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Selection: with tag competition [28 articles] 


Oak decline as illustrated through plant–climate interactions near the northern edge of species range

The Botanical Review, Vol. 82, No. 1. (2016), pp. 1-23,


This paper investigates historical growth and climate records among the oak sites representing the northern edge of species range in northernmost Europe (Finland). This is to characterize plant–climate interactions for a multitude of sites where oak decline has recently been observed and understand this most recent decline in the context of the past decline studies elsewhere. Further, our paper demonstrates the procedures the tree-ring data can be used in isolating those factors significantly contributing to decline. Our findings point towards complex ...


Regular patterns link individual behavior to population persistence

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 114, No. 30. (25 July 2017), pp. 7747-7749,


[Excerpt] Resisting and recovering from disturbances is a necessity for most species. The strategy is sometimes collective, depending on the aggregation of interacting individuals into regular patterns. However, relating patterns of abundance across scales to both individual behavior and population persistence remains a major challenge for ecology. Such patterns are found in many ecosystems, ranging from microbes to forests, with their regularity taking the form of evenly sized and spaced bands and patches of aggregated individuals. Regular patterns are said to ...


Beyond pairwise mechanisms of species coexistence in complex communities

Nature, Vol. 546, No. 7656. (31 May 2017), pp. 56-64,


The tremendous diversity of species in ecological communities has motivated a century of research into the mechanisms that maintain biodiversity. However, much of this work examines the coexistence of just pairs of competitors. This approach ignores those mechanisms of coexistence that emerge only in diverse competitive networks. Despite the potential for these mechanisms to create conditions under which the loss of one competitor triggers the loss of others, we lack the knowledge needed to judge their importance for coexistence in nature. ...


Resolving the biodiversity paradox

Ecology Letters, Vol. 10, No. 8. (August 2007), pp. 647-659,


The paradox of biodiversity involves three elements, (i) mathematical models predict that species must differ in specific ways in order to coexist as stable ecological communities, (ii) such differences are difficult to identify, yet (iii) there is widespread evidence of stability in natural communities. Debate has centred on two views. The first explanation involves tradeoffs along a small number of axes, including ‘colonization-competition’, resource competition (light, water, nitrogen for plants, including the ‘successional niche’), and life history (e.g. high-light growth vs. ...


Competition theory, evolution, and the concept of an ecological niche

Acta Biotheoretica, Vol. 31, No. 3. (1982), pp. 165-179,


This article examines some of the main tenets of competition theory in light of the theory of evolution and the concept of an ecological niche. The principle of competitive exclusion and the related assumption that communities exist at competitive equilibrium - fundamental parts of many competition theories and models - may be violated if non-equilibrium conditions exist in natural communities or are incorporated into competition models. Furthermore, these two basic tenets of competition theory are not compatible with the theory of ...


The tragedy of the commons

Science, Vol. 162, No. 3859. (13 December 1968), pp. 1243-1248,


The population problem has no technical solution; it requires a fundamental extension in morality. [Excerpt] [...] A technical solution may be defined as one that requires a change only in the techniques of the natural sciences, demanding little or nothing in the way of change in human values or ideas of morality. In our day (though not in earlier times) technical solutions are always welcome. Because of previous failures in prophecy, it takes courage to assert that a desired technical solution is ...


The natural selection of bad science

Open Science, Vol. 3, No. 9. (01 September 2016), 160384,


Poor research design and data analysis encourage false-positive findings. Such poor methods persist despite perennial calls for improvement, suggesting that they result from something more than just misunderstanding. The persistence of poor methods results partly from incentives that favour them, leading to the natural selection of bad science. This dynamic requires no conscious strategizing—no deliberate cheating nor loafing—by scientists, only that publication is a principal factor for career advancement. Some normative methods of analysis have almost certainly been selected to further ...


Social semantics: altruism, cooperation, mutualism, strong reciprocity and group selection

Journal of Evolutionary Biology, Vol. 20, No. 2. (1 March 2007), pp. 415-432,


From an evolutionary perspective, social behaviours are those which have fitness consequences for both the individual that performs the behaviour, and another individual. Over the last 43 years, a huge theoretical and empirical literature has developed on this topic. However, progress is often hindered by poor communication between scientists, with different people using the same term to mean different things, or different terms to mean the same thing. This can obscure what is biologically important, and what is not. The potential for ...


Repression of competition and the evolution of cooperation

Evolution, Vol. 57, No. 4. (April 2003), pp. 693-705,


Repression of competition within groups joins kin selection as the second major force in the history of life shaping the evolution of cooperation. When opportunities for competition against neighbors are limited within groups, individuals can increase their own success only by enhancing the efficiency and productivity of their group. Thus, characters that repress competition within groups promote cooperation and enhance group success. Leigh first expressed this idea in the context of fair meiosis, in which each chromosome has an equal chance ...


How chimpanzees cooperate in a competitive world

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, No. 36. (06 September 2016), pp. 10215-10220,


[Significance] Competitive tendencies may make it hard for members of a group to cooperate with each other. Humans use many different “enforcement” strategies to keep competition in check and favor cooperation. To test whether one of our closest relatives uses similar strategies, we gave a group of chimpanzees a cooperative problem that required joint action by two or three individuals. The open-group set-up allowed the chimpanzees a choice between cooperation and competitive behavior like freeloading. The chimpanzees used a combination of partner ...


Size asymmetry of resource competition and the structure of plant communities

Journal of Ecology, Vol. 104, No. 4. (July 2016), pp. 899-910,


Plant communities show two general responses to gradients of soil resources: a decrease in species richness at high levels of resource availability and an associated shift in species composition from small and slow-growing species to large and fast-growing species. Models attempting to explain these responses have usually focused on a single pattern and provided contradicting predictions concerning the underlying mechanisms. [\n] We use an extension of Tilman's resource competition model to investigate the hypothesis that both patterns may ...


Size asymmetry of resource competition and the structure of plant communities: commentary on DeMalach et al 2016

Journal of Ecology, Vol. 104, No. 4. (July 2016), pp. 911-912,


[Excerpt] The hump-back relationship between diversity and productivity is one of the well-known patterns in ecology that have defied unequivocal explanation (Mittelbach et al. 2001; Šímová, Li & Storch 2013). While it has often been argued that the decline of species richness under high productivity is due to more intense competition, it has never been made fully clear why extinction under high productivity should be more likely compared to low productivity. DeMalach et al. (2016) present a simple and elegant explanation: it ...


Plant functional traits have globally consistent effects on competition

Nature, Vol. 529, No. 7585. (14 January 2016), pp. 204-207,


[Headlines] Data from millions of trees in thousands of locations are used to show that certain key traits affect competitive ability in predictable ways, and that there are trade-offs between traits that favour growth with and without competition. [Abstract] Phenotypic traits and their associated trade-offs have been shown to have globally consistent effects on individual plant physiological functions, but how these effects scale up to influence competition, a key driver of community assembly in terrestrial vegetation, has remained unclear. Here we use growth data ...


Studying evolving software ecosystems based on ecological models

In Evolving Software Systems (2014), pp. 297-326,


Research on software evolution is very active, but evolutionary principles, models and theories that properly explain why and how software systems evolve over time are still lacking. Similarly, more empirical research is needed to understand how different software projects co-exist and co-evolve, and how contributors collaborate within their encompassing software ecosystem. In this chapter, we explore the differences and analogies between natural ecosystems and biological evolution on the one hand, and software ecosystems and software evolution on the other hand. The aim is to learn from research in ...


Competitive science: is competition ruining science?

Infection and Immunity, Vol. 83, No. 4. (01 April 2015), pp. 1229-1233,


Science has always been a competitive undertaking. Despite recognition of the benefits of cooperation and team science, reduced availability of funding and jobs has made science more competitive than ever. Here we consider the benefits of competition in providing incentives to scientists and the adverse effects of competition on resource sharing, research integrity, and creativity. The history of science shows that transformative discoveries often occur in the absence of competition, which only emerges once fields are established and goals are defined. ...


Zur ökologischen Strategie der Eibe (Taxus baccata L.) : Wachstums- und Verjüngungsdynamik



Taxus baccata is a rare and endangered tree species in all of Germany. Besides different anthropogenic reasons such as harvesting, incorrect forest management and heavy browsing by deer its rareness is considered to be the result of an inferiority of yew under competition pressure of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.). Especially the competition for light is pointed out. If this is right Taxus baccata would be a Tertiary relict indeed, due to the extraordinary dominance of beech in Central European forests, were ...


Competitive interactions between forest trees are driven by species' trait hierarchy, not phylogenetic or functional similarity: implications for forest community assembly

Ecology Letters, Vol. 15, No. 8. (August 2012), pp. 831-840,


The relative importance of competition vs. environmental filtering in the assembly of communities is commonly inferred from their functional and phylogenetic structure, on the grounds that similar species compete most strongly for resources and are therefore less likely to coexist locally. This approach ignores the possibility that competitive effects can be determined by relative positions of species on a hierarchy of competitive ability. Using growth data, we estimated 275 interaction coefficients between tree species in the French mountains. We show that ...


The influence of phylogenetic relatedness on species interactions among freshwater green algae in a mesocosm experiment

Journal of Ecology, Vol. 102, No. 5. (September 2014), pp. 1288-1299,


1. A long-standing hypothesis in ecology and evolutionary biology is that closely related species are more ecologically similar to each other and therefore compete more strongly than distant relatives do. A recent hypothesis posits that evolutionary relatedness may also explain the prevalence of mutualisms, with facilitative interactions being more common among distantly related species. Despite the importance of these hypotheses for understanding the structure and function of ecological communities, experimental tests to determine how evolutionary relatedness influences competition ...


Evolutionary history and the strength of species interactions: testing the phylogenetic limiting similarity hypothesis

Ecology, Vol. 95, No. 5. (May 2014), pp. 1407-1417,


A longstanding concept in community ecology is that closely related species compete more strongly than distant relatives. Ecologists have invoked this “limiting similarity hypothesis” to explain patterns in the structure and function of biological communities and to inform conservation, restoration, and invasive-species management. However, few studies have empirically tested the validity of the limiting similarity hypothesis. Here we report the results of a laboratory microcosm experiment in which we used a model system of 23 common, co-occurring North American freshwater green ...


Not all plagiarism requires a retraction

Nature, Vol. 511, No. 7508. (9 July 2014), pp. 127-127,


Papers that plagiarize only text can still contribute to the literature, but any errors or omissions should be prominently corrected, says Praveen Chaddah. [Excerpt] The ease with which large chunks of text can be digitally scanned and compared with what has previously been published has produced a new breed of academic watchdog. Plagiarism-detection software has opened up scrutiny of scientific publications to non-experts and text that has been copied and pasted without proper attribution is now a common reason for papers being ...


What goes around comes around: knowledge hiding, perceived motivational climate, and creativity

Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 57, No. 1. (01 February 2014), pp. 172-192,


Knowledge hiding prevents colleagues from generating creative ideas, but it may also have negative consequences for the creativity of a knowledge hider. Drawing on social exchange theory, we propose that when employees hide knowledge, they trigger a reciprocal distrust loop in which coworkers are unwilling to share knowledge with them. We further suggest that these effects are contingent on motivational climate, in such a way that the negative effects of an individual's hiding knowledge on his/her own creativity are enhanced in ...


Sabotaged scientist sues Yale and her lab chief

Science, Vol. 343, No. 6175. (07 March 2014), pp. 1065-1066,


Magdalena Koziol, a former postdoc at Yale University, was the victim of scientific sabotage. Now, she is suing the alleged perpetrator, who she claims poisoned her zebrafish, as well as her former boss at Yale, who she says became hostile and unsupportive after the sabotage was discovered, and Yale University. The complex case raises a host of questions about research sabotage, a type of misbehavior that some scientists believe is more common than the few known cases suggest. ...


(INRMM-MiD internal record) List of keywords of the INRMM meta-information database - part 8

(February 2014)
Keywords: coldwaves   coleophora-laricella   collaborative-design   collection   collective-intelligence   colli-euganei   collinearity   colombia   colophospermum-mopane   color-photos   colorado   colutea-arborescens   combretum-imberbe   combustion-emission   command-line   common-bird-index   common-name-alder   common-name-ash   common-name-beech   common-name-yew   communicating-uncertainty   community   community-modelling   community-structure   community-structures   comparison   competition   complexes   complexity   complexity-vs-uncertainty   component-based   compsidia-populnea   compsilura-concinnata   computational-science   computational-science-automation   computer-science   cone-crop   conefor-sensinode   conflicts   congo   coniferales   coniferophyta   coniferopsida   conifers   connectivity   conocarpus-erectus   consensus   conservation   conservation-biology   conservation-strategies   console   constrained-innovation   constrained-spatial-multi-frequency-analysis   context-aware   continental-scale   continuity   control-problem   controversial-monetarisation   conyza-canadensis   cooperation   coppice   coppice-forest   coppice-sessile-oak   coppice-stools   copyleft   cordia-boissieri   cordia-sebestena   cork   cornus-florida   cornus-mas   cornus-nuttallii   cornus-officinalis   cornus-sanguinea   cornus-spp   coroebus-florentinus   correlation-analysis   correlative-approach   corridors   corrigenda   corroboration   corsica   corsican-nuthatch   corsican-pine   corylus-avellana   corylus-colurna   corylus-spp   corymbia-calophylla   cosmetic-use   cossus-cossus   cost-benefit-analysis   costal-dunes   costs   cotinus-coggygria   cotoneaster-integerrimus   cotoneaster-nebrodensis   cotoneaster-spp   cotton   couroupita-guianensis   cowania-mexicana   inrmm-list-of-tags  


List of indexed keywords within the transdisciplinary set of domains which relate to the Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management (INRMM). In particular, the list of keywords maps the semantic tags in the INRMM Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD). [\n] The INRMM-MiD records providing this list are accessible by the special tag: inrmm-list-of-tags ( ). ...


Complex dynamics in learning complicated games

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 110, No. 4. (22 January 2013), pp. 1232-1236,


Game theory is the standard tool used to model strategic interactions in evolutionary biology and social science. Traditionally, game theory studies the equilibria of simple games. However, is this useful if the game is complicated, and if not, what is? We define a complicated game as one with many possible moves, and therefore many possible payoffs conditional on those moves. We investigate two-person games in which the players learn based on a type of reinforcement learning called experience-weighted attraction (EWA). By ...


Uncertainty and the optimal level of specialization

Research in Economics, Vol. 66, No. 3. (September 2012), pp. 213-218,


Using a two-sector one-factor comparative-advantage-based trade model under uncertainty, we show that (1) to specialize according to comparative advantages may be sub-optimal in a multi-period setting; (2) there are conditions under which, even if agents are risk-neutral, the decentralized solution is inefficient and characterized by overspecialization. ⺠Comparative-advantage-induced full specialization may be sub-optimal in a multi-period setting. ⺠The centralized and the decentralized optimal level of specialization are different in a multi-period setting. ⺠The decentralized optimal level of specialization is ...


When transparency and collaboration collide: The USA Open Data program

J. Am. Soc. Inf. Sci., Vol. 62, No. 11. (1 November 2011), pp. 2085-2094,


President Obama's inaugural flagship Open Data program emphasizes the values of transparency, participation, and collaboration in governmental work. The Open Data performance data analysis, published here for the first time, proposes that most federal agencies have adopted a passive–aggressive attitude toward this program by appearing to cooperate with the program while in fact effectively ignoring it. The analysis further suggests that a tiny group of agencies are the only “real players” in the web arena. This research highlights the contradiction ...


Beyond Competition: Incorporating Positive Interactions between Species to Predict Ecosystem Invasibility

PLoS Biol, Vol. 6, No. 6. (24 June 2008), e162,


Incorporating positive species interactions into models relating native species richness to community invasibility will increase our ability to forecast, prevent, and manage future invasions. ...


Let’s limit the effect of software patents, since we can’t eliminate them

Wired In Solutions to the Software Patent Problem, Vol. 20, No. 11. (November 2012)


Patents threaten every software developer, and the patent wars we have long feared have broken out. Software developers and software users – which in our society, is most people – need software to be free of patents. The patents that threaten us are often called “software patents,” but that term is misleading. Such patents are not about any specific program. Rather, each patent describes some practical idea, and says that anyone carrying out the idea can be sued. So it’s clearer to ...

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Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management - Meta-information Database.

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Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD).
This database integrates a dedicated meta-information database in CiteULike (the CiteULike INRMM Group) with the meta-information available in Google Scholar, CrossRef and DataCite. The Altmetric database with Article-Level Metrics is also harvested. Part of the provided semantic content (machine-readable) is made even human-readable thanks to the DCMI Dublin Core viewer. Digital preservation of the meta-information indexed within the INRMM-MiD publication records is implemented thanks to the Internet Archive.
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Full-text and abstracts of the publications indexed by the INRMM meta-information database are copyrighted by the respective publishers/authors. They are subject to all applicable copyright protection. The conditions of use of each indexed publication is defined by its copyright owner. Please, be aware that the indexed meta-information entirely relies on voluntary work and constitutes a quite incomplete and not homogeneous work-in-progress.
INRMM-MiD was experimentally established by the Maieutike Research Initiative in 2008 and then improved with the help of several volunteers (with a major technical upgrade in 2011). This new integrated interface is operational since 2014.