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Selection: with tag cognitive-biases [74 articles] 

 

Helping a victim or helping the victim: altruism and identifiability

  
Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, Vol. 26, No. 1. (2003), pp. 5-16, https://doi.org/10.1023/a%3a1022299422219

Abstract

Although it has been claimed that people care more about identifiable than statistical victims, demonstrating this “identifiable victim effect” has proven difficult because identification usually provides information about a victim, and people may respond to the information rather than to identification per se. We show that a very weak form of identifiability—determining the victim without providing any personalizing information—increases caring. In the first, laboratory study, subjects were more willing to compensate others who lost money when the losers had already been ...

 

Reviewers are blinkered by bibliometrics

  
Nature, Vol. 544, No. 7651. (26 April 2017), pp. 411-412, https://doi.org/10.1038/544411a

Abstract

[Excerpt] [...] Although journal impact factors (JIFs) were developed to assess journals and say little about any individual paper, reviewers routinely justify their evaluations on the basis of where candidates have published. [...] As economists who study science and innovation, we see engrained processes working against cherished goals. Scientists we interview routinely say that they dare not propose bold projects for funding in part because of expectations that they will produce a steady stream of papers in journals with high impact ...

 

When the appeal of a dominant leader is greater than a prestige leader

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 114, No. 26. (27 June 2017), pp. 6734-6739, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1617711114

Abstract

[Significance] We examine why dominant/authoritarian leaders attract support despite the presence of other admired/respected candidates. Although evolutionary psychology supports both dominance and prestige as viable routes for attaining influential leadership positions, extant research lacks theoretical clarity explaining when and why dominant leaders are preferred. Across three large-scale studies we provide robust evidence showing how economic uncertainty affects individuals’ psychological feelings of lack of personal control, resulting in a greater preference for dominant leaders. This research offers important theoretical explanations for why, around ...

 

Impact factors: no totum pro parte by skewness of citation

  
Cardiovascular Research, Vol. 61, No. 2. (01 February 2004), pp. 201-203, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cardiores.2003.11.023

Abstract

Citation of the various papers published in one and the same journal is highly skewed. Journals with a high impact factor obtain this high value by frequent citation of only a limited number of their papers and, on the other hand, journals with low impact factors publish many papers that remain uncited [1]. Thus, mere publication of a paper in a given journal cannot be regarded as a quality marker of that particular paper [2], it just means that the authors ...

 

Attempts to manufacture scientific discovery

  
Nature, Vol. 94, No. 2358. (7 January 1915), pp. 512-512, https://doi.org/10.1038/094512a0

Abstract

[Excerpt] In an excellent article forming one of his admirable series of essays entitled “Science from an Easy-chair,” published in the Daily Telegraph of December 15, 1914, Sir Ray Lankester deals particularly with the case of the recent proposal that the Lister Institute should be handed over to the Medical Research Committee of the National Insurance Commission. The proposal was rejected on November 18 by the votes of the members; and Sir Ray Lankester preaches a useful sermon upon this text. ...

 

Corporate culture: protect idea factories

  
Nature, Vol. 543, No. 7646. (22 March 2017), pp. 491-491, https://doi.org/10.1038/543491a

Abstract

[Excerpt] It is unsurprising that universities have adopted corporate culture (Nature 540, 315; 10.1038/540315a2016), but surprising that they select such archaic models. Universities corporatize because they must raise funds through teaching, research and commercialization. [...] Universities are the only social institutions set up specifically to produce ideas, and this is their most valuable societal role. [...] Many universities have copied the manufacturing models of the 1950s. Power has shifted from academics to administrators. Academics are treated as interchangeable and replaceable, and performance ...

 

HARKing: Hypothesizing After the Results are Known

  
Personality and Social Psychology Review, Vol. 2, No. 3. (01 August 1998), pp. 196-217, https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327957pspr0203_4

Abstract

This article considers a practice in scientific communication termed HARKing (Hypothesizing After the Results are Known). HARKing is defined as presenting a post hoc hypothesis (i.e., one based on or informed by one's results) in one's research report as if it were, in fact, an a priori hypotheses. Several forms of HARKing are identified and survey data are presented that suggests that at least some forms of HARKing are widely practiced and widely seen as inappropriate. I identify several reasons why ...

 

Chilling effects: online surveillance and Wikipedia use

  
Berkeley Technology Law Journal, Vol. 31, No. 1. (2016), 117

Abstract

This article discusses the results of the first empirical study providing evidence of regulatory “chilling effects” of Wikipedia users associated with online government surveillance. The study explores how traffic to Wikipedia articles on topics that raise privacy concerns for Wikipedia users decreased after the widespread publicity about NSA/PRISM surveillance revelations in June 2013. Using an interdisciplinary research design, the study tests the hypothesis, based on chilling effects theory, that traffic to privacy-sensitive Wikipedia articles reduced after the mass surveillance revelations. The ...

 

Collaborative influence - Develop five skills

  
Leadership Excellence, Vol. 22, No. 3. (March 2005), pp. 20-20

Abstract

[Excerpt] Organizations live or die on relationships. Your ability to create successful collaborative relationships can make or break your career. Effective executives have one skill in common — collaborative influence — the ability to get things done by getting people to collaborate and building strong collaborative networks. [Five Essential Skills] Five skills are essential to increasing your collaborative influence. [::1. Collaborative Intention] Maintaining a non-defensive presence and making a conscious personal commitment to seeking mutual gains in your relationships. [...] [::2. Truthfulness] Committing to ...

 

Good data are not enough

  
Nature, Vol. 539, No. 7627. (2 November 2016), pp. 23-25, https://doi.org/10.1038/539023a

Abstract

A vibrant scientific culture encourages many interpretations of evidence, argues Avi Loeb. [Excerpt] [...] Most research funding is allocated assuming that the highest-quality data will inevitably deliver useful scientific interpretation and theoretical concepts, which can be tested and refined by future data. [...] To truly move forward, free thought must be encouraged outside the mainstream. Multiple interpretations of existing data and alternative motivations for collecting new data must be supported. [...] [Blinkered view] Mayan cosmologists had high social status. They got generous support ...

 

Resources

  
In The development dictionary: a guide to knowledge as power (2010), pp. 228-242
edited by Wolfgang Sachs

Abstract

[Excerpt] ‘Resource’ originally implied life. Its root is the Latin verb surgere, which evoked the image of a spring that continually rises from the ground. Like a spring, a ‘re-source’ rises again and again, even if it has repeatedly been used and consumed. The concept thus highlighted nature’s power of self-regeneration and called attention to her prodigious creativity. Moreover, it implied an ancient idea about the relationship between humans and nature: that the earth bestows gifts on humans who, in turn, are well advised to show diligence in ...

 

Scientific advances: fallacy of perfection harms peer review

  
Nature, Vol. 537, No. 7618. (31 August 2016), pp. 34-34, https://doi.org/10.1038/537034a

Abstract

[Excerpt] [...] The history of science has taught us that most progress has come from exploring flawed hypotheses and imperfect models. We must always strive for the better study, the better model, the better analysis. As experienced reviewers, however, we contend that seeking ultimate perfection is not the same as accepting nothing less here and now. Scientific progress depends on such compromise — provided that potential caveats are recognized. [\n] If a model is the most technically and ethically feasible approach available, ...

 

They write the right stuff

  
Fast Company, Vol. 6 (December 1996), 28121

Abstract

[Excerpt] As the 120-ton space shuttle sits surrounded by almost 4 million pounds of rocket fuel, exhaling noxious fumes, visibly impatient to defy gravity, its on-board computers take command. Four identical machines, running identical software, pull information from thousands of sensors, make hundreds of milli-second decisions, vote on every decision, check with each other 250 times a second. A fifth computer, with different software, stands by to take control should the other four malfunction. [\n] At T-minus 6.6 seconds, if the pressures, pumps, and temperatures are nominal, ...

 

Growth mindset tempers the effects of poverty on academic achievement

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, No. 31. (02 August 2016), pp. 8664-8668, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1608207113

Abstract

[Significance] This study is the first, to our knowledge, to show that a growth mindset (the belief that intelligence is not fixed and can be developed) reliably predicts achievement across a national sample of students, including virtually all of the schools and socioeconomic strata in Chile. It also explores the relationship between income and mindset for the first time, to our knowledge, finding that students from lower-income families were less likely to hold a growth mindset than their wealthier peers but that ...

 

Bring climate change back from the future

  
Nature, Vol. 534, No. 7608. (21 June 2016), pp. 437-437, https://doi.org/10.1038/534437a

Abstract

The ‘shock’ over an Australian extinction shows that we still don’t accept that global warming is a problem for now, says James Watson. [Excerpt] Climate change has claimed its first mammal casualty, with the reported extinction of the Bramble Cay melomys (Melomys rubicola). The last of these Australian marsupials is thought to have disappeared around 2009, but the release last week of a report by the Queensland government stating the probable extinction of the species and the cause — sea-level rise induced ...

 

Unfalsifiability of security claims

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, No. 23. (07 June 2016), pp. 6415-6420, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1517797113

Abstract

[Significance] Much in computer security involves recommending defensive measures: telling people how they should choose and maintain passwords, manage their computers, and so on. We show that claims that any measure is necessary for security are empirically unfalsifiable. That is, no possible observation contradicts a claim of the form “if you don’t do X you are not secure.” This means that self-correction operates only in one direction. If we are wrong about a measure being sufficient, a successful attack will demonstrate that ...

 

Time discounting and criminal behavior

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, No. 22. (31 May 2016), pp. 6160-6165, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1522445113

Abstract

[Significance] One of the most fundamental predictions of almost any model of crime is that individual time preferences matter. However, empirical evidence on this basic property of the model is essentially nonexistent. We empirically investigate whether individual time discounting measured at age 13 predicts subsequent criminal involvement up to age 31. We show that time discounting significantly predicts criminal activity and that high discount rates predict crime more strongly at the extensive margin rather than for total crime. The link is much ...

 

Memories of unethical actions become obfuscated over time

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, No. 22. (31 May 2016), pp. 6166-6171, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1523586113

Abstract

[Significance] We identify a consistent reduction in the clarity and vividness of people’s memory of their past unethical actions, which explains why they behave dishonestly repeatedly over time. Across nine studies using diverse sample populations and more than 2,100 participants, we find that, as compared with people who engaged in ethical behavior and those who engaged in positive or negative actions, people who acted unethically are the least likely to remember the details of their actions. That is, people experience unethical amnesia: ...

 

Journals and funders confront implicit bias in peer review

  
Science, Vol. 352, No. 6289. (26 May 2016), pp. 1067-1068, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.352.6289.1067

Abstract

[Excerpt] Deeply rooted assumptions creep into decision-making in unrecognized ways—even among the most well-intentioned peer-reviewers, journal editors, and science funders—and that can prevent the best science from being sponsored or published, experts said at a recent AAAS forum on implicit bias. [\n] [...] [\n] Unconscious assumptions about gender, ethnicity, disabilities, nationality, and institutions clearly limit the science and technology talent pool and undermine scientific innovation, said AAAS Board Chair Geraldine Richmond. [...] [\n] The problem of implicit bias is not only about fairness, said ...

 

Implicit bias

  
Science, Vol. 352, No. 6289. (26 May 2016), pp. 1035-1035, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aag1695

Abstract

[Excerpt] [...] To explore the extent of implicit bias in peer review, and what can be done to counter it, the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS, the publisher of Science) recently convened a day-long forum of editors, publishers, funders, and experts on implicit bias in Washington, DC [...] [\n] [...] Scientific publishers such as the American Chemical Society (ACS) and the American Geophysical Union (AGU) find that female authors are published either at a rate proportional to that at which ...

 

Science 101: building the foundations for real understanding

  
Science, Vol. 330, No. 6012. (02 December 2010), pp. 1764-1765, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1186994

Abstract

It's not just about evolution anymore. Growing anti-science sentiment in the United States now infuses public discourse on conservation, vaccination, distribution of research funds, and climate change (1). Low rates of scientific literacy (2) exacerbate the problem. Although the public recognizes its indebtedness to the products of scientific knowledge, few understand much about the nature of that knowledge or the processes that generated it (3). Without a basic understanding of how science works, the public is vulnerable to antiscience propaganda, which ...

 

Arguing to learn in science: the role of collaborative, critical discourse

  
Science, Vol. 328, No. 5977. (22 April 2010), pp. 463-466, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1183944

Abstract

Argument and debate are common in science, yet they are virtually absent from science education. Recent research shows, however, that opportunities for students to engage in collaborative discourse and argumentation offer a means of enhancing student conceptual understanding and students' skills and capabilities with scientific reasoning. As one of the hallmarks of the scientist is critical, rational skepticism, the lack of opportunities to develop the ability to reason and argue scientifically would appear to be a significant weakness in contemporary educational ...

 

Reproducibility: a tragedy of errors

  
Nature, Vol. 530, No. 7588. (3 February 2016), pp. 27-29, https://doi.org/10.1038/530027a

Abstract

Mistakes in peer-reviewed papers are easy to find but hard to fix, report David B. Allison and colleagues. [Excerpt: Three common errors] As the influential twentieth-century statistician Ronald Fisher (pictured) said: “To consult the statistician after an experiment is finished is often merely to ask him to conduct a post mortem examination. He can perhaps say what the experiment died of.” [\n] [...] Frequent errors, once recognized, can be kept out of the literature with targeted education and policies. Three of the most common are ...

 

The science myths that will not die

  
Nature, Vol. 528, No. 7582. (16 December 2015), pp. 322-325, https://doi.org/10.1038/528322a

Abstract

False beliefs and wishful thinking about the human experience are common. They are hurting people - and holding back science. [Excerpt] [...] Scientists should work to discredit myths, but they also have a responsibility to try to prevent new ones from arising, says Paul Howard-Jones, who studies neuroscience and education at the University of Bristol, UK. “We need to look deeper to understand how they come about in the first place and why they're so prevalent and persistent.” [\n] Some dangerous myths get plenty ...

 

Competitive science: is competition ruining science?

  
Infection and Immunity, Vol. 83, No. 4. (01 April 2015), pp. 1229-1233, https://doi.org/10.1128/iai.02939-14

Abstract

Science has always been a competitive undertaking. Despite recognition of the benefits of cooperation and team science, reduced availability of funding and jobs has made science more competitive than ever. Here we consider the benefits of competition in providing incentives to scientists and the adverse effects of competition on resource sharing, research integrity, and creativity. The history of science shows that transformative discoveries often occur in the absence of competition, which only emerges once fields are established and goals are defined. ...

 

ColorBrewer.org: an online tool for selecting colour schemes for maps

  
The Cartographic Journal, Vol. 40, No. 1. (June 2003), pp. 27-37, https://doi.org/10.1179/000870403235002042

Abstract

Choosing effective colour schemes for thematic maps is surprisingly difficult. ColorBrewer is an online tool designed to take some of the guesswork out of this process by helping users select appropriate colour schemes for their specific mapping needs by considering: the number of data classes; the nature of their data (matched with sequential, diverging and qualitative schemes); and the end-use environment for the map (e.g., CRT, LCD, printed, projected, photocopied). ColorBrewer contains 'learn more' tutorials to help guide users, prompts them ...

 

A decline in prosocial language helps explain public disapproval of the US Congress

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 112, No. 21. (26 May 2015), pp. 6591-6594, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1500355112

Abstract

[Significance] Past laboratory research has shown that talking about helping others can make a positive impression upon a listener. We tested whether this basic social-cognitive phenomenon can help explain how governments gain the confidence of the public they serve. A computerized text analysis of the debates of the US Congress over the past 20 y found that the density of prosocial language strongly predicted public approval ratings 6 mo later. These results suggest that both individuals and governments can gain social approval ...

 

Equality bias impairs collective decision-making across cultures

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 112, No. 12. (24 March 2015), pp. 3835-3840, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1421692112

Abstract

[Significance] When making decisions together, we tend to give everyone an equal chance to voice their opinion. To make the best decisions, however, each opinion must be scaled according to its reliability. Using behavioral experiments and computational modelling, we tested (in Denmark, Iran, and China) the extent to which people follow this latter, normative strategy. We found that people show a strong equality bias: they weight each other’s opinion equally regardless of differences in their reliability, even when this strategy was at ...

 

W(h)ither the Oracle? Cognitive biases and other human challenges of integrated environmental modeling

  
In Proceedings of the 7th International Congress on Environmental Modelling and Software, June 15-19, San Diego, California, USA (2014), 113

Abstract

Integrated environmental modeling (IEM) can organize and increase our knowledge of the complex, dynamic ecosystems that house our natural resources and control the quality of our environments. Human behavior, however, must be taken into account. Human biases/heuristics reflect adaptation over our evolutionary past to frequently experienced situations that affected our survival and that provided sharply distinguished feedbacks at the level of the individual. Unfortunately, human behavior is not adapted to the more diffusely experienced, less frequently encountered, problems and issues that ...

 

The role of self-interest in elite bargaining

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 111, No. 52. (30 December 2014), pp. 18536-18541, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1409885111

Abstract

[Significance] Humans frequently act contrary to their self-interest and reject low offers in bargaining games. Some evidence suggests that elites, however, are much more rational and self-interested, but this hypothesis has never been directly tested in bargaining games. Using a unique sample of US policy and business elites, we find the opposite. Compared with typical convenience samples, elites are even more prone to act contrary to self-interest by rejecting low offers when bargaining. Appearing to anticipate this fact, elites also make higher ...

 

Business culture and dishonesty in the banking industry

  
Nature, Vol. 516, No. 7529. (19 November 2014), pp. 86-89, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature13977

Abstract

Trust in others' honesty is a key component of the long-term performance of firms, industries, and even whole countries. However, in recent years, numerous scandals involving fraud have undermined confidence in the financial industry. Contemporary commentators have attributed these scandals to the financial sector's business culture, but no scientific evidence supports this claim. Here we show that employees of a large, international bank behave, on average, honestly in a control condition. However, when their professional identity as bank employees is rendered ...

 

A framework and methodology for studying the causes of software errors in programming systems

  
Journal of Visual Languages & Computing, Vol. 16, No. 1-2. (February 2005), pp. 41-84, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvlc.2004.08.003

Abstract

An essential aspect of programmers’ work is the correctness of their code. This makes current HCI techniques ill-suited to analyze and design the programming systems that programmers use everyday, since these techniques focus more on problems with learnability and efficiency of use, and less on error-proneness. We propose a framework and methodology that focuses specifically on errors by supporting the description and identification of the causes of software errors in terms of chains of cognitive breakdowns. The framework is based on ...

 

Out of Africa

  
Nature, Vol. 514, No. 7521. (7 October 2014), pp. 139-139, https://doi.org/10.1038/514139a

Abstract

The Ebola outbreak in West Africa must be shut down now, or the disease will continue to spread. [Excerpt] Ebola is out of control in Liberia, Sierra Leone and Guinea. Although this has been the case since late spring, the international pledges of help have yet to translate into concerted, rapid action on the ground. The virus still has the upper hand. Between 23 September and 1 October alone, the number of cases rose from 6,500 to almost 7,500, according to ...

 

Ten Simple Rules for Better Figures

  
PLOS Computational Biology, Vol. 10, No. 9. (11 September 2014), e1003833, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003833

Abstract

Scientific visualization is classically defined as the process of graphically displaying scientific data. However, this process is far from direct or automatic. There are so many different ways to represent the same data: scatter plots, linear plots, bar plots, and pie charts, to name just a few. Furthermore, the same data, using the same type of plot, may be perceived very differently depending on who is looking at the figure. A more accurate definition for scientific visualization would be a graphical ...

 

Academic urban legends

  
Social Studies of Science, Vol. 44, No. 4. (1 August 2014), pp. 638-654, https://doi.org/10.1177/0306312714535679

Abstract

Many of the messages presented in respectable scientific publications are, in fact, based on various forms of rumors. Some of these rumors appear so frequently, and in such complex, colorful, and entertaining ways that we can think of them as academic urban legends. The explanation for this phenomenon is usually that authors have lazily, sloppily, or fraudulently employed sources, and peer reviewers and editors have not discovered these weaknesses in the manuscripts during evaluation. To illustrate this phenomenon, I draw upon ...

 

Reproducibility

  
Science, Vol. 343, No. 6168. (17 January 2014), pp. 229-229, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1250475

Abstract

Science advances on a foundation of trusted discoveries. Reproducing an experiment is one important approach that scientists use to gain confidence in their conclusions. Recently, the scientific community was shaken by reports that a troubling proportion of peer-reviewed preclinical studies are not reproducible. Because confidence in results is of paramount importance to the broad scientific community, we are announcing new initiatives to increase confidence in the studies published in Science. For preclinical studies (one of the targets of recent concern), we ...

 

Barriers in the science-policy-practice interface: toward a knowledge-action-system in global environmental change research

  
Global Environmental Change, Vol. 20, No. 2. (17 May 2010), pp. 266-277, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2009.11.006

Abstract

This paper presents the results of a case study analysis from the knowledge domains of vulnerability and resilience. We analyzed 20 scientific assessments to provide empirical evidence for successes and failures in collaborative knowledge production, i.e., the joint creation of assessments reports by researchers and decision makers in policy and practice. It became clear that the latter typically use insufficiently the research-based knowledge available and researchers typically produce insufficiently knowledge that is directly usable. We found a number of functional, structural, ...

 

Information visualisation for science and policy: engaging users and avoiding bias

  
Trends in Ecology & Evolution, Vol. 29, No. 3. (7 March 2014), pp. 148-157, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2014.01.003

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] Science and policy rely on reliable and unbiased communications. [::] Visualisations and graphics are a powerful means to communicate. [::] Ecology lacks appropriate expertise, skills, and knowledge in visualisation. [::] Great opportunities are available if we rethink the role of visualisation in our work. [::] The way we think about visualisation needs to be reframed within our disciplines. [Abstract] Visualisations and graphics are fundamental to studying complex subject matter. However, beyond acknowledging this value, scientists and science-policy programmes rarely consider how visualisations can enable discovery, create ...

 

Pricing the priceless: cost-benefit analysis of environmental protection

  
University of Pennsylvania Law Review, Vol. 150, No. 5. (May 2002), pp. 1553-1584, https://doi.org/10.2307/3312947

Abstract

[Introduction] Many analytical approaches to setting environmental standards require some consideration of costs and benefits. Even technology- based regulation, maligned by cost-benefit enthusiasts as the worst form of regulatory excess, typically entails consideration of economic costs. Cost-benefit analysis differs, however, from other analytical approaches in the following respect: it demands that the advantages and disadvantages of a regulatory policy be reduced, as far as possible, to numbers, and then further reduced to dollars and cents. In this feature of cost-benefit analysis ...

 

The economic value of human life

  
American Journal of Public Health and the Nations Health, Vol. 57, No. 11. (November 1967), pp. 1954-1966, https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.57.11.1954

Abstract

To establish the economic value of a human life, lifetime earnings discounted at a 4 per cent rate are presented by age, sex, color, and education. These estimates are intended for use by economists, program planners, and others. Various specific findings are reported. ...

 

The forgotten half of scientific thinking.

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol. 111, No. 17. (29 April 2014), pp. 6119-6119, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1404649111

Abstract

[Excerpt] Although thinking is the core business of scientists, we rarely ponder how it thrives best; this is ironic, as there is abundant scientific insight to draw upon. For example, it is now known that thinking has two complementary modes: roughly, association versus reasoning (1). We systematically underestimate the role of the first (1), and the way our institutions, meetings, and teaching are organized heavily reflects this imbalance. By contrast, many of the greatest scientists systematically nurtured a balanced dual-thinking process. ...

 

Perceptions of water use

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 111, No. 14. (08 April 2014), pp. 5129-5134, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1316402111

Abstract

[Significance] Public perceptions of water use are explored using an online survey (N = 1,020). Results show that participants underestimated water use by a factor of 2 on average, with large underestimates for high water-use activities. High numeracy scores, older age, and male sex were associated with more accurate perceptions of water use. Overall, perception of water use is more accurate than the perception of energy consumption and savings previously reported, however perceptions of both resources show significant underestimation. [Abstract] In a ...

 

The links between human error diversity and software diversity: implications for fault diversity seeking

  
Science of Computer Programming (March 2014), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scico.2014.03.004

Abstract

Software diversity is known to improve fault tolerance in N-version software systems by independent development. As the leading cause of software faults, human error is considered an important factor in diversity seeking. However, there is little scientific research focusing on how to seek software fault diversity based on human error mechanisms. A literature review was conducted to extract factors that may differentiate people with respect to human error-proneness. In addition, we constructed a conceptual model of the links between human error ...

 

Sabotaged scientist sues Yale and her lab chief

  
Science, Vol. 343, No. 6175. (07 March 2014), pp. 1065-1066, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.343.6175.1065

Abstract

Magdalena Koziol, a former postdoc at Yale University, was the victim of scientific sabotage. Now, she is suing the alleged perpetrator, who she claims poisoned her zebrafish, as well as her former boss at Yale, who she says became hostile and unsupportive after the sabotage was discovered, and Yale University. The complex case raises a host of questions about research sabotage, a type of misbehavior that some scientists believe is more common than the few known cases suggest. ...

 

(INRMM-MiD internal record) List of keywords of the INRMM meta-information database - part 7

  
(February 2014)
Keywords: chamaerops-humilis   change   change-factor   channel-network   chaos   characteristics   charcoal   charcoal-analysis   check-list   chemical-analisys   chemical-composition   chemical-control   chemicals   chemosystematics   chenopodium-spp   chernobyl   chestnut-disease   chile   chilopsis-linearis   chimborazo   china   chionosphaera-cuniculicola   chionosphaera-spp   chloroplast-dna   chlorosis   cholera   chorisia-speciosa   choristoneura-conflictana   choristoneura-fumiferana   choristoneura-spp   chorology   chosenia-arbutifolia   chromium   chrysomela-populi   chrysomela-scripta   chrysomela-tremulae   chrysophyllum-albidum   chrysoptharta-bimaculata   chytridiopsis-typographi   cinchona-pubescens   cinnamomum-camphora   circular-economy   cistus-spp   citation-errors   citation-metrics   citeulike   citizen-science   citizen-sensor   citrus-aurantium   classification   classification-trees   clc   clear-cutting   clematis-alpina   clematis-vitalba   cliamte-change   cliffs   climate   climate-change   climate-change-impacts   climate-change-velocity   climate-engineering   climate-equity   climate-extremes   climate-growth-relations   climate-history   climate-models   climate-policy   climate-projections   climate-signal   climate-zones   climatic-conditions   climatic-gradient   climatic-niche   climatic-niche-shift   clostera-anachoreta   clostera-anastomosis   cloud-condensation   cloud-formation   cloudiness   clusia-rosea   clustering   co-evolution   co2   coal   coastal-settlement   coastline   coccoloba-uvifera   cocos-nucifera   codelet   coeloides-bostrichorum   coffea-arabica   coffea-canephora   cognitive-biases   cognitive-breakdown   cognitive-complexity   cognitive-load   cognitive-structure   cold-tolerance   inrmm-list-of-tags  

Abstract

List of indexed keywords within the transdisciplinary set of domains which relate to the Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management (INRMM). In particular, the list of keywords maps the semantic tags in the INRMM Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD). [\n] The INRMM-MiD records providing this list are accessible by the special tag: inrmm-list-of-tags ( http://mfkp.org/INRMM/tag/inrmm-list-of-tags ). ...

 

Democratic decisions establish stable authorities that overcome the paradox of second-order punishment

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 111, No. 2. (23 January 2013), pp. 201315273-756, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1315273111

Abstract

[Significance] Humans usually punish free riders but refuse to sanction those who cooperate but do not punish. However, such second-order punishment is essential to maintain cooperation. The central authorities established in modern societies punish both free riders and tax evaders. This is a paradox: would individuals who do not engage in second-order punishment strive for an authority that does? We address this puzzle with a mathematical model and an economic experiment. When individuals can choose between authorities by migrating between different ...

 

Promoting transparency in social science research

  
Science, Vol. 343, No. 6166. (03 January 2014), pp. 30-31, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1245317

Abstract

There is growing appreciation for the advantages of experimentation in the social sciences. Policy-relevant claims that in the past were backed by theoretical arguments and inconclusive correlations are now being investigated using more credible methods. Changes have been particularly pronounced in development economics, where hundreds of randomized trials have been carried out over the last decade. When experimentation is difficult or impossible, researchers are using quasi-experimental designs. Governments and advocacy groups display a growing appetite for evidence-based policy-making. In 2005, Mexico ...

 

Modelling the effects of subjective and objective decision making in scientific peer review

  
Nature, Vol. 506, No. 7486. (6 February 2014), pp. 93-96, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature12786

Abstract

The objective of science is to advance knowledge, primarily in two interlinked ways: circulating ideas, and defending or criticizing the ideas of others. Peer review acts as the gatekeeper to these mechanisms. Given the increasing concern surrounding the reproducibility of much published research, it is critical to understand whether peer review is intrinsically susceptible to failure, or whether other extrinsic factors are responsible that distort scientists' decisions. Here we show that even when scientists are motivated to promote the truth, their ...

 

Academics should not remain silent on hacking

  
Nature, Vol. 504, No. 7480. (18 December 2013), pp. 333-333, https://doi.org/10.1038/504333a

Abstract

The revelation that US and British spy agencies have undermined a commonly used encryption code should alarm researchers, says Charles Arthur. ...

 

Improving scientific communication

  
Science, Vol. 342, No. 6154. (04 October 2013), pp. 13-13, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1246449

Abstract

Even the most brilliant scientific discovery, if not communicated widely and accurately, is of little value. And with the explosion of science around the globe, the dissemination of scientific information, once the purview of learned societies and a handful of publishers, is now a growth industry. This growth has attracted new models and new providers of services. In the process, the standards for scientific communication are slipping (see the special section on Communication in Science beginning on p. 56). The science ...

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Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD).
This database integrates a dedicated meta-information database in CiteULike (the CiteULike INRMM Group) with the meta-information available in Google Scholar, CrossRef and DataCite. The Altmetric database with Article-Level Metrics is also harvested. Part of the provided semantic content (machine-readable) is made even human-readable thanks to the DCMI Dublin Core viewer. Digital preservation of the meta-information indexed within the INRMM-MiD publication records is implemented thanks to the Internet Archive.
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