupita-guianensis   cowania-mexicana   inrmm-list-of-tags  


List of indexed keywords within the transdisciplinary set of domains which relate to the Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management (INRMM). In particular, the list of keywords maps the semantic tags in the INRMM Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD). [\n] The INRMM-MiD records providing this list are accessible by the special tag: inrmm-list-of-tags ( ). ...


Supply and demand: apply market forces to peer review

Nature, Vol. 506, No. 7488. (19 February 2014), pp. 295-295,


[excerpt] [...] When it comes to the highly skilled service of peer reviewing, the supply is sufficiently high to keep the monetary value at zero. If, at a constant level of demand, the supply is reduced, then this price would go up. With an increased price, people could become professional reviewers to supplement their salary. [...] ...


Democracy and sustainable development - What is the alternative to cost-benefit analysis?

Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management, Vol. 2, No. 2. (April 2006), pp. 182-190,


Cost–benefit analysis (CBA) is part of neoclassical economics, a specific paradigm, or theoretical perspective. In searching for alternatives to CBA, competing theoretical frameworks in economics appear to be a natural starting point. Positional analysis (PA) as an alternative to CBA is built on institutional theory and a different set of assumptions about human beings, organizations, markets, etc. Sustainable development (SD) is a multidimensional concept that includes social and ecological dimensions in addition to monetary aspects. If the political commitment to SD ...


Toward a different debate in environmental accounting: the cases of carbon and cost–benefit

Accounting, Organizations and Society, Vol. 34, No. 3-4. (April 2009), pp. 499-534,


Many champions of environmental accounting suggest that calculating and internalizing ‘externalities’ is the solution to environmental problems. Many critics of neoliberalism counter that the spread of market-like calculations into ‘non-market’ spheres, is, on the contrary, itself at the root of such problems. This article proposes setting aside this debate and instead closely examining the concrete conflicts, contradictions and resistances engendered by environmental accounting techniques and the perpetually incomplete efforts of accountants and their allies to overcome them. In particular, it explores ...

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Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management - Meta-information Database.

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Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD).
This database integrates a dedicated meta-information database in CiteULike (the CiteULike INRMM Group) with the meta-information available in Google Scholar, CrossRef and DataCite. The Altmetric database with Article-Level Metrics is also harvested. Part of the provided semantic content (machine-readable) is made even human-readable thanks to the DCMI Dublin Core viewer. Digital preservation of the meta-information indexed within the INRMM-MiD publication records is implemented thanks to the Internet Archive.
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Full-text and abstracts of the publications indexed by the INRMM meta-information database are copyrighted by the respective publishers/authors. They are subject to all applicable copyright protection. The conditions of use of each indexed publication is defined by its copyright owner. Please, be aware that the indexed meta-information entirely relies on voluntary work and constitutes a quite incomplete and not homogeneous work-in-progress.
INRMM-MiD was experimentally established by the Maieutike Research Initiative in 2008 and then improved with the help of several volunteers (with a major technical upgrade in 2011). This new integrated interface is operational since 2014.