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Selection: with tag comparison [68 articles] 

 

Percentiles

  
In NIST/SEMATECH e-Handbook of Statistical Methods (2012), 7.2.6.2

Abstract

[Excerpt: Definitions of order statistics and ranks] For a series of measurements Y1, …, YN, denote the data ordered in increasing order of magnitude by Y〈1〉, …, Y〈N〉. These ordered data are called order statistics. If Y〈j〉 is the order statistic that corresponds to the measurement Yᵢ, then the rank for Yᵢ is j; i.e., [::] Y〈j〉 ∼ Yᵢ, rᵢ=j. [Definition of percentiles] Order statistics provide a way of estimating proportions of the data that should fall above and below a ...

 

Sample quantiles in statistical packages

  
The American Statistician, Vol. 50, No. 4. (1 November 1996), pp. 361-365, https://doi.org/10.1080/00031305.1996.10473566

Abstract

There are a large number of different definitions used for sample quantiles in statistical computer packages. Often within the same package one definition will be used to compute a quantile explicitly, while other definitions may be used when producing a boxplot, a probability plot, or a QQ plot. We compare the most commonly implemented sample quantile definitions by writing them in a common notation and investigating their motivation and some of their properties. We argue that there is a need to ...

 

2D Euclidean distance transform algorithms: a comparative survey

  
ACM Computing Surveys, Vol. 40, No. 1. (February 2008), pp. 1-44, https://doi.org/10.1145/1322432.1322434

Abstract

The distance transform (DT) is a general operator forming the basis of many methods in computer vision and geometry, with great potential for practical applications. However, all the optimal algorithms for the computation of the exact Euclidean DT (EDT) were proposed only since the 1990s. In this work, state-of-the-art sequential 2D EDT algorithms are reviewed and compared, in an effort to reach more solid conclusions regarding their differences in speed and their exactness. Six of the best algorithms were fully implemented ...

 

System of Systems - the meaning of of

  
System of Systems Engineering In 2006 IEEE/SMC International Conference on System of Systems Engineering, Vol. 0 (10 July 2006), pp. 118-123, https://doi.org/10.1109/sysose.2006.1652284

Abstract

We present distinguishing characteristics (i.e. autonomy, belonging, connectivity, diversity, and emergence), that can help us to recognize or to realize a System of Systems (SoS). The principle differentiation that we make between a thing being either a 'system' or a SoS focuses on the nature of a system's composition. We will distinctly define this set of distinguishing characteristics which will include a set of cross references from our literature research where we believe others are articulating our chosen differentiating characteristics. We ...

 

A multi-model assessment of the co-benefits of climate mitigation for global air quality

  
Environmental Research Letters, Vol. 11, No. 12. (01 December 2016), 124013, https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/11/12/124013

Abstract

We present a model comparison study that combines multiple integrated assessment models with a reduced-form global air quality model to assess the potential co-benefits of global climate mitigation policies in relation to the World Health Organization (WHO) goals on air quality and health. We include in our assessment, a range of alternative assumptions on the implementation of current and planned pollution control policies. The resulting air pollution emission ranges significantly extend those in the Representative Concentration Pathways. Climate mitigation policies complement ...

 

A comparative evaluation of core kernel features of the recent Linux, FreeBSD, Solaris and Windows operating systems

  
In Proceedings of The World Congress on Engineering 2016 (2016)

Abstract

The paper compares core kernel architecture and functionality of four modern operating systems. The subsystems examined are process / thread architecture, scheduling and interrupt handling. Linux, Solaris and FreeBSD have a lot of similarities, owning Unix roots, but also have some notable differences. However, Windows is significantly different, being a radical non-Unix design. The paper compares some aspects of the Unix-like approaches of Linux/Solaris/FreeBSD with Windows, emphasizing the consequences of their different design decisions, and presents some comparative performance results, using Java benchmarks. [Excerpt: Conclusions] The paper aimed to provide an insight to ...

 

A cautionary note on the use of hypervolume kernel density estimators in ecological niche modelling

  
Global Ecology and Biogeography (August 2016), https://doi.org/10.1111/geb.12492

Abstract

Blonder et al. (2014, Global Ecology and Biogeography, 23, 595–609) introduced a new multivariate kernel density estimation (KDE) method to infer Hutchinsonian hypervolumes in the modelling of ecological niches. The authors argued that their KDE method matches or outperforms several methods for estimating hypervolume geometries and for conducting species distribution modelling. Further clarification, however, is appropriate with respect to the assumptions and limitations of KDE as a method for species distribution modelling. Using virtual species and controlled environmental scenarios, we show ...

 

Is robustness really robust? How different definitions of robustness impact decision-making under climate change

  
Climatic Change, Vol. 135, No. 3-4. (2016), pp. 409-424, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-015-1586-9

Abstract

Robust decision-making is being increasingly used to support environmental resources decisions and policy analysis under changing climate and society. In this context, a robust decision is a decision that is as much as possible insensitive to a large degree of uncertainty and ensures certain performance across multiple plausible futures. Yet, the concept of robustness is neither unique nor static. Multiple robustness metrics, such as maximin, optimism-pessimism, max regret, have been proposed in the literature, reflecting diverse optimistic/pessimistic attitudes by the decision ...

 

The impacts of logging on landslide activity at Clayoquot Sound, British Columbia

  
CATENA, Vol. 38, No. 4. (February 2000), pp. 279-300, https://doi.org/10.1016/s0341-8162(99)00078-8

Abstract

The objective of this study was to investigate the impacts of logging on landslide activity in Clayoquot Sound on the west coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia. A total of 1004 landslides were documented in order to test the hypothesis that areas affected by logging activities show different density, frequency and magnitude characteristics of landsliding than areas unaffected by logging. The frequency of landslides in logged terrain was found to be nine times higher than in undisturbed forest. An exponential increase ...

 

Statistical analysis

  
In Science: editorial policies (2016)

Abstract

[Excerpt: Statistical analysis] Generally, authors should describe statistical methods with enough detail to enable a knowledgeable reader with access to the original data to verify the results. [::] Data pre-processing steps such as transformations, re-coding, re-scaling, normalization, truncation, and handling of below detectable level readings and outliers should be fully described; any removal or modification of data values must be fully acknowledged and justified. [::] [...] [::] The number of sampled units, N, upon which each reported statistic is based must be stated. [::] For continuous ...

 

Sequential disturbance effects of hailstorm and fire on vegetation in a Mediterranean-type ecosystem

  
Ecosystems, Vol. 18, No. 7. (2015), pp. 1121-1134, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10021-015-9886-5

Abstract

Frequency and intensity of disturbance is projected to increase for many ecosystems globally, with uncertain consequences, particularly when disturbances occur in rapid succession. We quantified community response (52 shrub species and the tree Eucalyptus todtiana) to a severe hailstorm followed 2 months later by prescribed fire for a Mediterranean-type shrubland in southwestern Australia. Partial overlap of hailstorm path and fire perimeter provided a unique opportunity to compare storm and fire effects along a storm severity gradient (high–moderate–none) with and without fire. ...

 

Current methods to assess fire danger potential

  
In Wildland Fire Danger Estimation and Mapping, Vol. 4 (1 September 2003), pp. 21-61, https://doi.org/10.1142/9789812791177_0002

Abstract

Abstract A review of the main operational systems for fire risk/danger rating is presented in this chapter. The systems included in the revision are a European proposal based on the Fire Potential Index and a structural risk index, the US National Fire Danger Rating System, the Canadian Forest Fire Danger Rating System, the Australian and the New Zealand systems. The basis and different components of these danger rating methods are presented and commented. ...

 

Globally effective questioning in the Analytic Hierarchy Process

  
European Journal of Operational Research, Vol. 48, No. 1. (September 1990), pp. 88-97, https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-2217(90)90065-j

Abstract

A drawback in the use of the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is the effort required to complete all pairwise comparisons in large hierarchies. The Incomplete Pairwise Comparison (IPC) technique developed by Harker [1,2] aims at reducing this effort by ordering the questions in decreasing informational value and by stopping the process when added value of questions decreases below a certain level. This paper proposes further opportunities for effort reduction through globally effective elicitation process. A simple example demonstrates impressive savings in ...

 

Review of the main developments in the analytic hierarchy process

  
Expert Systems with Applications (May 2011), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eswa.2011.04.143

Abstract

[Abstract] In this paper the authors review the developments of the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) since its inception. The focus of this paper is a neutral review on the methodological developments rather than reporting its applications that have appeared since its introduction. In particular, we discuss problem modelling, pair-wise comparisons, judgement scales, derivation methods, consistency indices, incomplete matrix, synthesis of the weights, sensitivity analysis and group decisions. All have been important areas of research in AHP. [Highlights] [::] Methodological developments of the analytic hierarchy ...

 

Towards a web-based collaborative weighting method in project

  
In IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics (2002), 6, https://doi.org/10.1109/icsmc.2002.1173335

Abstract

For the purpose of a product design or a project in general, weighting a set of comparable criteria has been proven to be of utmost importance (e.g. weighting product functions in value analysis - VA -, and allocating a budget in a Design-To-Cost project). Moreover the weighting problem is related to basic properties in the field of Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) through the notions of ordinal transitivity and rationality in the designers' mind. How should designers or project agents decide in ...

 

Forest fire danger projections in the Mediterranean using ENSEMBLES regional climate change scenarios

  
Climatic Change, Vol. 122, No. 1-2. (2014), pp. 185-199, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-013-1005-z

Abstract

We present future fire danger scenarios for the countries bordering the Mediterranean areas of Europe and north Africa building on a multi-model ensemble of state-of-the-art regional climate projections from the EU-funded project ENSEMBLES. Fire danger is estimated using the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index (FWI) System and a related set of indices. To overcome some of the limitations of ENSEMBLES data for their application on the FWI System—recently highlighted in a previous study by Herrera et al. (Clim Chang 118:827–840, 2013)—we ...

 

Fire behaviour knowledge in Australia: a synthesis of disciplinary and stakeholder knowledge on fire spread prediction capability and application

  
(2014)

Abstract

[Executive summary] This project undertook a survey of the fire behaviour knowledge currently used by operational fire behaviour analysts (FBANs) in Australia and New Zealand for the purpose of predicting the behaviour and spread of bushfires. This included a review of the science, applicability and validation of current fire behaviour models, an examination of the fire perimeter propagation software currently being used by FBANs, and a survey of those FBANs to determine current work practices when carrying out fire behaviour predictions. ...

 

Water use in neighbouring stands of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and black alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.)

  
Annals of Forest Science, Vol. 56, No. 2. (1999), pp. 107-120, https://doi.org/10.1051/forest:19990203

Abstract

In neighbouring stands of beech and black alder in northern Germany, transpiration, soil evaporation and interception evaporation were estimated for four meteorologically different years. By means of standard weather data a two-layer evaporation model of the Shuttleworth-Wallace type was applied. In the 105-year-old beech forest (tree height 29 m, maximum leaf area index 4.5), annual transpiration (Tr) varied between 326 and 421 mm (mean 389 mm or 50 % of gross precipitation, PG) and annual evapotranspiration (ET) between 567 and 665 ...

 

Comparison between energy balance and mass balance models for actual evapotranspiration assessment

  
In Remote Sensing for Agriculture, Ecosystems, and Hydrology XI, Vol. 7472 (2009), 747212, https://doi.org/10.1117/12.830229

Abstract

The assessment of the water needs for a specific crop has a fundamental importance in the management of water resources. The application of empirical models able to retrieve estimates of the actual evapotranspiration (ETa) to assess the need for water could give a valid tool for the planning of water supply, avoiding unnecessary water losses. In this context, two independent models for estimating actual evapotranspiration were compared. The first model is based on an energy balance and uses remotely sensed data ...

 

Decreasing fires in Mediterranean Europe

  
PLoS ONE, Vol. 11, No. 3. (16 March 2016), e0150663, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0150663

Abstract

Forest fires are a serious environmental hazard in southern Europe. Quantitative assessment of recent trends in fire statistics is important for assessing the possible shifts induced by climate and other environmental/socioeconomic changes in this area. Here we analyse recent fire trends in Portugal, Spain, southern France, Italy and Greece, building on a homogenized fire database integrating official fire statistics provided by several national/EU agencies. During the period 1985-2011, the total annual burned area (BA) displayed a general decreasing trend, with the ...

 

Colchic and Hyrcanian forests of the Caucasus: similarities, differences and conservation status

  
Flora Mediterranea, Vol. 25, No. Special Issue. (26 November 2015), https://doi.org/10.7320/flmedit25si.185
Keywords: abies-nordmanniana   acer-insigne   acer-velutinum   albizzia-julibrissin   alnus-barbata   alnus-subcordata   ancient-forest   ancient-forest-plant-species   arachne-colchica   betula-litwinowii   betula-medwedewii   biodiversity   buxus-colchicus   buxus-hyrcana   carpinus-caucasica   castanea-sativa   caucasus   colchic-region   comparison   corylus-colchica   danae-racemosa   daphne-alboviana   daphne-pontica   dioscorea-caucasica   diospyros-lotus   ecological-zones   ecosystem-conservation   epigaea-gaultherioides   fagus-orientalis   forest-resources   gleditcia-caspica   hedera-colchica   hedera-pastuchovii   hypericum-androsaemum   hypericum-inodorum   hyrcanian-region   ilex-colchica   ilex-hyrcana   laurocerasus-officinalis   parrotia-persica   philadelphus-caucasicus   picea-orientalis   protected-areas   protection   pterocarya-fraxinifolia   quercus-castaneifolia   quercus-hartwissiana   quercus-imeretina   quercus-macranthera   quercus-pontica   rainforest   rhamnus-imeretina   rhododendron-caucasicum   rhododendron-ponticum   rhododendron-smirnowii   rhododendron-ungernii   ruscus-colchicus   ruscus-hyrcanus   sorbus-aucuparia   sorbus-caucasigena   sorbus-subfusca   species-richness   staphylea-colchica   temperate-forests   vaccinium-arctostaphylos   viburnum-orientale   zelkova-carpinifolia  

Abstract

Along with high degree of vascular plant endemism (more than 25%) the existence of two refugia of the Tertiary flora – Colchic and Hyrcanian – are the most unique features of the Caucasus ecoregion. Likewise, Colchic and Hyrcanian forests are classified as temperate rainforests.There are certain physical-geographical and biological similarities and even more differences between Colchic and Hyrcanian regions, reflected on compositions of flora, types of vegetation zonation, as well as spectrums of vegetation formations. An “individualities” of these two unique nature phenomena definethe necessity of their ...

 

Does it take prices to make volumes move? A comparison of timber market functioning in Finland and Lithuania

  
Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, Vol. 31, No. 4. (18 May 2016), pp. 428-433, https://doi.org/10.1080/02827581.2016.1158309

Abstract

Forest ownership structure is known to have implications for forest management and the production of forest products and services. The ownership structure, as well as the degree of state regulation of forestry, could thus be expected to affect the functioning of timber markets. Hence, in the presence of strict prescriptions for forest management, the self-regulating mechanisms of timber markets – governed by the economic principle of supply and demand – could be inhibited. Using Finland and Lithuania as contrasting cases, we ...

 

Intercomparison of MODIS albedo retrievals and in situ measurements across the global FLUXNET network

  
Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 121 (June 2012), pp. 323-334, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2012.02.019

Abstract

[Abstract] Surface albedo is a key parameter in the Earth's energy balance since it affects the amount of solar radiation directly absorbed at the planet surface. Its variability in time and space can be globally retrieved through the use of remote sensing products. To evaluate and improve the quality of satellite retrievals, careful intercomparisons with in situ measurements of surface albedo are crucial. For this purpose we compared MODIS albedo retrievals with surface measurements taken at 53 FLUXNET sites that met strict ...

 

Zur Verbreitung, Vergesellschaftung und Einbürgerung des Götterbaumes (Ailanthus altissima [Mill.] Swingle) in Mitteleuropa

  
Tuexenia, Vol. 4 (1984)

Abstract

[German] Nach einer kurzen Übersicht über die weltweite Kultur von Ailanthus altissima werden spontane Verbreitung, Vergesellschaftung und Einbürgerung in Mitteleuropa erörtert und mit Angaben aus anderen Teilen Europas verglichen. [\n] Als entscheidender Klimafaktor für die Ausbildung der nördlichen Arealgrenze, die quer durch das Norddeutsche Tiefland verläuft, ist eine lange Vegetationsperiode mit hoher sommerlicher Wärmesumme anzusehen. Ailanthus fehlt in den kühleren Küstengebieten sowie in Gebirgen und ist in wärmeren Gebieten weitgehend an Städte gebunden. Am Beispiel von Berlin (West) konnte gezeigt werden, daß ...

 

The effect of species geographical distribution estimation methods on richness and phylogenetic diversity estimates

  
International Journal of Geographical Information Science, Vol. 26, No. 11. (1 November 2012), pp. 2097-2109, https://doi.org/10.1080/13658816.2012.717627

Abstract

Diversity assessments are widely used in various fields of knowledge and rely on good estimates of species distribution. There are several methods available to estimate species distribution and the effect of using them is not clearly understood. In this research, we assess the effect of species distributions derived from four geographical distribution estimation methods on derived species richness and phylogenetic diversity (PD). We used the following four most common approaches to determine species geographical distributions: (1) range-wide occurrences are records of ...

 

Improving the assessment and reporting on rare and endangered species through species distribution models

  
Global Ecology and Conservation, Vol. 2 (December 2014), pp. 226-237, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gecco.2014.09.011

Abstract

Species distribution models (SDMs) are increasingly used to understand rare and endangered species distributions, as well as the environmental pressures affecting them. Detailed knowledge of their distribution is critical for reporting its conservation status, and SDMs are potential tools to provide the relevant information to conservation practitioners. In this study, we modeled the distribution of Veronica micrantha, a vulnerable plant whose conservation status has to be periodically assessed under Article 17 of the Habitats Directive. [\n] The objective was to highlight the ...

 

Influence of different species range types on the perception of macroecological patterns

  
Systematics and Biodiversity, Vol. 9, No. 2. (1 June 2011), pp. 159-170, https://doi.org/10.1080/14772000.2011.588726

Abstract

In the face of increasing availability and use of distribution data, large-scale approaches of mapping species distribution patterns have become a central component of development of large-scale conservation policies. Particularly in tropical regions and for non-vertebrate taxa, knowledge on distribution patterns at large spatial extents remains woefully limited. Datasets are often geographically and taxonomically incomplete, have presence-only character and lack abundance information. One intermediate step for the application of such data common to most approaches is the construction of species geographic ...

 

Range expansions transition from pulled to pushed waves as growth becomes more cooperative in an experimental microbial population

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, No. 25. (21 June 2016), pp. 6922-6927, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1521056113

Abstract

[Significance] Species undergo range shifts in response to changing climate or following an introduction to a new environment. Invasions often incur significant economic cost and threaten biodiversity. Ecological theory predicts two distinct types of expansion waves, pulled and pushed, depending on the degree of cooperativity in the population. Although pulled and pushed invasions differ dramatically in how population-level properties such as the expansion rate depend on the organism-level properties such as rates of growth and dispersal, these theoretical predictions have not been ...

 

An overview of 21 global and 43 regional land-cover mapping products

  
International Journal of Remote Sensing, Vol. 36, No. 21. (2 November 2015), pp. 5309-5335, https://doi.org/10.1080/01431161.2015.1093195

Abstract

Land-cover (LC) products, especially at the regional and global scales, comprise essential data for a wide range of environmental studies affecting biodiversity, climate, and human health. This review builds on previous compartmentalized efforts by summarizing 23 global and 41 regional LC products. Characteristics related to spatial resolution, overall accuracy, time of data acquisition, sensor used, classification scheme and method, support for LC change detection, download location, and key corresponding references are provided. Operational limitations and uncertainties are discussed, mostly as a ...

 

Comparison between the USLE, the USLE-M and replicate plots to model rainfall erosion on bare fallow areas

  
CATENA, Vol. 145 (October 2016), pp. 39-46, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2016.05.017

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] Examines ability of soil losses from a plot to predict those from another [::] Stochastic and systemic variations observed when replicate model used [::] Replicate model tends to perform better that USLE-M when runoff known. [Abstract] It has been proposed that the best physical model of erosion from a plot is provided by a replicate plot (Nearing, 1998). Event data from paired bare fallow plots in the USLE database were used to examine the abilities of replicate plots, the USLE and the USLE-M to ...

 

A review of drought concepts

  
Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 391, No. 1-2. (September 2010), pp. 202-216, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2010.07.012

Abstract

Owing to the rise in water demand and looming climate change, recent years have witnessed much focus on global drought scenarios. As a natural hazard, drought is best characterized by multiple climatological and hydrological parameters. An understanding of the relationships between these two sets of parameters is necessary to develop measures for mitigating the impacts of droughts. Beginning with a discussion of drought definitions, this paper attempts to provide a review of fundamental concepts of drought, classification of droughts, drought indices, ...

 

Drought under global warming: a review

  
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, Vol. 2, No. 1. (January 2011), pp. 45-65, https://doi.org/10.1002/wcc.81

Abstract

This article reviews recent literature on drought of the last millennium, followed by an update on global aridity changes from 1950 to 2008. Projected future aridity is presented based on recent studies and our analysis of model simulations. Dry periods lasting for years to decades have occurred many times during the last millennium over, for example, North America, West Africa, and East Asia. These droughts were likely triggered by anomalous tropical sea surface temperatures (SSTs), with La Niña-like SST anomalies leading ...

 

Impacts of uncertainties in European gridded precipitation observations on regional climate analysis

  
Int. J. Climatol., Vol. 37, No. 1. (1 March 2017), pp. 305-327, https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.4706

Abstract

Gridded precipitation data sets are frequently used to evaluate climate models or to remove model output biases. Although precipitation data are error prone due to the high spatio-temporal variability of precipitation and due to considerable measurement errors, relatively few attempts have been made to account for observational uncertainty in model evaluation or in bias correction studies. In this study, we compare three types of European daily data sets featuring two Pan-European data sets and a set that combines eight very high-resolution ...

 

A quantitative review of relationships between ecosystem services

  
Ecological Indicators, Vol. 66 (July 2016), pp. 340-351, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2016.02.004

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] Relationships between ecosystem services (ES) were analyzed across case studies. [::] For many pairs of ES a dominant relationship was identified. [::] These relationships were not significantly moderated by scale or by land system. [::] Methods used to identify the relationship influenced the result. [::] Descriptive methods showed a higher probability to identify trade-off relationships. [Abstract] Ecosystems provide multiple ecosystem services (ES) to society. Ignoring the multi-functionality of land systems in natural resource management generates potential trade-offs with respect to the provisioning of ES. Understanding relationships ...

 

License compatibility and relicensing

  
In Licenses (2016)

Abstract

If you want to combine two free programs into one, or merge code from one into the other, this raises the question of whether their licenses allow combining them. [\n] There is no problem merging programs that have the same license, if it is a reasonably behaved license, as nearly all free licenses are.(*) [\n] What then when the licenses are different? In general we say that several licenses are compatible if there is a way to merge code under those various licenses ...

 

Climate change increases the drought risk in Central European forests: what are the options for adaptation?

  
Forestry Journal, Vol. 60, No. 1. (1 January 2014), https://doi.org/10.2478/forj-2014-0001

Abstract

The paper presents information on the projected drought exposure of Central Europe, describes the anticipated dynamics of the regional forests, and identifies measures facilitating the adaptation of forests to climate change-induced drought risk. On the basis of an ensemble of climate change scenarios we expect substantial drying in southern Slovakia and Hungary, while such trends were found to be less pronounced for the Czech Republic and Austria. In response to these climate trajectories, a change in species composition towards a higher ...

 

Are more complex physiological models of forest ecosystems better choices for plot and regional predictions?

  
Environmental Modelling & Software, Vol. 75 (January 2016), pp. 1-14, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsoft.2015.10.004

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] We evaluated performance of process-based forest ecosystem models. [::] A complex physiological model performed best at the plot scale. [::] A hybrid empirical-physiological model performed best at the regional scale. [Abstract] We evaluated performance of process-based forest ecosystem models. A complex physiological model performed best at the plot scale. A hybrid empirical-physiological model performed best at the regional scale. Process-based forest ecosystem models vary from simple physiological, complex physiological, to hybrid empirical-physiological models. Previous studies indicate that complex models provide the best prediction at ...

 

Studying evolving software ecosystems based on ecological models

  
In Evolving Software Systems (2014), pp. 297-326, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-45398-4_10

Abstract

Research on software evolution is very active, but evolutionary principles, models and theories that properly explain why and how software systems evolve over time are still lacking. Similarly, more empirical research is needed to understand how different software projects co-exist and co-evolve, and how contributors collaborate within their encompassing software ecosystem. In this chapter, we explore the differences and analogies between natural ecosystems and biological evolution on the one hand, and software ecosystems and software evolution on the other hand. The aim is to learn from research in ...

 

A review of the mechanical effects of plant roots on concentrated flow erosion rates

  
Earth-Science Reviews, Vol. 150 (November 2015), pp. 666-678, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earscirev.2015.08.011

Abstract

Living plant roots modify both mechanical and hydrological characteristics of the soil matrix (e.g. soil aggregate stability by root exudates, soil cohesion, infiltration rate, soil moisture content, soil organic matter) and negatively influence the soil erodibility. During the last two decades several studies reported on the effects of plant roots in controlling concentrated flow erosion rates. However a global analysis of the now available data on root effects is still lacking. Yet, a meta-data analysis will contribute to a better understanding ...

 

Assessing crown fire potential in coniferous forests of western North America: a critique of current approaches and recent simulation studies

  
International Journal of Wildland Fire, Vol. 19, No. 4. (2010), 377, https://doi.org/10.1071/wf08132

Abstract

To control and use wildland fires safely and effectively depends on creditable assessments of fire potential, including the propensity for crowning in conifer forests. Simulation studies that use certain fire modelling systems (i.e. NEXUS, FlamMap, FARSITE, FFE-FVS (Fire and Fuels Extension to the Forest Vegetation Simulator), Fuel Management Analyst (FMAPlus®), BehavePlus) based on separate implementations or direct integration of Rothermel’s surface and crown rate of fire spread models with Van Wagner’s crown fire transition and propagation models are shown to have ...

 

Herbivory by the pine weevil (Hylobius abietis L.) and short-snouted weevils (Strophosoma melanogrammum Forst. and Otiorhynchus scaber L.) during the conversion of a wind-thrown Norway spruce forest into a mixed-species plantation

  
Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 190, No. 2-3. (March 2004), pp. 281-290, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2003.10.027

Abstract

The influence of above-ground insect herbivory and other agents of damage to seedlings was studied in a field experiment. Nine different tree species were planted in each of five randomised blocks. The species were: Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertner, Betula pendula Roth., Fagus sylvatica L., Fraxinus excelsior L., Larix eurolepis Henry, Picea abies (L.) Karst., Prunus avium L., Quercus robur L. and Tilia cordata Mill. The seedlings were monitored through the 2000–2002 growing seasons. Pine weevils (Hylobius abietis L.) fed significantly more ...

Visual summary

 

Influence of patch scarification and insect herbivory on growth and survival in Fagus sylvatica L., Picea abies L. Karst. and Quercus robur L. seedlings following a Norway spruce forest

  
Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 134, No. 1-3. (September 2000), pp. 111-123, https://doi.org/10.1016/s0378-1127(99)00250-9

Abstract

Southern Sweden is dominated by relatively uniform coniferous forests where Norway spruce is the most common tree species. Ecological and economic considerations have created an interest in re-establishing broadleaves in these forests. To study the influence of patch scarification and compare the influence of insect herbivory on growth and survival in beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) and oak (Quercus robur L.) seedlings, a field experiment was established. The experiment was carried out on a new clear-cut ...

Visual summary

 

Damage by the pine weevil Hylobius abietis to seedlings of two native and five introduced tree species in Sweden

  
Silva Fennica, Vol. 48, No. 4. (2014), 1188, https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1188

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] Both native and introduced confer species in Sweden can be highly susceptible to damage by the pine weevil [::] Douglas fir and Sitka spruce were generally the most damaged among six studied conifer species [::] The results highlight some of the risks in establishing exotic tree species for forest production. [Abstract] There is increasing interest in using introduced species in Swedish forestry in response to climate change, but it is important to assess their resistance to native pests. Thus, we compared the extent of ...

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Adult large pine weevils Hylobius abietis feed on silver birch Betula pendula even in the presence of conifer seedlings

  
Agricultural and Forest Entomology, Vol. 8, No. 2. (May 2006), pp. 121-128, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-9563.2006.00290.x

Abstract

[::] The feeding preference of the adult pine weevil Hylobius abietis (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) for Betula pendula Roth was studied in no-choice and paired-choice feeding experiments. [::] In the first no-choice test, large quantities of silver birch bark in Petri dishes were consumed; on average, the daily consumption of each weevil was 67 mm2. [::] In the second no-choice test, the weevils were offered 1-year-old silver birch seedlings for 6 days. Initially, the weevils fed mostly on the stem bases; later, ...

 

Mechanisms, effects and management implications of rockfall in forests

  
Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 215, No. 1-3. (August 2005), pp. 183-195, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2005.05.012

Abstract

At the scale of forest stands, there is a lack of quantitative, statistically valid data on the protective effect of forests against rockfall. Therefore, the first objective of this study was to quantify the velocities, rebound heights as well as the residual hazard of rockfall on a forested and a non-forested slope. The second objective was to evaluate existing rockfall protection forest management guidelines, as well as the underlying criteria. We carried out and analysed 100 real size rockfall experiments at ...

 

An appraisal of downscaling methods used in climate change research

  
WIREs Clim Change, Vol. 6, No. 3. (1 March 2015), pp. 301-319, https://doi.org/10.1002/wcc.339

Abstract

The term ‘downscaling’ refers to the process of translating information from global climate model simulations to a finer spatial resolution. There are numerous methods by which this translation of information can occur. For users of downscaled information, it is important to have some understanding of the properties of different methods (in terms of their capabilities and limitations to convey the change signal, as simulated by the global model), as these dictate the type of applications that the downscaled information can be ...

 

Annual Coverity Scan Report Finds Open Source and Proprietary Software Quality Better than Industry Average for Second Consecutive Year

  
(2014)

Abstract

[Excerpt] The Coverity Scan Open Source Report has become a widely accepted standard for measuring the state of open source quality. During the past eight years, the Coverity Scan service has analyzed several hundreds of millions of lines of code from more than 1,500 open source projects – including C/C++ projects such as NetBSD, FreeBSD, LibreOffice and Linux, and Java projects such as Apache Hadoop, HBase and Cassandra. The Scan service has helped developers find and fix more than 94,000 defects ...

 

Selecting among five common modelling approaches for integrated environmental assessment and management

  
Environmental Modelling & Software, Vol. 47 (September 2013), pp. 159-181, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsoft.2013.05.005

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] We review five common integrated modelling approaches. [::] Model choice considers purpose, data type, scale and uncertainty treatment. [::] We present a guiding framework for selecting the most appropriate approach. [Abstract] The design and implementation of effective environmental policies need to be informed by a holistic understanding of the system processes (biophysical, social and economic), their complex interactions, and how they respond to various changes. Models, integrating different system processes into a unified framework, are seen as useful tools to help ...

 

Openness makes software better sooner : Nature News

  

Abstract

Sharing code for computer software is best way to rid it of bugs. [Excerpt] Computer software develops more effectively when its code is freely accessible to all, UK researchers have calculated. This will come as no surprise to the legions of supporters of open-access software, such as the operating systems and tools the Linux and Apache projects distribute. To them, the superiority of freely available code is an article of faith - as much an ideological position as a technological decision. The theoretical model ...

 

How accurate is scientific software?

  
Software Engineering, IEEE Transactions on In Software Engineering, IEEE Transactions on, Vol. 20, No. 10. (October 1994), pp. 785-797, https://doi.org/10.1109/32.328993

Abstract

This paper describes some results of what, to the authors' knowledge, is the largest N-version programming experiment ever performed. The object of this ongoing four-year study is to attempt to determine just how consistent the results of scientific computation really are, and, from this, to estimate accuracy. The experiment is being carried out in a branch of the earth sciences known as seismic data processing, where 15 or so independently developed large commercial packages that implement mathematical algorithms from the same ...

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