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Selection: with tag conservation [at least 200 articles] 

 

Bushmeat hunting and extinction risk to the world's mammals

  
Royal Society Open Science, Vol. 3, No. 10. (01 October 2016), 160498, https://doi.org/10.1098/rsos.160498

Abstract

Terrestrial mammals are experiencing a massive collapse in their population sizes and geographical ranges around the world, but many of the drivers, patterns and consequences of this decline remain poorly understood. Here we provide an analysis showing that bushmeat hunting for mostly food and medicinal products is driving a global crisis whereby 301 terrestrial mammal species are threatened with extinction. Nearly all of these threatened species occur in developing countries where major coexisting threats include deforestation, agricultural expansion, human encroachment and ...

 

Biodiversity conservation: the key is reducing meat consumption

  
Science of The Total Environment, Vol. 536 (December 2015), pp. 419-431, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.07.022

Abstract

The consumption of animal-sourced food products by humans is one of the most powerful negative forces affecting the conservation of terrestrial ecosystems and biological diversity. Livestock production is the single largest driver of habitat loss, and both livestock and feedstock production are increasing in developing tropical countries where the majority of biological diversity resides. Bushmeat consumption in Africa and southeastern Asia, as well as the high growth-rate of per capita livestock consumption in China are of special concern. The projected land ...

 

Do not publish

  
Science, Vol. 356, No. 6340. (25 May 2017), pp. 800-801, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aan1362

Abstract

Biologists have long valued publishing detailed information on rare and endangered species. Until relatively recently, much of this information was accessible only through accessing specialized scientific journals in university libraries. However, much of these data have been transferred online with the advent of digital platforms and a rapid push to open-access publication. Information is increasingly also available online in public reports and wildlife atlases, and research published behind paywalls can often be found in the public domain. Increased data and information ...

 

Scale-dependent complementarity of climatic velocity and environmental diversity for identifying priority areas for conservation under climate change

  
Global Change Biology (March 2017), https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.13679

Abstract

As most regions of the earth transition to altered climatic conditions, new methods are needed to identify refugia and other areas whose conservation would facilitate persistence of biodiversity under climate change. We compared several common approaches to conservation planning focused on climate resilience over a broad range of ecological settings across North America and evaluated how commonalities in the priority areas identified by different methods varied with regional context and spatial scale. Our results indicate that priority areas based on different ...

 

An ecoregion-based approach to protecting half the terrestrial realm

  
BioScience (14 April 2017), https://doi.org/10.1093/biosci/bix014

Abstract

We assess progress toward the protection of 50% of the terrestrial biosphere to address the species-extinction crisis and conserve a global ecological heritage for future generations. Using a map of Earth's 846 terrestrial ecoregions, we show that 98 ecoregions (12%) exceed Half Protected; 313 ecoregions (37%) fall short of Half Protected but have sufficient unaltered habitat remaining to reach the target; and 207 ecoregions (24%) are in peril, where an average of only 4% of natural habitat remains. We propose a ...

 

A global map of roadless areas and their conservation status

  
Science, Vol. 354, No. 6318. (16 December 2016), pp. 1423-1427, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aaf7166

Abstract

[Too many roads] Roads have done much to help humanity spread across the planet and maintain global movement and trade. However, roads also damage wild areas and rapidly contribute to habitat degradation and species loss. Ibisch et al. cataloged the world's roads. Though most of the world is not covered by roads, it is fragmented by them, with only 7% of land patches created by roads being greater than 100 km2. Furthermore, environmental protection of roadless areas is insufficient, which could lead ...

 

Long-term variability of Abies alba in NW Romania: implications for its conservation management

  
Diversity and Distributions, Vol. 14, No. 6. (November 2008), pp. 1004-1017, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1472-4642.2008.00514.x

Abstract

[Aim] Although Abies alba is not yet prioritized for conservation in many European countries, its importance is acknowledged under the EU Directive on the marketing for forest reproductive material. The Apuseni National Park contains one of the largest areas of remnant native A. alba in central eastern Europe. Here, we examine the antiquity of the present A. alba communities in the forests of NW Romania and the drivers behind their variability over the last 6000 years leading to current distribution ...

 

Climate change, habitat loss, protected areas and the climate adaptation potential of species in Mediterranean ecosystems worldwide

  
PLOS ONE, Vol. 4, No. 7. (29 July 2009), e6392, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006392

Abstract

Mediterranean climate is found on five continents and supports five global biodiversity hotspots. Based on combined downscaled results from 23 atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs) for three emissions scenarios, we determined the projected spatial shifts in the mediterranean climate extent (MCE) over the next century. Although most AOGCMs project a moderate expansion in the global MCE, regional impacts are large and uneven. The median AOGCM simulation output for the three emissions scenarios project the MCE at the end of the 21st ...

 

Species+

  
(2013)

Abstract

[Excerpt] Species+, developed by UNEP-WCMC and the CITES Secretariat, is a website designed to assist Parties with implementing CITES, CMS and other multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs). Species+ provides a centralised portal for accessing key information on species of global concern. [\n] In particular, Species+ contains information on all species that are listed in the Appendices of CITES and CMS, as well as other CMS Family listings and species included in the Annexes to the EU Wildlife Trade Regulations. [\n] [...] ...

 

EUFORGEN Technical guidelines for genetic conservation and use for silver fir (Abies alba)

  
(2003)

Abstract

Since silver fir stands have been regenerated mainly naturally for a long period, there is reason to assume that they have preserved their original genetic structure and diversity, although the genetic composition of silver populations may have been modified by adaptation and/or drift processes. It is evident that in several parts of the distribution area genetic variation has been reduced due to the mentioned decline of silver fir. This reduction of population sizes may have reached a stage where the future ...

 

Species’ geographic ranges and distributional limits: pattern analysis and statistical issues

  
Oikos, Vol. 108, No. 1. (January 2005), pp. 7-17, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0030-1299.2005.13146.x

Abstract

With the increasing concern about species conservation, a need exists for quantitaive characterization of species' geographic range and their borders. In this paper, we survey tools appropriate for the quantification of static spatial patterns related to geographical ranges and their borders. We then build on these static methods to consider the problem of changes in geographic range through time. Methods discussed are illustrated using lark sparrow data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey. While there is no such thing as ...

 

Modelling potential impacts of climate change on the bioclimatic envelope of species in Britain and Ireland

  
Global Ecology and Biogeography, Vol. 11, No. 6. (November 2002), pp. 453-462, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1466-8238.2002.00304.x

Abstract

[Aim] Climate change has the potential to have significant impacts on the distribution of species and on the composition of habitats. This paper identifies the potential changes in the future distribution of species under the UKCIP98 climate change scenarios, in order that such changes can be taken into account in conservation management. [Location] The model was applied to Britain and Ireland. [Methods] A model based on an artificial neural network was used to predict the changing bioclimate envelopes of species in Britain and ...

 

Would climate change drive species out of reserves? An assessment of existing reserve-selection methods

  
Global Change Biology, Vol. 10, No. 9. (September 2004), pp. 1618-1626, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2004.00828.x

Abstract

Concern for climate change has not yet been integrated in protocols for reserve selection. However if climate changes as projected, there is a possibility that current reserve-selection methods might provide solutions that are inadequate to ensure species' long-term persistence within reserves. We assessed, for the first time, the ability of existing reserve-selection methods to secure species in a climate-change context. Six methods using a different combination of criteria (representation, suitability and reserve clustering) are compared. The assessment is carried out using ...

 

Europe's biodiversity avoids fatal setback

  
Science, Vol. 355, No. 6321. (13 January 2017), pp. 140-140, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aam6200

Abstract

[Excerpt] [...] The 1979 Birds Directive and 1992 Habitats Directive have proven instrumental for European nature conservation, contributing to the improved conservation status of many species. Today, more than 1500 species are protected under the Directives, and 18% of the European Union's land area and 6% of its oceans form part of the Natura 2000 network of protected areas. For these species and sites, the Directives impose legally binding, enforceable obligations on EU member states, as well as limits on potentially ...

 

Land-use intensification causes multitrophic homogenization of grassland communities

  
Nature (30 November 2016), https://doi.org/10.1038/nature20575

Abstract

Land-use intensification is a major driver of biodiversity loss1, 2. Alongside reductions in local species diversity, biotic homogenization at larger spatial scales is of great concern for conservation. Biotic homogenization means a decrease in β-diversity (the compositional dissimilarity between sites). Most studies have investigated losses in local (α)-diversity1, 3 and neglected biodiversity loss at larger spatial scales. Studies addressing β-diversity have focused on single or a few organism groups (for example, ref. 4), and it is thus unknown whether land-use intensification ...

 

Dam-building threatens Mekong fisheries

  
Science, Vol. 354, No. 6316. (02 December 2016), pp. 1084-1085, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.354.6316.1084

Abstract

[Excerpt] Every April, the pa nyawn catfish would make their way up the Mekong River to spawn, crowding through a narrow channel that skirts Khone Falls in southern Laos. Villagers netted the thumb-sized fish by the hundreds of thousands. Then, in 2014, work started on Don Sahong Dam, which straddles the channel. Although the dam won't be completed for another 2 years, construction has already cut off the migration and destroyed the fishing sites, says Zeb Hogan, a biologist with the ...

 

Positive biodiversity-productivity relationship predominant in global forests

  
Science, Vol. 354, No. 6309. (14 October 2016), aaf8957, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aaf8957

Abstract

[Abstract] The biodiversity-productivity relationship (BPR) is foundational to our understanding of the global extinction crisis and its impacts on ecosystem functioning. Understanding BPR is critical for the accurate valuation and effective conservation of biodiversity. Using ground-sourced data from 777,126 permanent plots, spanning 44 countries and most terrestrial biomes, we reveal a globally consistent positive concave-down BPR, showing that continued biodiversity loss would result in an accelerating decline in forest productivity worldwide. The value of biodiversity in maintaining commercial forest productivity alone—US$166 billion ...

 

The development of environmental thinking in economics

  
Environmental Values, Vol. 8, No. 4. (November 1999), pp. 413-435, https://doi.org/10.3197/096327199129341897

Abstract

There has always been a sub-group of established economists trying to convey an environmental critique of the mainstream. This paper traces their thinking into the late 20th century via the development of associations and journals in the USA and Europe. There is clearly a divergence between the conformity to neo-classical economics favoured by resource and environmental economists and the acceptance of more radical critiques apparent in ecological economics. Thus, the progressive elements of ecological economics are increasingly incompatible with those practising ...

 

The economic possibilities of conservation

  
The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 27, No. 3. (01 May 1913), pp. 497-519, https://doi.org/10.2307/1883375

Abstract

[Excerpt] It is desirable to confine the idea of conservation to its original application to natural resources. Even in this sense the concept as developed in the conservation movement comprises several distinct purposes, which are not clearly separated in the popular mind. In the first place, it expresses a demand for a fair distribution of the natural resources not yet alienated. [\n] [...] The real heart of the conservation problem presents an issue which taxes the resources of economic theory to the utmost. ...

 

'We're going backward!'

  
Communication of the ACM, Vol. 59, No. 10. (September 2016), pp. 7-7, https://doi.org/10.1145/2993746

Abstract

[Excerpt] [...] As we move toward the present, the media of our expression seems to have decreasing longevity. Of course, newer media have not been around as long as the older ones so their longevity has not been demonstrated but I think it is arguable that the more recent media do not have the resilience of stone or baked clay. Modern photographs may not last more than 150–200 years before they fade or disintegrate. Modern books, unless archival paper is used, ...

 

Biodiversity and ecosystem services: a multilayered relationship

  
Trends in Ecology & Evolution, Vol. 27, No. 1. (1 January 2012), pp. 19-26, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2011.08.006

Abstract

The relationship between biodiversity and the rapidly expanding research and policy field of ecosystem services is confused and is damaging efforts to create coherent policy. Using the widely accepted Convention on Biological Diversity definition of biodiversity and work for the UK National Ecosystem Assessment we show that biodiversity has key roles at all levels of the ecosystem service hierarchy: as a regulator of underpinning ecosystem processes, as a final ecosystem service and as a good that is subject to valuation, whether ...

 

Temperate and boreal rainforest relicts of Europe

  
In Temperate and Boreal Rainforests of the World: Ecology and Conservation (2011), pp. 154-180, https://doi.org/10.5822/978-1-61091-008-8_6
Keywords: abies-alba   acer-pseudoplatanus   aconitum-spp   alces-alces   alnus-glutinosa   alnus-incana   anemone-trifolia   aquila-chrysaetos   arthonia-leucopellaea   asplenium-scolopendrium   athyrium-filix-femina   balkan-peninsula   betula-pendula   betula-pubescens   biodiversity   bison-bonasus   boreal-forests   buteo-buteo   calluna-vulgaris   canis-lupus   capreolus-capreolus   carduus-personata   central-europe   cervus-elaphus   cervus-nippon   cicerbita-alpine   conservation   cortusa-matthioli   corylus-avellana   dryocopus-martius   dryopteris-carthusiana   dryopteris-dilatata   dryopteris-spp   endangered-species   epimedium-alpinum   euphorbia-austriaca   europe   fagus-sylvatica   felis-silvestris   forest-resources   fragmentation   fraxinus-excelsior   grazing   gymnocarpium-dryopteris   habitat-conservation   hacquetia-epipactis   hotspot   ilex-aquifolium   lagopus-muta   lamium-orvala   larix-eurolepis   lichens   lobaria-amplissima   lobaria-scrobiculata   lunaria-rediviva   lynx-lynx   lyrurus-tetrix   meles-meles   milvus-milvus   norway   omphalodes-verna   picea-abies   picea-sitchensis   pinus-contorta   pleurospermum-austriacum   populus-tremula   prunus-avium   pseudotsuga-menziesii   pyrenula-laevigata   quercus-petraea   quercus-robur   quercus-spp   rainforest   rhododendron-ponticum   rupicapra-rupicapra   salix-caprea   salix-spp   sanicula-europaea   saxifraga-rotundifolia   sorbus-aucuparia   strix-uralensis   sus-scrofa   taxus-baccata   temperate-forests   tetrao-urogallus   thalictrum-aquilegifolium   thelotrema-lepadinum   tilia-cordata   tilia-platyphyllos   ulmus-glabra   vaccinium-myrtillus  

Abstract

European temperate rainforests are disjunctly distributed from ~45° to 69°N latitude, where they are influenced by maritime climates (see figure 6-1). Storms originating in the North Atlantic and the Mediterranean (Balkans) provide for mild winters, cool summers, and adequate precipitation to sustain rainforests throughout the year. Due to extensive deforestation, however, today’s European rainforests are mere fragments of primeval rainforests. A reminder of a bygone era when rainforests flourished, they are barely hanging on as contemporary rainforest relicts (see box 6-1). ...

 

The precision problem in conservation and restoration

  
Trends in Ecology & Evolution (2016), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2016.08.001

Abstract

Within the varied contexts of environmental policy, conservation of imperilled species populations, and restoration of damaged habitats, an emphasis on idealized optimal conditions has led to increasingly specific targets for management. Overly-precise conservation targets can reduce habitat variability at multiple scales, with unintended consequences for future ecological resilience. We describe this dilemma in the context of endangered species management, stream restoration, and climate-change adaptation. Inappropriate application of conservation targets can be expensive, with marginal conservation benefit. Reduced habitat variability can limit ...

 

The role of biodiversity in supporting ecosystem services in Natura 2000 sites

  
Ecological Indicators, Vol. 24 (January 2013), pp. 12-22, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2012.05.016

Abstract

[Abstract] The recent discussion about the relationships between biodiversity and ecosystem services also raises the question as to whether the argumentative basis for nature conservation can be strengthened by emphasizing the role of species and habitats in supporting ecosystem services. A literature survey shows that mainly socio-cultural and some regulating services are dependent on particular species, groups of species, or habitat types, while many other services, especially those related to provisioning, rely more heavily on vegetation structures and land cover. These findings ...

 

A horizon scan of global conservation issues for 2016

  
Trends in Ecology & Evolution, Vol. 31, No. 1. (January 2016), pp. 44-53, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2015.11.007

Abstract

This paper presents the results of our seventh annual horizon scan, in which we aimed to identify issues that could have substantial effects on global biological diversity in the future, but are not currently widely well known or understood within the conservation community. Fifteen issues were identified by a team that included researchers, practitioners, professional horizon scanners, and journalists. The topics include use of managed bees as transporters of biological control agents, artificial superintelligence, electric pulse trawling, testosterone in the aquatic ...

 

Sixteen years of change in the global terrestrial human footprint and implications for biodiversity conservation

  
Nature Communications, Vol. 7 (23 August 2016), 12558, https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms12558

Abstract

Human pressures on the environment are changing spatially and temporally, with profound implications for the planet’s biodiversity and human economies. Here we use recently available data on infrastructure, land cover and human access into natural areas to construct a globally standardized measure of the cumulative human footprint on the terrestrial environment at 1 km2 resolution from 1993 to 2009. We note that while the human population has increased by 23% and the world economy has grown 153%, the human footprint has increased by just 9%. Still, 75% ...

 

Human activity differentially redistributes large mammals in the Canadian Rockies national parks

  
Ecology and Society, Vol. 16, No. 3. (2011), https://doi.org/10.5751/es-04251-160316

Abstract

National parks are important for conservation of species such as wolves (Canis lupus) and elk (Cervus canadensis). However, topography, vegetation conditions, and anthropogenic infrastructure within parks may limit available habitat. Human activity on trails and roads may lead to indirect habitat loss, further limiting available habitat. Predators and prey may respond differentially to human activity, potentially disrupting ecological processes. However, research on such impacts to wildlife is incomplete, especially at fine spatial and temporal scales. Our research investigated the relationship between ...

 

Collapse of the world's largest herbivores

  
Science Advances, Vol. 1, No. 4. (01 May 2015), pp. e1400103-e1400103, https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.1400103

Abstract

Large wild herbivores are crucial to ecosystems and human societies. We highlight the 74 largest terrestrial herbivore species on Earth (body mass ≥100 kg), the threats they face, their important and often overlooked ecosystem effects, and the conservation efforts needed to save them and their predators from extinction. Large herbivores are generally facing dramatic population declines and range contractions, such that ~60% are threatened with extinction. Nearly all threatened species are in developing countries, where major threats include hunting, land-use change, ...

 

Action plan for the conservation of the Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) in Europe

  
Vol. 111 (2000)

Abstract

[Excerpt: Executive summary] Amongst the European large carnivores, the Iberian lynx is the only endemic species. Hence, Europe must ensure the preservation of the lynx to keep coherence when claiming similar efforts in other parts of the world. Another remarkable feature of the Iberian lynx is its qualification as the most endangered felid species in the world, given its low total population size, its highly fragmented distribution, and its declining population trend and strong range contraction during the last century. These characteristics make the conservation strategy for ...

Visual summary

 

Status, management and distribution of large carnivores – bear, lynx, wolf & wolverine – in Europe

  
(December 2012)

Abstract

[Excerpt: General introduction] Large carnivores (bears Ursus arctos, wolves Canis lupus, lynx Lynx lynx and wolverines Gulo gulo) are among the most challenging group of species to maintain as large and continuous populations or to reintegrate back into the European landscape. Political, socioeconomic and society changes challenge past management approaches in some of the large populations. At the same time local improvements in habitat quality, the return of their prey species, public support and favourable legislation allow for the recovery of some small populations. Several of Europe’s ...

 

State of the world's plants - 2016

  
(2016)

Abstract

This report provides, for the first time, a baseline assessment of our current knowledge on the diversity of plants on earth, the global threats these plants currently face, and the policies in place and their effectiveness in dealing with these threats. [\n] On the diversity of plants, we can report that there are now an estimated ~391,000 vascular plants known to science of which 369,000 are flowering plants. Around 2000 new vascular plant species are described each year. In 2015 these included ...

 

Habitat destruction: death by a thousand cuts

  
In Conservation Biology for All (01 January 2010), pp. 73-87, https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199554232.003.0005

Abstract

[Excerpt] Humankind has dramatically transformed much of the Earth’s surface and its natural ecosystems. This process is not new—it has been ongoing for millennia—but it has accelerated sharply over the last two centuries, and especially in the last several decades. [\n] Today, the loss and degradation of natural habitats can be likened to a war of attrition. Many natural ecosystems are being progressively razed, bulldozed, and felled by axes or chainsaws, until only small scraps of their original extent survive. Forests have been hit especially hard: the global area of forests has been reduced ...

 

Remaining natural vegetation in the global biodiversity hotspots

  
Biological Conservation, Vol. 177 (September 2014), pp. 12-24, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2014.05.027

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] We estimate the area of natural intact vegetation in the global biodiversity hotspots. [::] Natural intact vegetation spans 3,545,975 km2, or 14.9% of its original extent. [::] Hotspots previously considered most intact suffered greatest downward adjustments. [::] Natural intact vegetation area is critical (<10%) in 6 of 12 biomes in the hotspots. [::] Natural intact vegetation is marketed more fragmented when <10% of hotspot area. [Abstract] The biodiversity hotspots are 35 biogeographical regions that have both exceptional endemism and extreme threats to their vegetation integrity, and ...

 

Biodiversity hotspots and major tropical wilderness areas: approaches to setting conservation priorities

  
Conservation Biology, Vol. 12, No. 3. (17 June 1998), pp. 516-520, https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1739.1998.012003516.x

Abstract

[Excerpt] [\n] [...] [\n] The present reassessment of the biodiversity hotspots approach began in 1996 and is still underway. Therefore, what we present here are some initial conclusions; a more detailed presentation will be available in the near future. Our analysis is based first and foremost on species numbers, using plants as the principal indicator of biological diversity (“plants” here means the members of the Plant Kingdom, represented worldwide by some 270,000 species [Raven & Johnson 1991]). Hotspots were identified by two main criteria: first plant endemism and then degree of threat. [\n] [...] [\n] Looking in more detail at the hotspots list, ...

 

The Global 200: a representation approach to conserving the Earth's most biologically valuable ecoregions

  
Conservation Biology, Vol. 12, No. 3. (17 June 1998), pp. 502-515, https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1739.1998.012003502.x

Abstract

[Excerpt] [\n] [...] The Global 200 is an effective tool for [::(1)] targeting distinctive biogeographic units of biodiversity and [::(2)] promoting ecosystem-level representation at global scales. [\n] The Global 200 broadens the goals of conservation from a primary focus on preserving species diversity to an encompassing view of habitat diversity, ecological processes, evolutionary phenomena, and adaptations of species to different environmental conditions around the world. In some cases, it also distinguishes representative ecoregions that are more intact than others, highlighting the best opportunities for long-term conservation. [\n] Like any effort to set priorities, the Global 200 cannot address all aspects of biodiversity ...

 

The unique challenges of conserving large old trees

  
Trends in Ecology & Evolution (April 2016), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2016.03.003

Abstract

Large old trees play numerous critical ecological roles. They are susceptible to a plethora of interacting threats, in part because the attributes that confer a competitive advantage in intact ecosystems make them maladapted to rapidly changing, human-modified environments. Conserving large old trees will require surmounting a number of unresolved challenges. ...

 

Science 101: building the foundations for real understanding

  
Science, Vol. 330, No. 6012. (02 December 2010), pp. 1764-1765, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1186994

Abstract

It's not just about evolution anymore. Growing anti-science sentiment in the United States now infuses public discourse on conservation, vaccination, distribution of research funds, and climate change (1). Low rates of scientific literacy (2) exacerbate the problem. Although the public recognizes its indebtedness to the products of scientific knowledge, few understand much about the nature of that knowledge or the processes that generated it (3). Without a basic understanding of how science works, the public is vulnerable to antiscience propaganda, which ...

 

Reconciling food production and biodiversity conservation: land sharing and land sparing compared

  
Science, Vol. 333, No. 6047. (2011), pp. 1289-1291, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1208742

Abstract

The question of how to meet rising food demand at the least cost to biodiversity requires the evaluation of two contrasting alternatives: land sharing, which integrates both objectives on the same land; and land sparing, in which high-yield farming is combined with protecting natural habitats from conversion to agriculture. To test these alternatives, we compared crop yields and densities of bird and tree species across gradients of agricultural intensity in southwest Ghana and northern India. More species were negatively affected by ...

 

Landform classification for site evaluation and forest planning: integration between scientific approach and traditional concept

  
Sains Malaysiana, Vol. 43, No. 3. (2014), pp. 349-358

Abstract

In this paper, we present an automated classification method of landform elements using an application of SAGA GIS software. The spatial assessment was done on the Yambaru forest area (YFA) in the northernmost part of Okinawa Island, Japan. This task is performed through the detailed elevation grid analyses from DTM of YFA with a spatial scale of 10 × 10 m2 supported by The Geospatial Information Authority of Japan. The classification has ten classes; high ridges, midslope ridges, upland drainage, upper ...

 

Working with four villages to end soil erosion in an entire river basin

  
(2015)

Abstract

[Excerpt] The entire catchment area of a river and its tributaries is a large, complex, interaction of ecosystems. In Albania, the Drini River basin is a Key Biodiversity Area that provides multiple services to the inhabitants of northern Albania. But currently rain is washing bare soil away into the river, and all of the beneficial ecosystem services along with it – like nutrients to provide crop fertility, water storage by forests, fresh water filtration and flood protection. [Soil erosion is a big problem ...

 

Biodiversity management in the face of climate change: A review of 22 years of recommendations

  
Biological Conservation, Vol. 142, No. 1. (21 January 2009), pp. 14-32, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2008.10.006

Abstract

Climate change creates new challenges for biodiversity conservation. Species ranges and ecological dynamics are already responding to recent climate shifts, and current reserves will not continue to support all species they were designed to protect. These problems are exacerbated by other global changes. Scholarly articles recommending measures to adapt conservation to climate change have proliferated over the last 22 years. We systematically reviewed this literature to explore what potential solutions it has identified and what consensus and direction it provides to ...

 

Black woodpecker Dryocopus martius (L., 1758) distribution, abundance, habitat use and breeding performance in a recently colonized region in SW Europe

  
Munibe Ciencias Naturales, Vol. 63 (2015)

Abstract

At the southwestern edge of its global distribution, the Pyrenean population of the black woodpecker Dryocopus martius has increased its range during the last three decades, colonizing new areas where the species was previously unknown. This is the case for Gipuzkoa, where a systematic survey was performed in the breeding season of 2013 aimed at describing the species distribution, abundance, habitat use and reproductive performance. Potential locations were identified using forest inventories and were visited since January until March. Locations were considered occupied when nests or pairs ...

References

  1. Aierbe, T., Olano, M., Vázquez, J. 2001. Atlas de las aves nidificantes de Gipuzkoa. Munibe, Cienc. nat. 52: 5-136.
  2. Alberdi, I., Hernández, L., Saura, S., Barrera, M., Gil, P., Condés, S., Cantero, A., Sandoval, V.J., Vallejo, R., Cañellas, I. 2012. Estimación de la biodiversidad forestal en el Tercer Inventario Forestal Nacional. País Vasco-Euskadi. Ministerio de Agricultura, Alimentación y Medio Ambiente. Madrid.
  3. Álvarez, J., Bea, A., Faus, J.M., Castién, E., Mendiola, Í.
 

The true loss caused by biodiversity offsets

  
Biological Conservation, Vol. 192 (December 2015), pp. 552-559, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2015.08.016

Abstract

Biodiversity offsets aim to achieve a “no-net-loss” of biodiversity, ecosystem functions and services due to development. The “no-net-less” objective assumes that the multi-dimensional values of biodiversity in complex ecosystems can be isolated from their spatial, evolutionary, historical, social, and moral context. We examine the irreplaceability of ecosystems, the limits of restoration, and the environmental values that claim to be compensated through ecosystem restoration. We discuss multiple ecological, instrumental, and non-instrumental values of ecosystems that should be considered in offsetting calculations. Considering ...

 

A meta-analysis of functional group responses to forest recovery outside of the tropics

  
Conservation Biology, Vol. 29, No. 6. (1 December 2015), pp. 1695-1703, https://doi.org/10.1111/cobi.12548

Abstract

Both active and passive forest restoration schemes are used in degraded landscapes across the world to enhance biodiversity and ecosystem service provision. Restoration is increasingly also being implemented in biodiversity offset schemes as compensation for loss of natural habitat to anthropogenic development. This has raised concerns about the value of replacing old-growth forest with plantations, motivating research on biodiversity recovery as forest stands age. Functional diversity is now advocated as a key metric for restoration success, yet it has received little ...

 

Phantoms of the forest: legacy risk effects of a regionally extinct large carnivore

  
Ecology and Evolution, Vol. 6, No. 3. (January 2016), pp. 791-799, https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.1866

Abstract

The increased abundance of large carnivores in Europe is a conservation success, but the impact on the behavior and population dynamics of prey species is generally unknown. In Europe, the recolonization of large carnivores often occurs in areas where humans have greatly modified the landscape through forestry or agriculture. Currently, we poorly understand the effects of recolonizing large carnivores on extant prey species in anthropogenic landscapes. Here, we investigated if ungulate prey species showed innate responses to the scent of a ...

 

Extinction, Substitution, and Ecosystem Services

  
BioScience, Vol. 33, No. 4. (01 April 1983), pp. 248-254, https://doi.org/10.2307/1309037

Abstract

The loss of services to humanity following extinctions ranges from trivial to catastrophic, depending on the number of elements (populations, species, guilds) deleted and the degree of control each exerted in the system. Most attempts to substitute other organisms for those lost have been unsuccessful, to one degree or another, and prospects for increasing the success rate in the foreseeable future are not great. Attempts to supply the lost services by other means tend to be expensive failures in the long ...

 

Conserving genetic resources on-site in forest ecosystems

  
Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 35, No. 1-2. (June 1990), pp. 45-68, https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-1127(90)90231-y

Abstract

Genetic diversity and its structure (its organization in space and time) are the critical raw materials from which many other aspects of diversity are derived. These genetic resources represent information about unique and successful relationships among genes and between gene complexes and environments. Only a fraction of this information has been mined through research. The balance, and the genetic materials themselves, are most effectively conserved for future use by on-site (in-situ) preservation, management, or restoration of populations, communities and entire landscapes. ...

 

In Absentia Benefits of Nature Preserves: A Review

  
Environmental Conservation, Vol. 11 (March 1984), pp. 3-10, https://doi.org/10.1017/s0376892900013436

Abstract

Nature preserves are lands which are protected in order to provide hoped-for perpetuation of natural features within the context of a relatively unmodified natural environment. Nature preserves are typically justified on the basis of benefits to communities of plants or animals (biocentric benefits) or to Mankind (anthropocentric benefits). Anthropocentric benefits are usually described in terms of on-site uses of nature preserves for recreation, quiet enjoyment, scientific research, education, and/or resource-banking. These benefits are not, however, by any means the only effects ...

 

Identifying, managing and monitoring conflicts between forest biodiversity conservation and other human interests in Europe

  
Forest Policy and Economics, Vol. 7, No. 6. (November 2005), pp. 877-890, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forpol.2004.04.005

Abstract

In this paper, circumstances where various human activities and interests clash with the conservation of forest biodiversity are examined, with particular focus on the drivers behind the conflicts. After identifying past and current human-related threats potentially leading to conflicts in forests, the paper will focus on conflict management and monitoring, with an emphasis on inclusionary stakeholder networks and a range of approaches towards sustainable land use. Three dimensions of conflicts are examined: substance (‘how things are’), procedure (‘how things are done’), ...

 

Making forestry decisions with multiple criteria: a review and an assessment

  
Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 255, No. 8-9. (May 2008), pp. 3222-3241, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2008.01.038

Abstract

This paper provides a survey of the literature on multiple criteria decision-making (MCDM) applications to forestry problems undertaken in the last 30 years or so. More than 250 references regarding 9 forestry topics and 9 different MCDM approaches have been categorized and evaluated. This provides a unified source of references that could be useful for forest management students, researchers and practitioners. The paper ends with an assessment of the literature presented, aiming to reach some conclusions, as well as indicate future ...

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