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Selection: with tag constraints [8 articles] 

 

Beyond ∖newcommand with xparse

  
TUGboat, Vol. 31, No. 1. (2010), pp. 80-83

Abstract

[Excerpt: Introduction] The LATEX 2ε \newcommand macro is most LATEX users’ first choice for creating macros. As well as the ‘sanity checks’ it carries out, the ability to define macros with an optional argument is very useful. However, to go beyond using a single optional argument, or to create more complex input syntaxes, LATEX 2ε users have to do things ‘by hand’ using \def or load one of the packages which extend \newcommand (for example twoopt (Oberdiek, 2008)). [\n] As part of the ...

 

Regulation and stability of host-parasite population interactions: I - Regulatory processes

  
Journal of Animal Ecology, Vol. 47, No. 1. (February 1978), pp. 219-247, https://doi.org/10.2307/3933

Abstract

[::1] Several models describing the dynamics of host-parasite associations are discussed. [::2] The models contain the central assumption that the parasite increases the rate of host mortalities. The parasite induced changes in this rate are formulated as functions of the parasite numbers per host and hence of the statistical distribution of the parasites within the host population. [::3] The parameters influencing the ability of the parasite to regulate the growth of its host's population, and the stability of parasite induced equilibria, ...

 

Less than 2 °C? An economic-environmental evaluation of the Paris Agreement

  
Ecological Economics, Vol. 146 (April 2018), pp. 69-84, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2017.10.007

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] 188 countries' INDCs have been analysed from a policies, finance and emissions point of view. [::] Policies and finance are faced up with socio-economic and biophysical constraints. [::] Unilateralism and finance approach lead to mismatches between policies and global objectives. [::] Constraints and mismatches could explain the Paris Agreement ineffectiveness. [Abstract] The literature dedicated to the analysis of the different climate agreements has usually focused on the effectiveness of the aims for emissions in the light of the advance in climate change. This article quantifies ...

 

Fluctuations of animal populations and a measure of community stability

  
Ecology, Vol. 36, No. 3. (1 July 1955), pp. 533-536, https://doi.org/10.2307/1929601

Abstract

[Excerpt] Three assumptions will be made and a conclusion will be deduced from these. Since the conclusion is not always correct, it mill be justifiable to conclude that one or more of the assumptions is responsible. First, temporarily assume that the amount of energy entering the community (at the lowest trophic level, of course) does not vary with time. Second, assume that the length of time that energy is retained by a species before being passed on to the next doesn't change ...

 

Historical climate controls soil respiration responses to current soil moisture

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 114, No. 24. (13 June 2017), pp. 6322-6327, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1620811114

Abstract

[Significance] Ecosystems’ feedback to climate change remains a source of uncertainty in global models that project future climate conditions. That uncertainty rests largely on how much soil carbon will be lost as microbial respiration and how that loss varies across ecosystems. Although there has been a large emphasis on microbial temperature responses, how soil microorganisms respond to changes in moisture remains poorly understood. Here we show that historical rainfall controls soil respiration responses to current moisture. This finding was robust, with historical ...

 

Hybrid incompatibility caused by an epiallele

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 114, No. 14. (04 April 2017), pp. 3702-3707, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1700368114

Abstract

[Significance] Deleterious mutations in different copies of a duplicated gene pair have the potential to cause hybrid incompatibility between diverging subpopulations, contributing to reproductive isolation and speciation. This study demonstrates a case of epigenetic gene silencing rather than pseudogene creation by mutation, contributing to a lethal gene combination on hybridization of two ecotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana. Our findings provide direct evidence that naturally occurring epigenetic variation can contribute to incompatible hybrid genotypes, reducing gene flow between subtypes of the same species. [Abstract] Hybrid incompatibility ...

 

Ecological limits to plant phenotypic plasticity

  
New Phytologist, Vol. 176, No. 4. (December 2007), pp. 749-763, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2007.02275.x

Abstract

Phenotypic plasticity is considered the major means by which plants cope with environmental heterogeneity. Although ubiquitous in nature, actual phenotypic plasticity is far from being maximal. This has been explained by the existence of internal limits to its expression. However, phenotypic plasticity takes place within an ecological context and plants are generally exposed to multifactor environments and to simultaneous interactions with many species. These external, ecological factors may limit phenotypic plasticity or curtail its adaptive value, but seldom have they been ...

 

Constraints on global fire activity vary across a resource gradient

  
Ecology, Vol. 92, No. 1. (2011), pp. 121-132, https://doi.org/10.1890/09-1843.1

Abstract

We provide an empirical, global test of the varying constraints hypothesis, which predicts systematic heterogeneity in the relative importance of biomass resources to burn and atmospheric conditions suitable to burning (weather/climate) across a spatial gradient of long-term resource availability. Analyses were based on relationships between monthly global wildfire activity, soil moisture, and mid-tropospheric circulation data from 2001 to 2007, synthesized across a gradient of long-term averages in resources (net primary productivity), annual temperature, and terrestrial biome.We demonstrate support for the varying ...

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