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Selection: with tag comparison [81 articles] 


A landscape of disgust

Science, Vol. 359, No. 6381. (15 March 2018), pp. 1213-1214,


A rancid meal, a moist handshake, a pile of feces: These phenomena elicit disgust and avoidance that protect humans from our most pervasive consumer—infectious agents. This avoidance is not specific to humans. Various animals alter their behavior to avoid infection (1). For instance, Poirotte et al. recently showed that mandrills avoid parasite-contaminated feces and refrain from grooming infected individuals (2). These primates' nuanced ability to detect and alter their behavior in response to differential exposure risk suggests close parallels to the ...


Paintings predict the distribution of species, or the challenge of selecting environmental predictors and evaluation statistics

Global Ecology and Biogeography, Vol. 27, No. 2. (February 2018), pp. 245-256,


[Aim] Species distribution modelling, a family of statistical methods that predicts species distributions from a set of occurrences and environmental predictors, is now routinely applied in many macroecological studies. However, the reliability of evaluation metrics usually employed to validate these models remains questioned. Moreover, the emergence of online databases of environmental variables with global coverage, especially climatic, has favoured the use of the same set of standard predictors. Unfortunately, the selection of variables is too rarely based on a careful examination of ...


On the use of cost-benefit analysis and multi-criteria evaluation in ex-ante impact assessment

Vol. 28768 EN (2017),


When a public administration wishes to implement policies, there is a need of comparing different options and valuating and evaluating them to assess their social attractiveness. Traditionally, welfare economics has used cost-benefit analysis based on the Kaldor-Hicks compensation principle, which was invented to achieve two clear objectives: [::1] To compare individuals’ preferences according to the efficiency oriented utilitarian calculus, explicitly avoiding the principle one individual, one vote. [::2] To implement an objective evaluation criterion, that could be accepted in the framework of the ...


Speed/accuracy trade-offs for modern convolutional object detectors

In 2017 IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR 2017) (2017), pp. 7310-7319,


The goal of this paper is to serve as a guide for selecting a detection architecture that achieves the right speed/memory/accuracy balance for a given application and platform. To this end, we investigate various ways to trade accuracy for speed and memory usage in modern convolutional object detection systems. A number of successful systems have been proposed in recent years, but apples-to-apples comparisons are difficult due to different base feature extractors (e.g., VGG, Residual Networks), different default image resolutions, as well as different hardware and software platforms. We ...


Global models underestimate large decadal declining and rising water storage trends relative to GRACE satellite data

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (22 January 2018), 201704665,


[Significance] We increasingly rely on global models to project impacts of humans and climate on water resources. How reliable are these models? While past model intercomparison projects focused on water fluxes, we provide here the first comprehensive comparison of land total water storage trends from seven global models to trends from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites, which have been likened to giant weighing scales in the sky. The models underestimate the large decadal (2002–2014) trends in water storage relative to ...


Redefine statistical significance

Nature Human Behaviour, Vol. 2, No. 1. (1 September 2017), pp. 6-10,


We propose to change the default P-value threshold for statistical significance for claims of new discoveries from 0.05 to 0.005 ...


Empirical models of annual post-fire erosion on mulched and unmulched hillslopes

CATENA, Vol. 163 (April 2018), pp. 276-287,


[Highlights] [::] Measured hillslope erosion with and without mulch following the 2012 High Park Fire. [::] Mulched slopes had fourfold lower erosion rates during the first year after fire. [::] Bare soil was the strongest control on erosion rates. [::] Empirical models predict erosion using bare soil, precipitation, and flow length. [::] Empirical model performance ranged from poor to good for different fires. [Abstract] Erosion is one of the primary land management concerns following wildfire. This study examines controls on post-fire hillslope-scale erosion for the 2012 High Park ...


An assessment of forest biomass maps in Europe using harmonized national statistics and inventory plots

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 409 (February 2018), pp. 489-498,


[Highlights] [::] We assessed four biomass maps for Europe using harmonized biomass reference data. [::] The harmonized statistics were derived from ∼430,000 plots from 26 countries. [::] All maps overestimated at low biomass and underestimated at high biomass. [::] All maps had an overall negative bias (23–43 Mg ha−1 at national level). [::] The maps relative errors was 29–40% at national level and 63–72% at cell level. [Abstract] Maps of aboveground forest biomass based on different input data and modelling approaches have been recently produced for Europe, opening up the ...


Open geospatial data: an assessment of global boundary datasets

In Proceedings of the 20th annual GIS Research UK (GISRUK 2012) (2012), 35


[Excerpt: Conclusion] Through comparison of GAUL, GADM and UNSALB boundary datasets we found that each dataset has advantages and drawbacks in terms of accuracy and usability, but overall GAUL was the best dataset due to the accuracy and completeness of the dataset. While UNSALB boundaries have the highest rate of accuracy because of validation with national mapping agencies, it is limited in geographic scope. Although GADM has a global scale, many of the boundaries are outdated and it is unclear whether GADM organizers have utilized public feedback ...


Influence of tree species on continental differences in boreal fires and climate feedbacks

Nature Geoscience, Vol. 8, No. 3. (2 February 2015), pp. 228-234,


Wildfires are common in boreal forests around the globe and strongly influence ecosystem processes. However, North American forests support more high-intensity crown fires than Eurasia, where lower-intensity surface fires are common. These two types of fire can result in different net effects on climate as a consequence of their contrasting impacts on terrestrial albedo and carbon stocks. Here we use remote-sensing imagery, climate reanalysis data and forest inventories to evaluate differences in boreal fire dynamics between North America and Eurasia and ...


A comparative study of aboveground biomass of three Mediterranean species in a post-fire succession

Acta Oecologica, Vol. 25, No. 1-2. (March 2004), pp. 1-6,


The aboveground biomass of three woody species (Cistus albidus, Quercus coccifera and Pinus halepensis) in two early successional stages (3- and 10-year old) of a post-fire Mediterranean ecosystem was investigated. Among these three species, which belong to the successional series of holm oak (Quercus ilex), C. albidus and Q. coccifera are two dominant shrub species in the garrigue ecosystem and P. halepensis is a pioneer tree species widely represented in the Mediterranean area. The results obtained showed that in monospecific stands, ...


Projecting future drought in Mediterranean forests: bias correction of climate models matters!

Theoretical and Applied Climatology, Vol. 117, No. 1-2. (2014), pp. 113-122,


Global and regional climate models (GCM and RCM) are generally biased and cannot be used as forcing variables in ecological impact models without some form of prior bias correction. In this study, we investigated the influence of the bias correction method on drought projections in Mediterranean forests in southern France for the end of the twenty-first century (2071–2100). We used a water balance model with two different atmospheric climate forcings built from the same RCM simulations but using two different correction ...


Why input matters: selection of climate data sets for modelling the potential distribution of a treeline species in the Himalayan region

Ecological Modelling, Vol. 359 (2017), pp. 92-102


[Highlights] [::] Generalized Linear Models were used to model the potential distribution of Betula utilis in the Himalayan region. [::] Evaluation of predictive ability between climate data sets derived from different statistical methods. [::] Comparison of ‘interpolated’ (i.e. WORLDCLIM) and ‘quasi-mechanistical statistical downscaling’ (i.e. CHELSA) climate data. [::] Models based CHELSA climate data had higher predictive power, WORLDCLIM consistently overpredicted the potential habitat. [::] Unmindful usage of climatic variables for environmental niche models may potentially cause misleading projections. [Abstract] Betula utilis is a major constituent of alpine treeline ...



In NIST/SEMATECH e-Handbook of Statistical Methods (2012),


[Excerpt: Definitions of order statistics and ranks] For a series of measurements Y1, …, YN, denote the data ordered in increasing order of magnitude by Y〈1〉, …, Y〈N〉. These ordered data are called order statistics. If Y〈j〉 is the order statistic that corresponds to the measurement Yᵢ, then the rank for Yᵢ is j; i.e., [::] Y〈j〉 ∼ Yᵢ, rᵢ=j. [Definition of percentiles] Order statistics provide a way of estimating proportions of the data that should fall above and below a ...


Sample quantiles in statistical packages

The American Statistician, Vol. 50, No. 4. (1 November 1996), pp. 361-365,


There are a large number of different definitions used for sample quantiles in statistical computer packages. Often within the same package one definition will be used to compute a quantile explicitly, while other definitions may be used when producing a boxplot, a probability plot, or a QQ plot. We compare the most commonly implemented sample quantile definitions by writing them in a common notation and investigating their motivation and some of their properties. We argue that there is a need to ...


2D Euclidean distance transform algorithms: a comparative survey

ACM Computing Surveys, Vol. 40, No. 1. (February 2008), pp. 1-44,


The distance transform (DT) is a general operator forming the basis of many methods in computer vision and geometry, with great potential for practical applications. However, all the optimal algorithms for the computation of the exact Euclidean DT (EDT) were proposed only since the 1990s. In this work, state-of-the-art sequential 2D EDT algorithms are reviewed and compared, in an effort to reach more solid conclusions regarding their differences in speed and their exactness. Six of the best algorithms were fully implemented ...


System of Systems - the meaning of of

System of Systems Engineering In 2006 IEEE/SMC International Conference on System of Systems Engineering, Vol. 0 (10 July 2006), pp. 118-123,


We present distinguishing characteristics (i.e. autonomy, belonging, connectivity, diversity, and emergence), that can help us to recognize or to realize a System of Systems (SoS). The principle differentiation that we make between a thing being either a 'system' or a SoS focuses on the nature of a system's composition. We will distinctly define this set of distinguishing characteristics which will include a set of cross references from our literature research where we believe others are articulating our chosen differentiating characteristics. We ...


A multi-model assessment of the co-benefits of climate mitigation for global air quality

Environmental Research Letters, Vol. 11, No. 12. (01 December 2016), 124013,


We present a model comparison study that combines multiple integrated assessment models with a reduced-form global air quality model to assess the potential co-benefits of global climate mitigation policies in relation to the World Health Organization (WHO) goals on air quality and health. We include in our assessment, a range of alternative assumptions on the implementation of current and planned pollution control policies. The resulting air pollution emission ranges significantly extend those in the Representative Concentration Pathways. Climate mitigation policies complement ...


A comparative evaluation of core kernel features of the recent Linux, FreeBSD, Solaris and Windows operating systems

In Proceedings of The World Congress on Engineering 2016 (2016)


The paper compares core kernel architecture and functionality of four modern operating systems. The subsystems examined are process / thread architecture, scheduling and interrupt handling. Linux, Solaris and FreeBSD have a lot of similarities, owning Unix roots, but also have some notable differences. However, Windows is significantly different, being a radical non-Unix design. The paper compares some aspects of the Unix-like approaches of Linux/Solaris/FreeBSD with Windows, emphasizing the consequences of their different design decisions, and presents some comparative performance results, using Java benchmarks. [Excerpt: Conclusions] The paper aimed to provide an insight to ...


A cautionary note on the use of hypervolume kernel density estimators in ecological niche modelling

Global Ecology and Biogeography (August 2016),


Blonder et al. (2014, Global Ecology and Biogeography, 23, 595–609) introduced a new multivariate kernel density estimation (KDE) method to infer Hutchinsonian hypervolumes in the modelling of ecological niches. The authors argued that their KDE method matches or outperforms several methods for estimating hypervolume geometries and for conducting species distribution modelling. Further clarification, however, is appropriate with respect to the assumptions and limitations of KDE as a method for species distribution modelling. Using virtual species and controlled environmental scenarios, we show ...


Is robustness really robust? How different definitions of robustness impact decision-making under climate change

Climatic Change, Vol. 135, No. 3-4. (2016), pp. 409-424,


Robust decision-making is being increasingly used to support environmental resources decisions and policy analysis under changing climate and society. In this context, a robust decision is a decision that is as much as possible insensitive to a large degree of uncertainty and ensures certain performance across multiple plausible futures. Yet, the concept of robustness is neither unique nor static. Multiple robustness metrics, such as maximin, optimism-pessimism, max regret, have been proposed in the literature, reflecting diverse optimistic/pessimistic attitudes by the decision ...


The impacts of logging on landslide activity at Clayoquot Sound, British Columbia

CATENA, Vol. 38, No. 4. (February 2000), pp. 279-300,


The objective of this study was to investigate the impacts of logging on landslide activity in Clayoquot Sound on the west coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia. A total of 1004 landslides were documented in order to test the hypothesis that areas affected by logging activities show different density, frequency and magnitude characteristics of landsliding than areas unaffected by logging. The frequency of landslides in logged terrain was found to be nine times higher than in undisturbed forest. An exponential increase ...


Statistical analysis

In Science: editorial policies (2016)


[Excerpt: Statistical analysis] Generally, authors should describe statistical methods with enough detail to enable a knowledgeable reader with access to the original data to verify the results. [::] Data pre-processing steps such as transformations, re-coding, re-scaling, normalization, truncation, and handling of below detectable level readings and outliers should be fully described; any removal or modification of data values must be fully acknowledged and justified. [::] [...] [::] The number of sampled units, N, upon which each reported statistic is based must be stated. [::] For continuous ...


Sequential disturbance effects of hailstorm and fire on vegetation in a Mediterranean-type ecosystem

Ecosystems, Vol. 18, No. 7. (2015), pp. 1121-1134,


Frequency and intensity of disturbance is projected to increase for many ecosystems globally, with uncertain consequences, particularly when disturbances occur in rapid succession. We quantified community response (52 shrub species and the tree Eucalyptus todtiana) to a severe hailstorm followed 2 months later by prescribed fire for a Mediterranean-type shrubland in southwestern Australia. Partial overlap of hailstorm path and fire perimeter provided a unique opportunity to compare storm and fire effects along a storm severity gradient (high–moderate–none) with and without fire. ...


Current methods to assess fire danger potential

In Wildland Fire Danger Estimation and Mapping, Vol. 4 (1 September 2003), pp. 21-61,


Abstract A review of the main operational systems for fire risk/danger rating is presented in this chapter. The systems included in the revision are a European proposal based on the Fire Potential Index and a structural risk index, the US National Fire Danger Rating System, the Canadian Forest Fire Danger Rating System, the Australian and the New Zealand systems. The basis and different components of these danger rating methods are presented and commented. ...


Globally effective questioning in the Analytic Hierarchy Process

European Journal of Operational Research, Vol. 48, No. 1. (September 1990), pp. 88-97,


A drawback in the use of the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is the effort required to complete all pairwise comparisons in large hierarchies. The Incomplete Pairwise Comparison (IPC) technique developed by Harker [1,2] aims at reducing this effort by ordering the questions in decreasing informational value and by stopping the process when added value of questions decreases below a certain level. This paper proposes further opportunities for effort reduction through globally effective elicitation process. A simple example demonstrates impressive savings in ...


Review of the main developments in the analytic hierarchy process

Expert Systems with Applications (May 2011),


[Abstract] In this paper the authors review the developments of the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) since its inception. The focus of this paper is a neutral review on the methodological developments rather than reporting its applications that have appeared since its introduction. In particular, we discuss problem modelling, pair-wise comparisons, judgement scales, derivation methods, consistency indices, incomplete matrix, synthesis of the weights, sensitivity analysis and group decisions. All have been important areas of research in AHP. [Highlights] [::] Methodological developments of the analytic hierarchy ...


Towards a web-based collaborative weighting method in project

In IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics (2002), 6,


For the purpose of a product design or a project in general, weighting a set of comparable criteria has been proven to be of utmost importance (e.g. weighting product functions in value analysis - VA -, and allocating a budget in a Design-To-Cost project). Moreover the weighting problem is related to basic properties in the field of Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) through the notions of ordinal transitivity and rationality in the designers' mind. How should designers or project agents decide in ...


Forest fire danger projections in the Mediterranean using ENSEMBLES regional climate change scenarios

Climatic Change, Vol. 122, No. 1-2. (2014), pp. 185-199,


We present future fire danger scenarios for the countries bordering the Mediterranean areas of Europe and north Africa building on a multi-model ensemble of state-of-the-art regional climate projections from the EU-funded project ENSEMBLES. Fire danger is estimated using the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index (FWI) System and a related set of indices. To overcome some of the limitations of ENSEMBLES data for their application on the FWI System—recently highlighted in a previous study by Herrera et al. (Clim Chang 118:827–840, 2013)—we ...


Fire behaviour knowledge in Australia: a synthesis of disciplinary and stakeholder knowledge on fire spread prediction capability and application



[Executive summary] This project undertook a survey of the fire behaviour knowledge currently used by operational fire behaviour analysts (FBANs) in Australia and New Zealand for the purpose of predicting the behaviour and spread of bushfires. This included a review of the science, applicability and validation of current fire behaviour models, an examination of the fire perimeter propagation software currently being used by FBANs, and a survey of those FBANs to determine current work practices when carrying out fire behaviour predictions. ...


Water use in neighbouring stands of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and black alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.)

Annals of Forest Science, Vol. 56, No. 2. (1999), pp. 107-120,


In neighbouring stands of beech and black alder in northern Germany, transpiration, soil evaporation and interception evaporation were estimated for four meteorologically different years. By means of standard weather data a two-layer evaporation model of the Shuttleworth-Wallace type was applied. In the 105-year-old beech forest (tree height 29 m, maximum leaf area index 4.5), annual transpiration (Tr) varied between 326 and 421 mm (mean 389 mm or 50 % of gross precipitation, PG) and annual evapotranspiration (ET) between 567 and 665 ...


Comparison between energy balance and mass balance models for actual evapotranspiration assessment

In Remote Sensing for Agriculture, Ecosystems, and Hydrology XI, Vol. 7472 (2009), 747212,


The assessment of the water needs for a specific crop has a fundamental importance in the management of water resources. The application of empirical models able to retrieve estimates of the actual evapotranspiration (ETa) to assess the need for water could give a valid tool for the planning of water supply, avoiding unnecessary water losses. In this context, two independent models for estimating actual evapotranspiration were compared. The first model is based on an energy balance and uses remotely sensed data ...


Decreasing fires in Mediterranean Europe

PLoS ONE, Vol. 11, No. 3. (16 March 2016), e0150663,


Forest fires are a serious environmental hazard in southern Europe. Quantitative assessment of recent trends in fire statistics is important for assessing the possible shifts induced by climate and other environmental/socioeconomic changes in this area. Here we analyse recent fire trends in Portugal, Spain, southern France, Italy and Greece, building on a homogenized fire database integrating official fire statistics provided by several national/EU agencies. During the period 1985-2011, the total annual burned area (BA) displayed a general decreasing trend, with the ...


Colchic and Hyrcanian forests of the Caucasus: similarities, differences and conservation status

Flora Mediterranea, Vol. 25, No. Special Issue. (26 November 2015),
Keywords: abies-nordmanniana   acer-insigne   acer-velutinum   albizzia-julibrissin   alnus-barbata   alnus-subcordata   ancient-forest   ancient-forest-plant-species   arachne-colchica   betula-litwinowii   betula-medwedewii   biodiversity   buxus-colchicus   buxus-hyrcana   carpinus-caucasica   castanea-sativa   caucasus   colchic-region   comparison   corylus-colchica   danae-racemosa   daphne-alboviana   daphne-pontica   dioscorea-caucasica   diospyros-lotus   ecological-zones   ecosystem-conservation   epigaea-gaultherioides   fagus-orientalis   forest-resources   gleditcia-caspica   hedera-colchica   hedera-pastuchovii   hypericum-androsaemum   hypericum-inodorum   hyrcanian-region   ilex-colchica   ilex-hyrcana   laurocerasus-officinalis   parrotia-persica   philadelphus-caucasicus   picea-orientalis   protected-areas   protection   pterocarya-fraxinifolia   quercus-castaneifolia   quercus-hartwissiana   quercus-imeretina   quercus-macranthera   quercus-pontica   rainforest   rhamnus-imeretina   rhododendron-caucasicum   rhododendron-ponticum   rhododendron-smirnowii   rhododendron-ungernii   ruscus-colchicus   ruscus-hyrcanus   sorbus-aucuparia   sorbus-caucasigena   sorbus-subfusca   species-richness   staphylea-colchica   temperate-forests   vaccinium-arctostaphylos   viburnum-orientale   zelkova-carpinifolia  


Along with high degree of vascular plant endemism (more than 25%) the existence of two refugia of the Tertiary flora – Colchic and Hyrcanian – are the most unique features of the Caucasus ecoregion. Likewise, Colchic and Hyrcanian forests are classified as temperate rainforests.There are certain physical-geographical and biological similarities and even more differences between Colchic and Hyrcanian regions, reflected on compositions of flora, types of vegetation zonation, as well as spectrums of vegetation formations. An “individualities” of these two unique nature phenomena definethe necessity of their ...


Does it take prices to make volumes move? A comparison of timber market functioning in Finland and Lithuania

Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, Vol. 31, No. 4. (18 May 2016), pp. 428-433,


Forest ownership structure is known to have implications for forest management and the production of forest products and services. The ownership structure, as well as the degree of state regulation of forestry, could thus be expected to affect the functioning of timber markets. Hence, in the presence of strict prescriptions for forest management, the self-regulating mechanisms of timber markets – governed by the economic principle of supply and demand – could be inhibited. Using Finland and Lithuania as contrasting cases, we ...


Intercomparison of MODIS albedo retrievals and in situ measurements across the global FLUXNET network

Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 121 (June 2012), pp. 323-334,


[Abstract] Surface albedo is a key parameter in the Earth's energy balance since it affects the amount of solar radiation directly absorbed at the planet surface. Its variability in time and space can be globally retrieved through the use of remote sensing products. To evaluate and improve the quality of satellite retrievals, careful intercomparisons with in situ measurements of surface albedo are crucial. For this purpose we compared MODIS albedo retrievals with surface measurements taken at 53 FLUXNET sites that met strict ...


Zur Verbreitung, Vergesellschaftung und Einbürgerung des Götterbaumes (Ailanthus altissima [Mill.] Swingle) in Mitteleuropa

Tuexenia, Vol. 4 (1984)


[German] Nach einer kurzen Übersicht über die weltweite Kultur von Ailanthus altissima werden spontane Verbreitung, Vergesellschaftung und Einbürgerung in Mitteleuropa erörtert und mit Angaben aus anderen Teilen Europas verglichen. [\n] Als entscheidender Klimafaktor für die Ausbildung der nördlichen Arealgrenze, die quer durch das Norddeutsche Tiefland verläuft, ist eine lange Vegetationsperiode mit hoher sommerlicher Wärmesumme anzusehen. Ailanthus fehlt in den kühleren Küstengebieten sowie in Gebirgen und ist in wärmeren Gebieten weitgehend an Städte gebunden. Am Beispiel von Berlin (West) konnte gezeigt werden, daß ...


The effect of species geographical distribution estimation methods on richness and phylogenetic diversity estimates

International Journal of Geographical Information Science, Vol. 26, No. 11. (1 November 2012), pp. 2097-2109,


Diversity assessments are widely used in various fields of knowledge and rely on good estimates of species distribution. There are several methods available to estimate species distribution and the effect of using them is not clearly understood. In this research, we assess the effect of species distributions derived from four geographical distribution estimation methods on derived species richness and phylogenetic diversity (PD). We used the following four most common approaches to determine species geographical distributions: (1) range-wide occurrences are records of ...


Improving the assessment and reporting on rare and endangered species through species distribution models

Global Ecology and Conservation, Vol. 2 (December 2014), pp. 226-237,


Species distribution models (SDMs) are increasingly used to understand rare and endangered species distributions, as well as the environmental pressures affecting them. Detailed knowledge of their distribution is critical for reporting its conservation status, and SDMs are potential tools to provide the relevant information to conservation practitioners. In this study, we modeled the distribution of Veronica micrantha, a vulnerable plant whose conservation status has to be periodically assessed under Article 17 of the Habitats Directive. [\n] The objective was to highlight the ...


Influence of different species range types on the perception of macroecological patterns

Systematics and Biodiversity, Vol. 9, No. 2. (1 June 2011), pp. 159-170,


In the face of increasing availability and use of distribution data, large-scale approaches of mapping species distribution patterns have become a central component of development of large-scale conservation policies. Particularly in tropical regions and for non-vertebrate taxa, knowledge on distribution patterns at large spatial extents remains woefully limited. Datasets are often geographically and taxonomically incomplete, have presence-only character and lack abundance information. One intermediate step for the application of such data common to most approaches is the construction of species geographic ...


Range expansions transition from pulled to pushed waves as growth becomes more cooperative in an experimental microbial population

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, No. 25. (21 June 2016), pp. 6922-6927,


[Significance] Species undergo range shifts in response to changing climate or following an introduction to a new environment. Invasions often incur significant economic cost and threaten biodiversity. Ecological theory predicts two distinct types of expansion waves, pulled and pushed, depending on the degree of cooperativity in the population. Although pulled and pushed invasions differ dramatically in how population-level properties such as the expansion rate depend on the organism-level properties such as rates of growth and dispersal, these theoretical predictions have not been ...


An overview of 21 global and 43 regional land-cover mapping products

International Journal of Remote Sensing, Vol. 36, No. 21. (2 November 2015), pp. 5309-5335,


Land-cover (LC) products, especially at the regional and global scales, comprise essential data for a wide range of environmental studies affecting biodiversity, climate, and human health. This review builds on previous compartmentalized efforts by summarizing 23 global and 41 regional LC products. Characteristics related to spatial resolution, overall accuracy, time of data acquisition, sensor used, classification scheme and method, support for LC change detection, download location, and key corresponding references are provided. Operational limitations and uncertainties are discussed, mostly as a ...


Comparison between the USLE, the USLE-M and replicate plots to model rainfall erosion on bare fallow areas

CATENA, Vol. 145 (October 2016), pp. 39-46,


[Highlights] [::] Examines ability of soil losses from a plot to predict those from another [::] Stochastic and systemic variations observed when replicate model used [::] Replicate model tends to perform better that USLE-M when runoff known. [Abstract] It has been proposed that the best physical model of erosion from a plot is provided by a replicate plot (Nearing, 1998). Event data from paired bare fallow plots in the USLE database were used to examine the abilities of replicate plots, the USLE and the USLE-M to ...


A review of drought concepts

Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 391, No. 1-2. (September 2010), pp. 202-216,


Owing to the rise in water demand and looming climate change, recent years have witnessed much focus on global drought scenarios. As a natural hazard, drought is best characterized by multiple climatological and hydrological parameters. An understanding of the relationships between these two sets of parameters is necessary to develop measures for mitigating the impacts of droughts. Beginning with a discussion of drought definitions, this paper attempts to provide a review of fundamental concepts of drought, classification of droughts, drought indices, ...


Drought under global warming: a review

Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, Vol. 2, No. 1. (January 2011), pp. 45-65,


This article reviews recent literature on drought of the last millennium, followed by an update on global aridity changes from 1950 to 2008. Projected future aridity is presented based on recent studies and our analysis of model simulations. Dry periods lasting for years to decades have occurred many times during the last millennium over, for example, North America, West Africa, and East Asia. These droughts were likely triggered by anomalous tropical sea surface temperatures (SSTs), with La Niña-like SST anomalies leading ...


Impacts of uncertainties in European gridded precipitation observations on regional climate analysis

Int. J. Climatol., Vol. 37, No. 1. (1 March 2017), pp. 305-327,


Gridded precipitation data sets are frequently used to evaluate climate models or to remove model output biases. Although precipitation data are error prone due to the high spatio-temporal variability of precipitation and due to considerable measurement errors, relatively few attempts have been made to account for observational uncertainty in model evaluation or in bias correction studies. In this study, we compare three types of European daily data sets featuring two Pan-European data sets and a set that combines eight very high-resolution ...


A quantitative review of relationships between ecosystem services

Ecological Indicators, Vol. 66 (July 2016), pp. 340-351,


[Highlights] [::] Relationships between ecosystem services (ES) were analyzed across case studies. [::] For many pairs of ES a dominant relationship was identified. [::] These relationships were not significantly moderated by scale or by land system. [::] Methods used to identify the relationship influenced the result. [::] Descriptive methods showed a higher probability to identify trade-off relationships. [Abstract] Ecosystems provide multiple ecosystem services (ES) to society. Ignoring the multi-functionality of land systems in natural resource management generates potential trade-offs with respect to the provisioning of ES. Understanding relationships ...


License compatibility and relicensing

In Licenses (2016)


If you want to combine two free programs into one, or merge code from one into the other, this raises the question of whether their licenses allow combining them. [\n] There is no problem merging programs that have the same license, if it is a reasonably behaved license, as nearly all free licenses are.(*) [\n] What then when the licenses are different? In general we say that several licenses are compatible if there is a way to merge code under those various licenses ...


Climate change increases the drought risk in Central European forests: what are the options for adaptation?

Forestry Journal, Vol. 60, No. 1. (1 January 2014),


The paper presents information on the projected drought exposure of Central Europe, describes the anticipated dynamics of the regional forests, and identifies measures facilitating the adaptation of forests to climate change-induced drought risk. On the basis of an ensemble of climate change scenarios we expect substantial drying in southern Slovakia and Hungary, while such trends were found to be less pronounced for the Czech Republic and Austria. In response to these climate trajectories, a change in species composition towards a higher ...


Are more complex physiological models of forest ecosystems better choices for plot and regional predictions?

Environmental Modelling & Software, Vol. 75 (January 2016), pp. 1-14,


[Highlights] [::] We evaluated performance of process-based forest ecosystem models. [::] A complex physiological model performed best at the plot scale. [::] A hybrid empirical-physiological model performed best at the regional scale. [Abstract] We evaluated performance of process-based forest ecosystem models. A complex physiological model performed best at the plot scale. A hybrid empirical-physiological model performed best at the regional scale. Process-based forest ecosystem models vary from simple physiological, complex physiological, to hybrid empirical-physiological models. Previous studies indicate that complex models provide the best prediction at ...

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Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD).
This database integrates a dedicated meta-information database in CiteULike (the CiteULike INRMM Group) with the meta-information available in Google Scholar, CrossRef and DataCite. The Altmetric database with Article-Level Metrics is also harvested. Part of the provided semantic content (machine-readable) is made even human-readable thanks to the DCMI Dublin Core viewer. Digital preservation of the meta-information indexed within the INRMM-MiD publication records is implemented thanks to the Internet Archive.
The library of INRMM related pubblications may be quickly accessed with the following links.
Search within the whole INRMM meta-information database:
Search only within the INRMM-MiD publication records:
Full-text and abstracts of the publications indexed by the INRMM meta-information database are copyrighted by the respective publishers/authors. They are subject to all applicable copyright protection. The conditions of use of each indexed publication is defined by its copyright owner. Please, be aware that the indexed meta-information entirely relies on voluntary work and constitutes a quite incomplete and not homogeneous work-in-progress.
INRMM-MiD was experimentally established by the Maieutike Research Initiative in 2008 and then improved with the help of several volunteers (with a major technical upgrade in 2011). This new integrated interface is operational since 2014.