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Selection: with tag connectivity [61 articles] 


The impact of hunting on tropical mammal and bird populations

Science, Vol. 356, No. 6334. (14 April 2017), pp. 180-183,


[Quantifying hunting-induced defaunation] As the human population grows and increasingly encroaches on remaining wildlife habitat, hunting threatens many species. Benítez-López et al. conducted a large-scale meta-analysis of hunting trends and impacts across the tropics (see the Perspective by Brashares and Gaynor). Bird and mammal populations were considerably lower in areas where hunting occurred. Although commercial hunting and proximity to roads and urban centers were the most damaging factors, all hunting had worrying impacts, even in protected areas. Protection and alternative approaches for ...


Bushmeat hunting and extinction risk to the world's mammals

Royal Society Open Science, Vol. 3, No. 10. (01 October 2016), 160498,


Terrestrial mammals are experiencing a massive collapse in their population sizes and geographical ranges around the world, but many of the drivers, patterns and consequences of this decline remain poorly understood. Here we provide an analysis showing that bushmeat hunting for mostly food and medicinal products is driving a global crisis whereby 301 terrestrial mammal species are threatened with extinction. Nearly all of these threatened species occur in developing countries where major coexisting threats include deforestation, agricultural expansion, human encroachment and ...


Effects of network modularity on the spread of perturbation impact in experimental metapopulations

Science, Vol. 357, No. 6347. (14 July 2017), pp. 199-201,


[Modularity limits disturbance effects] The networks that form natural, social, and technological systems are vulnerable to the spreading impacts of perturbations. Theory predicts that networks with a clustered or modular structure—where nodes within a module interact more frequently than they do with nodes in other modules—might contain a perturbation, preventing it from spreading to the entire network. Gilarranz et al. conducted experiments with networked populations of springtail (Folsomia candida) microarthropods to show that modularity limits the impact of a local extinction on ...


An ecoregion-based approach to protecting half the terrestrial realm

BioScience (14 April 2017),


We assess progress toward the protection of 50% of the terrestrial biosphere to address the species-extinction crisis and conserve a global ecological heritage for future generations. Using a map of Earth's 846 terrestrial ecoregions, we show that 98 ecoregions (12%) exceed Half Protected; 313 ecoregions (37%) fall short of Half Protected but have sufficient unaltered habitat remaining to reach the target; and 207 ecoregions (24%) are in peril, where an average of only 4% of natural habitat remains. We propose a ...


System-of-Systems engineering management: a review of modern history and a path forward

IEEE Systems Journal, Vol. 2, No. 4. (18 December 2008), pp. 484-499,


As our knowledge of system of systems (SoS) has grown and evolved, so has our understanding of how to engineer and manage them. In systems engineering, we develop architectures and frameworks to bring meaning to this kind of uncertainty, but for SoS engineering (SoSE) we are still in search of how we can structure this understanding. In this paper, we review the SoS literature to illustrate the need to create an SoSE management framework based on the demands of constant technological ...


System of Systems - the meaning of of

System of Systems Engineering In 2006 IEEE/SMC International Conference on System of Systems Engineering, Vol. 0 (10 July 2006), pp. 118-123,


We present distinguishing characteristics (i.e. autonomy, belonging, connectivity, diversity, and emergence), that can help us to recognize or to realize a System of Systems (SoS). The principle differentiation that we make between a thing being either a 'system' or a SoS focuses on the nature of a system's composition. We will distinctly define this set of distinguishing characteristics which will include a set of cross references from our literature research where we believe others are articulating our chosen differentiating characteristics. We ...


A global map of roadless areas and their conservation status

Science, Vol. 354, No. 6318. (16 December 2016), pp. 1423-1427,


[Too many roads] Roads have done much to help humanity spread across the planet and maintain global movement and trade. However, roads also damage wild areas and rapidly contribute to habitat degradation and species loss. Ibisch et al. cataloged the world's roads. Though most of the world is not covered by roads, it is fragmented by them, with only 7% of land patches created by roads being greater than 100 km2. Furthermore, environmental protection of roadless areas is insufficient, which could lead ...


Network analysis reveals why Xylella fastidiosa will persist in Europe

Scientific Reports, Vol. 7, No. 1. (6 March 2017),


The insect vector borne bacterium Xylella fastidiosa was first detected in olive trees in Southern Italy in 2013, and identified as the main culprit behind the ‘olive quick decline syndrome’. Since then, the disease has spread rapidly through Italy’s main olive oil producing region. The epidemiology of the outbreak is largely unstudied, with the list of X. fastidiosa hosts and vectors in Europe likely incomplete, and the role humans play in dispersal unknown. These knowledge gaps have led to management strategies ...


No saturation in the accumulation of alien species worldwide

Nature Communications, Vol. 8 (15 February 2017), 14435,


Although research on human-mediated exchanges of species has substantially intensified during the last centuries, we know surprisingly little about temporal dynamics of alien species accumulations across regions and taxa. Using a novel database of 45,813 first records of 16,926 established alien species, we show that the annual rate of first records worldwide has increased during the last 200 years, with 37% of all first records reported most recently (1970–2014). Inter-continental and inter-taxonomic variation can be largely attributed to the diaspora of ...


Potential impact of climatic change on the distribution of forest herbs in Europe

Ecography, Vol. 27, No. 3. (June 2004), pp. 366-380,


The aim of this study is to evaluate the possible consequences of climate change on a representative sample of forest herbs in Europe. A fuzzy climatic envelope was used to predict the location of suitable climatic conditions under two climatic change scenarios. Expected consequences in terms of lost and gained range size and shift in distribution for 26 forest herbs were estimated. These results were combined in an Index of Predicted Range Change for each species. Finally, the effects of habitat ...


Involve social scientists in defining the Anthropocene

Nature, Vol. 540, No. 7632. (7 December 2016), pp. 192-193,


The causes of Earth's transition are human and social, write Erle Ellis and colleagues, so scholars from those disciplines must be included in its formalization. ...


Partial connectivity increases cultural accumulation within groups

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, No. 11. (15 March 2016), pp. 2982-2987,


[Significance] The remarkable ecological success of the human species has been attributed to our capacity to overcome environmental challenges through the development of complex technologies. Complex technologies are typically beyond the inventive capacities of individuals and result from a population process by which innovations are gradually added to existing cultural traits across many generations. Recent work suggests that a population’s ability to develop technologies is positively affected by its size and connectedness. Here, we present an experiment demonstrating that partially connected groups ...


The effects of temporally variable dispersal and landscape structure on invasive species spread

Ecological Applications, Vol. 20, No. 3. (April 2010), pp. 593-608,


Many invasive species are too widespread to realistically eradicate. For such species, a viable management strategy is to slow the rate of spread. However, to be effective, this will require detailed spread data and an understanding of the influence of environmental conditions and landscape structure on invasion rates. We used a time series of remotely sensed distribution maps and a spatial simulation model to study spread of the invasive Lepidium latifolium (perennial pepperweed) in California's Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta. L. latifolium ...


Higher-order organization of complex networks

Science, Vol. 353, No. 6295. (26 July 2016), pp. 163-166,
Keywords: complexity   connectivity   networks   pattern  


[Resolving a network of hubs] Graphs are a pervasive tool for modeling and analyzing network data throughout the sciences. Benson et al. developed an algorithmic framework for studying how complex networks are organized by higher-order connectivity patterns (see the Perspective by Pržulj and Malod-Dognin). Motifs in transportation networks reveal hubs and geographical elements not readily achievable by other methods. A motif previously suggested as important for neuronal networks is part of a “rich club” of subnetworks. [Abstract] Networks are a fundamental tool for understanding ...


Bias in species range estimates from minimum convex polygons: implications for conservation and options for improved planning

Animal Conservation, Vol. 6, No. 1. (February 2003), pp. 19-28,


Minimum convex polygons (convex hulls) are an internationally accepted, standard method for estimating species' ranges, particularly in circumstances in which presence-only data are the only kind of spatially explicit data available. One of their main strengths is their simplicity. They are used to make area statements and to assess trends in occupied habitat, and are an important part of the assessment of the conservation status of species. We show by simulation that these estimates are biased. The bias increases with sample ...


Quantifying seasonal population fluxes driving rubella transmission dynamics using mobile phone data

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 112, No. 35. (01 September 2015), pp. 11114-11119,


[Significance] Changing patterns of human mobility can drive seasonal outbreaks of infectious diseases, but limited data about travel behavior and population flux over time have made this idea difficult to quantify. Mobile phone data provide a unique source of information about human travel. Here we quantify seasonal travel patterns using mobile phone data from nearly 15 million anonymous subscribers in Kenya. Using a rich data source of rubella incidence, we show that patterns of population fluxes inferred from mobile phone data are ...


Reduced vaccination and the risk of measles and other childhood infections post-Ebola

Science, Vol. 347, No. 6227. (12 March 2015), pp. 1240-1242,


[Editor summary: Vaccinate children despite Ebola] During the medical emergency caused by the Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa, routine childhood vaccination programs have been suspended. If vaccination is not resumed soon, there could be even more deaths. Measles is highly infectious, and outbreaks are a sign of health care systems in trouble. Using mathematical modelling, Takahashi et al. estimate that about a million children across Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Guinea are vulnerable to measles. Aggressive public health programs are vital for ...


Evolution and entropy in the organization of urban street patterns

Annals of GIS, Vol. 19, No. 1. (8 February 2013), pp. 1-16,


The street patterns of cities are the result of long-term evolution and interaction between various internal, social and economic, and external, environmental and landscape, processes and factors. In this article, we use entropy as a measure of dispersion to study the effects of landscapes on the evolution and associated street patterns of two cities: Dundee in Eastern Scotland and Khorramabad in Western Iran, cities which have strong similarities in terms of the size of their street systems and populations but considerable ...


Fractal dimension of a transportation network and its relationship with urban growth: a study of the Dallas - Fort Worth area

Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, Vol. 31, No. 6. (2004), pp. 895-911,


A city and its transportation network are both complicated systems. Fractal geometry provides an effective way to describe the complex property of geographical features. This paper uses a modified box-counting method to describe the fractal property of urban transportation networks. Assuming that human settlements of different sizes are all operated by the same growth procedure, this paper investigates the relationship between the mass size of cities and the complexity of their road systems. The results confirm that, as cities grow from ...


Key structural forest connectors can be identified by combining landscape spatial pattern and network analyses

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 262, No. 2. (July 2011), pp. 150-160,


Conservation and enhancement of ecological connectivity is widely recognized as one of the key objectives of forest landscape management. However, practical difficulties still exist due to the lack of pragmatic and operational methodologies that can be efficiently applied for these purposes within the scope of a forest management plan. Here we present the novel integration of two recent approaches for analyzing forest structural connectivity that offers considerable synergies and potential relevant benefits for forest planning at a variety of scales. We ...


A new habitat availability index to integrate connectivity in landscape conservation planning: Comparison with existing indices and application to a case study

Landscape and Urban Planning, Vol. 83, No. 2-3. (19 November 2007), pp. 91-103,


Connectivity is a major concern for the maintenance of wildlife populations, ecological flows, and many other landscape functions. For these reasons many different connectivity indices have been used or proposed for landscape conservation planning; however, their properties and behaviour have not been sufficiently examined and may provide misleading or undesired results for these purposes. We here present a new index (probability of connectivity, PC) that is based on the habitat availability concept, dispersal probabilities between habitat patches and graph structures. We ...

Visual summary


Conefor Sensinode 2.2: A software package for quantifying the importance of habitat patches for landscape connectivity

Environmental Modelling & Software, Vol. 24, No. 1. (January 2009), pp. 135-139,


Maintaining and restoring landscape connectivity is currently a central concern in ecology and biodiversity conservation, and there is an increasing demand of user-driven tools for integrating connectivity in landscape planning. Here we describe the new Conefor Sensinode 2.2 (CS22) software, which quantifies the importance of habitat patches for maintaining or improving functional landscape connectivity and is conceived as a tool for decision-making support in landscape planning and habitat conservation. CS22 is based on graph structures, which have been suggested to possess ...


Comparison and development of new graph-based landscape connectivity indices: towards the priorization of habitat patches and corridors for conservation

Landscape Ecology In Landscape Ecology, Vol. 21, No. 7. (1 October 2006), pp. 959-967,


The loss of connectivity of natural areas is a major threat for wildlife dispersal and survival and for the conservation of biodiversity in general. Thus, there is an increasing interest in considering connectivity in landscape planning and habitat conservation. In this context, graph structures have been shown to be a powerful and effective way of both representing the landscape pattern as a network and performing complex analysis regarding landscape connectivity. Many indices have been used for connectivity analyses so far but ...


EDITOR'S CHOICE: Stepping stones are crucial for species' long-distance dispersal and range expansion through habitat networks

Journal of Applied Ecology, Vol. 51, No. 1. (1 February 2014), pp. 171-182,


[:1] Climate and land-use changes will require species to move large distances following shifts in their suitable habitats, which will frequently involve traversing intensively human-modified landscapes. Practitioners will therefore need to evaluate and act to enhance the degree to which habitat patches scattered throughout the landscape may function as stepping stones facilitating dispersal among otherwise isolated habitat areas. [:2] We formulate a new generalized network model of habitat connectivity that accounts for the number of dispersing individuals and for long-distance ...


Intraspecific variations in dispersal ability of saproxylic beetles in fragmented forest patches

Oecologia In Oecologia (2014), pp. 1-10,


The extrapolation of metapopulation concepts to saproxylic insects suggests that the occupancy of forest patches and the colonization of ephemeral deadwood substrates are driven by micro-evolutionary processes that are related to adaptive plasticity and intraspecific sex-dependent polymorphism of dispersal traits. We hypothesized that forest fragmentation could favor more mobile individuals within populations, but little empirical data have been published on the potentially sex-biased response of insect populations to habitat availability. We selected 88 fragmented woodlots in two European agricultural landscapes to ...


European ecological networks and greenways

Landscape and Urban Planning In International Greenway Planning, Vol. 68, No. 2-3. (30 May 2004), pp. 305-319,


In the context of European integration, networks are becoming increasingly important in both social and ecological sense. Since the beginning of the 1990s, societal and scientific exchanges are being restructured as the conceptual approaches towards new nature conservation strategies have been renewed. Within the framework of nature conservation, the notion of an ecological network has become increasingly important. Throughout Europe, regional and national approaches are in different phases of development, which are all based on recent landscape ecological principles. Ecological networks ...


Acceleration of evolutionary spread by long-range dispersal

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 111, No. 46. (18 November 2014), pp. E4911-E4919,


[Significance] Pathogens, invasive species, rumors, or innovations spread much more quickly around the world nowadays than in previous centuries. The speedup is caused by more frequent long-range dispersal, for example via air traffic. These jumps are crucial because they can generate satellite “outbreaks” at many distant locations, thus rapidly increasing the total rate of spread. We present a simple intuitive argument that captures the resulting spreading patterns. We show that even rare long-range jumps can transform the spread of simple epidemics ...


  1. Ruiz GM, et al. (2000) Global spread of microorganisms by ships. Nature 408(6808):49–50.
  2. Suarez AV, Holway DA, Case TJ (2001) Patterns of spread in biological invasions dominated by long-distance jump dispersal: Insights from argentine ants. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98:1095–1100.
  3. Brockmann D, Hufnagel L, Geisel T (2006) The scaling laws of human travel. Nature 439:462–465.
  4. Gonzalez M, Hidalgo C, Barabási A (2008) Understanding individual human mobility patterns.

Changes and interactions between forest landscape connectivity and burnt area in Spain

Ecological Indicators, Vol. 33 (October 2013), pp. 129-138,


The spatial structure, functionality and dynamics of forest landscapes in peninsular Spain and the Balearic Islands were compared over the last five decades. Two particular features were studied in the sample sites: forest connectivity for wildlife and areas burnt by wildfires. 191 Squares, each 4 km × 4 km, were selected from the SISPARES (the monitoring framework designed to evaluate the trends in the structure of Spanish rural landscapes) environmental strata. Aerial photographs from 1956, 1984, 1998 and 2008 were interpreted ...


Out of Africa

Nature, Vol. 514, No. 7521. (7 October 2014), pp. 139-139,


The Ebola outbreak in West Africa must be shut down now, or the disease will continue to spread. [Excerpt] Ebola is out of control in Liberia, Sierra Leone and Guinea. Although this has been the case since late spring, the international pledges of help have yet to translate into concerted, rapid action on the ground. The virus still has the upper hand. Between 23 September and 1 October alone, the number of cases rose from 6,500 to almost 7,500, according to ...


Wildfires and landscape patterns in the Eastern Iberian peninsula

Landscape Ecology, Vol. 17, No. 8. (2002), pp. 745-759,


The relations between disturbance regime and landscape patterns have been developed from a theoretical perspective, but few studies have tested these relations when forces promoting opposing heterogeneity patterns are simultaneously operating on a landscape. This work provides quantitative evidence of these relations in areas dominated by human activity, showing that landscape heterogeneity decreases disturbance spread. In turn, disturbance introduces a source of landscape heterogeneity, but it is not enough to counterbalance the homogeneity trend due to agricultural abandonment. Land cover changes ...


Cascading effects of feedbacks, disease, and climate change on alpine treeline dynamics

Environmental Modelling & Software, Vol. 62 (December 2014), pp. 85-96,


[Highlights] [::] Facilitation, particularly from whitebark pine, drives tree island development. [::] Positive and negative feedbacks influence whitebark pine treeline dynamics. [::] Climate amelioration reduces facilitation benefits, causing dispersed tree pattern. [::] Blister rust disease-killed pine impacts all species, despite climate improvement. [::] Treeline responded negatively with disease introduction, even when climate improved. [Abstract] Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) is important for tree island development in some alpine treeline ecosystems in western North America; therefore the effects of an exotic disease on whitebark pine may cascade to ...


Effects of different matrix representations and connectivity measures on habitat network assessments

Landscape Ecology (2014), pp. 1-20,


Assessing landscape connectivity is important to understand the ecology of landscapes and to evaluate alternative conservation strategies. The question is though, how to quantify connectivity appropriately, especially when the information available about the suitability of the matrix surrounding habitat is limited. Our goal here was to investigate the effects of matrix representation on assessments of the connectivity among habitat patches and of the relative importance of individual patches for the connectivity within a habitat network. We evaluated a set of 50 × 50 km2 ...


Supplementary materials for: a proposal for an integrated modelling framework to characterise habitat pattern



In Estreguil et al. (Environ Modell Softw 52, 176-191, 2014), an integrated modelling framework is proposed to characterise habitat pattern. The modelling approach is there exemplified by deriving a set of twelve indices aggregated into four categories: general landscape composition, habitat morphology, edge interface and connectivity. The easy and reproducible computability is ensured with the integrated use of publicly available software (GUIDOS free-download software, Conefor free software) and of newly programmed tools. A statistical analysis is then conducted using classical linear ...


Ecological and evolutionary effects of fragmentation on infectious disease dynamics

Science, Vol. 344, No. 6189. (13 June 2014), pp. 1289-1293,


[Abstract] Ecological theory predicts that disease incidence increases with increasing density of host networks, yet evolutionary theory suggests that host resistance increases accordingly. To test the combined effects of ecological and evolutionary forces on host-pathogen systems, we analyzed the spatiotemporal dynamics of a plant (Plantago lanceolata)–fungal pathogen (Podosphaera plantaginis)relationship for 12 years in over 4000 host populations. Disease prevalence at the metapopulation level was low, with high annual pathogen extinction rates balanced by frequent (re-)colonizations. Highly connected host populations experienced less ...


Effect of forest fragmentation on bird species richness in Papua New Guinea

Journal of Field Ornithology, Vol. 85, No. 2. (June 2014), pp. 152-167,


Tropical forests worldwide are being fragmented at a rapid rate, causing a tremendous loss of biodiversity. Determining the impacts of forest disturbance and fragmentation on tropical biotas is therefore a central goal of conservation biology. We focused on bird communities in the interior (>100 m from forest edge) of forest fragments (300, 600, and 1200 ha) in the lowlands of Papua New Guinea and compared them with those in continuous forest. We surveyed bird communities using point counts, mist-netting, and random ...


Connectivity of Natura 2000 forest sites in Europe

F1000Posters, Vol. 2014, No. 5. (Jun 2014), 485,


[Background/Purpose]: In the context of the European Biodiversity policy, the Green Infrastructure Strategy is one supporting tool to mitigate fragmentation, inter-alia to increase the spatial and functional connectivity between protected and unprotected areas. The Joint Research Centre has developed an integrated model to provide a macro-scale set of indices to evaluate the connectivity of Natura 2000 network, which forms the backbone of a Green Infrastructure for Europe. The model allows a wide assessment and comparison to be performed across country in terms ...


  1. Bennett, J., 2010. OpenStreetMap. Packt Publishing. ISBN: 978-1-84719-750-4
  2. Bennett, G., Bento Pais, R., Berry, P Didicescu, P. S., Fichter, M., Hlavᡠ, V., Hoellen, K., Jones-Walters, L., Miko, L., Onida, M., Plesník, J., Smith, D., Wakenhut, F., 2010. Green Infrastructure Implementation: Proceedings of the European Commission Conference 19 November 2010. (Ed: Karhu, J.). European Commission, 28 pp.
  3. de Rigo, D., 2012. Applying semantic constraints to array programming: the

Forest landscape pattern in a nutshell: local and continental applications of a four-families index set

In 16th International Symposium on Problems of Landscape Ecological Research - Landscape Ecology: From Theory to Practice (2012), pp. 12-13


[Excerpt] Measuring and monitoring landscape habitat fragmentation are an important first step to further study the relationship between pattern and ecological processes. This paper presents a standardised set of indices to characterise pattern and its application at varying spatial scales. A total of twelve indices is organised into four main families –general landscape composition, habitat morphology, edge interface mosaic context and connectivity –. Their implementation is based on three conceptual models which are partly revisited and combined (MSPA from GUIDOS software, Probability ...


Climate change, connectivity and conservation decision making: back to basics

Journal of Applied Ecology, Vol. 46, No. 5. (October 2009), pp. 964-969,


The challenge of climate change forces us to re-examine the assumptions underlying conservation planning. [\n] Increasing ‘connectivity’ has emerged as the most favoured option for conservation in the face of climate change. [\n] We argue that the importance of connectivity is being overemphasized: quantifying the benefits of connectivity per se is plagued with uncertainty, and connectivity can be co-incidentally improved by targeting more concrete metrics: habitat area and habitat quality. [::Synthesis and applications] Before investing in connectivity projects, conservation practitioners should ...


Beyond the fragmentation threshold hypothesis: regime shifts in biodiversity across fragmented landscapes

PLoS ONE, Vol. 5, No. 10. (27 October 2010), pp. e13666-e13666,


Ecological systems are vulnerable to irreversible change when key system properties are pushed over thresholds, resulting in the loss of resilience and the precipitation of a regime shift. Perhaps the most important of such properties in human-modified landscapes is the total amount of remnant native vegetation. In a seminal study Andrén proposed the existence of a fragmentation threshold in the total amount of remnant vegetation, below which landscape-scale connectivity is eroded and local species richness and abundance become dependent on patch ...


Conservation Ecology: Cumulative effects of barriers on the movements of forest birds

Conservation Ecology, Vol. 5, No. 2. (2001), pp. XIX-XX


Although there is a consensus of opinion that habitat fragmentation has deleterious effects on animal populations, primarily by inhibiting dispersal among remaining patches, there have been few explicit demonstrations of the ways by which degraded habitats actually constrain individual movement. Two impediments are primarily responsible for this paucity: it is difficult to separate the effects of habitat fragmentation (configuration) from habitat loss (composition), and conventional measures of fragmented habitats are assumed to be, but probably are not, isotropic. We addressed these ...


Green Infrastructure Implementation: Proceedings of the European Commission Conference 19 November 2010

edited by Johanna Karhu


The Green Infrastructure Implementation conference, held on 19 November 2010 at the Centre Borschette in Brussels, was attended by more than 80 participants from EU Member States, Non-Governmental Organizations, Universities and Research Centres as well as the European Institutions. The purpose of the conference was to pursue the ongoing discussion process and to support the further work on Green Infrastructure. The specific objectives were to share views and discuss the state of Green Infrastructure implementation in Europe, to identify gaps in implementation, ...


Prolegomena to sediment and flow connectivity in the landscape: A GIS and field numerical assessment

CATENA, Vol. 75, No. 3. (15 November 2008), pp. 268-277,


This paper presents two new definitions of sediment and water flux connectivity (from source through slopes to channels/sinks) with examples of applications to sediment fluxes. The two indices of connectivity are operatively defined, one (IC) that can be calculated in a GIS environment and represents a connectivity assessment based on landscape's information, and another that can be evaluated in the field (FIC) through direct assessment. While IC represent a potential connectivity characteristic of the local landscape, since nothing is used to ...


Connectivity of Natura 2000 forest sites - Executive report

Reference Report by the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission. EUR – Scientific and Technical Research, Vol. 26087, No. JRC 83104. (2013)


The newly adopted Green Infrastructure Strategy is a key step in implementing targets of the European Biodiversity Strategy to 2020 (EBS). This study responds to policy needs for target 2 on ecosystems conditions and services, target 1 on implementing and enhancing coherence of the Natura 2000 network and sub-target 3b on integrating environmental concerns in forest management. Protected areas such as Natura 2000 sites form the backbone of Green Infrastructure. Their connectivity and integration in the unprotected landscape are essential to ...


  1. Bennet, J., 2010. OpenStreetMap: be your own cartographer. Birmingham, UK: PCKT. ISBN 978-1-847197-50-4
  2. Bennett, G., and Mulongoy, K.J., 2006. Review of experience with ecological networks, corridors and buffer zones. Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, Montreal, Technical Series no. 23, 100 pages. ISBN: 92-9225-042-6
  3. Bergsten, A., Bodin, O., Ecke, F., 2013. Protected areas in a landscape dominated by logging – A connectivity analysis that integrates varying protection

Fragmentation of forest landscapes in Central Africa: causes, consequences and management

In Patterns and Processes in Forest Landscapes (2008), pp. 67-87,


Forest fragmentation has a paramount impact on landscape pattern and has therefore been a key focus of landscape ecology. Trends and causes of deforestation are analysed for the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda and Burundi, and are put in a regional, continental and global perspective. In order to investigate the role of shifting cultivation as a driver of fragmentation, the dynamics of a forest landscape between 1970 and 2005 for a study area in the Bas-Congo province of the Democratic ...


(INRMM-MiD internal record) List of keywords of the INRMM meta-information database - part 8

(February 2014)
Keywords: coldwaves   coleophora-laricella   collaborative-design   collection   collective-intelligence   colli-euganei   collinearity   colombia   colophospermum-mopane   color-photos   colorado   colutea-arborescens   combretum-imberbe   combustion-emission   command-line   common-bird-index   common-name-alder   common-name-ash   common-name-beech   common-name-yew   communicating-uncertainty   community   community-modelling   community-structure   community-structures   comparison   competition   complexes   complexity   complexity-vs-uncertainty   component-based   compsidia-populnea   compsilura-concinnata   computational-science   computational-science-automation   computer-science   cone-crop   conefor-sensinode   conflicts   congo   coniferales   coniferophyta   coniferopsida   conifers   connectivity   conocarpus-erectus   consensus   conservation   conservation-biology   conservation-strategies   console   constrained-innovation   constrained-spatial-multi-frequency-analysis   context-aware   continental-scale   continuity   control-problem   controversial-monetarisation   conyza-canadensis   cooperation   coppice   coppice-forest   coppice-sessile-oak   coppice-stools   copyleft   cordia-boissieri   cordia-sebestena   cork   cornus-florida   cornus-mas   cornus-nuttallii   cornus-officinalis   cornus-sanguinea   cornus-spp   coroebus-florentinus   correlation-analysis   correlative-approach   corridors   corrigenda   corroboration   corsica   corsican-nuthatch   corsican-pine   corylus-avellana   corylus-colurna   corylus-spp   corymbia-calophylla   cosmetic-use   cossus-cossus   cost-benefit-analysis   costal-dunes   costs   cotinus-coggygria   cotoneaster-integerrimus   cotoneaster-nebrodensis   cotoneaster-spp   cotton   couroupita-guianensis   cowania-mexicana   inrmm-list-of-tags  


List of indexed keywords within the transdisciplinary set of domains which relate to the Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management (INRMM). In particular, the list of keywords maps the semantic tags in the INRMM Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD). [\n] The INRMM-MiD records providing this list are accessible by the special tag: inrmm-list-of-tags ( ). ...


Inefficient epidemic spreading in scale-free networks

Physical Review E, Vol. 77, No. 2. (Feb 2008), 026113,


Highly heterogeneous degree distributions yield efficient spreading of simple epidemics through networks, but can be inefficient with more complex epidemiological processes. We study diseases with nonlinear force of infection whose prevalences can abruptly collapse to zero while decreasing the transmission parameters. We find that scale-free networks can be unable to support diseases that, on the contrary, are able to persist at high endemic levels in homogeneous networks with the same average degree. ...


Profiling core-periphery network structure by random walkers

Scientific Reports, Vol. 3 (19 March 2013),


Disclosing the main features of the structure of a network is crucial to understand a number of static and dynamic properties, such as robustness to failures, spreading dynamics, or collective behaviours. Among the possible characterizations, the core-periphery paradigm models the network as the union of a dense core with a sparsely connected periphery, highlighting the role of each node on the basis of its topological position. Here we show that the core-periphery structure can effectively be profiled by elaborating the behaviour ...


A proposal for an integrated modelling framework to characterise habitat pattern

Environmental Modelling & Software, Vol. 52 (February 2014), pp. 176-191,


[Highlights] [::] Habitat pattern characterisation as methodological guidance for fragmentation assessments (applied in Europe). [::] Reproducible integration of three landscape models with GIS and semantic array programming. [::] Four families indices: landscape composition, edge interface, habitat morphology and connectivity. [::] New indices: edge interface context of morphological shapes; Power Weighted Probability of Dispersal family for connectivity. [::] Nonlinear statistical correlation analysis based on Brownian Distance Correlation. [Abstract] Harmonized information on habitat pattern, fragmentation and connectivity is one among the reporting needs of the biodiversity policy agenda. This paper ...


Bioclimatic and physical characterization of the world’s islands

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 110, No. 38. (17 September 2013), pp. 15307-15312,


The Earth’s islands harbor a distinct, yet highly threatened, biological and cultural diversity that has been shaped by geographic isolation and unique environments. Island systems are key natural laboratories for testing theory in ecology and evolution. However, despite their potential usefulness for research, a quantitative description of island environments and an environmental classification are still lacking. Here, we prepare a standardized dataset and perform a comprehensive global environmental characterization for 17,883 of the world’s marine islands >1 km2 (∼98% of total ...


Agricultural landscape simplification does not consistently drive insecticide use

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 110, No. 38. (17 September 2013), pp. 15330-15335,


[Significance] Increases in agricultural production have greatly altered land-use patterns, often resulting in simplified landscapes composed of large monocultures separated by fragments of natural lands. It is thought that these simplified landscapes enable agricultural insect pests to thrive due to an absence of predators and abundant food, necessitating greater insecticide use. Despite the logic of this theory, empirical support is lacking. Using a multiyear analysis it becomes clear that the presence and direction of the relationship between landscape simplification and insecticide use ...

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