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Selection: with tag climate-extremes [58 articles] 


The exceptionally hot summer of 2007 in Athens, Greece — A typical summer in the future climate?

Global and Planetary Change, Vol. 67, No. 3-4. (June 2009), pp. 227-236,


Summer 2007 was abnormally warm for many areas of southeastern Europe, the Balkan peninsula and parts of Asia Minor with departures from the seasonal means exceeding 4 °C in some areas but also distinct periods of extremely hot weather. Greece experienced very likely the warmest summer of its instrumental history with record breaking temperatures being observed at a number of stations. The historical air temperature record of the National Observatory of Athens (NOA), extending back to the 19th century, was used in ...


Sensitivity and evaluation of current fire risk and future projections due to climate change: the case study of Greece

Natural Hazards and Earth System Science, Vol. 14, No. 1. (23 January 2014), pp. 143-153,


Current trends in the Mediterranean climate, and more specifically in Greece, indicate longer and more intense summer droughts that even extend out of season. In connection to this, the frequency of forest fire occurrence and intensity is on the rise. In the present study, the Canadian Fire Weather Index (FWI) is used in order to investigate the relationship between fire risk and meteorological conditions in Greece. FWI is a meteorologically based index designed in Canada and used worldwide, including the Mediterranean ...


Meteorological risk: extra-tropical cyclones, tropical cyclones and convective storms

In Science for disaster risk management 2017: knowing better and losing less, Vol. 28034 (2017), pp. 246-256


[Excerpt: Conclusions and key messages] [::Partnership] Collaboration between forecast providers and end users in real time is essential during DRM, since the interpretation of the available information, the uncertainty associated with it and how this changes as new information becomes available should be made in consultation with qualified meteorologists and National Meteorological Services in particular. Information sharing, particularly observational, impact and warning data across national boundaries in real time, is of key importance. Improvements in forecasts will in part be driven by the interaction between fundamental atmosphere and ocean science with operational forecasting, so continued collaboration between forecasting centres and universities and ...


  1. AIR Worldwide, 2015. Preparing for Europe's Winter Storm Season with a Look Back at Niklas and Kyrill. .
  2. Anderson, G., Klugmann, D., 2014. A European lightning density analysis using 5 years of ATDnet data. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences 14(4), 815-829.
  3. Antonescu, B., Schultz, D.M., Lomas, F., Kühne, T., 2016. Tornadoes in Europe: Synthesis of the observational datasets. Monthly Weather Review.
  4. Bauer, P., Thorpe,

A new kind of drought: US record low windiness in 2015

IEEE Earthzine, Vol. 9 (2016), 1412470


Widespread calming of the wind sapped U.S. wind energy power output in 2015, driven by the same weather patterns responsible for California’s severe drought. [Excerpt: Summary and conclusions] 2015 was a year of records: [::] It was the warmest year on record globally. [::] A highly anomalous ocean warming event in the northeast Pacific (NPM) strongly controlled the weather and climate over North America. [::] A high amplitude ridge of unparalleled strength and longevity over western North America dominated until April 2015. [::] Record low ...


Continued increase of extreme El Niño frequency long after 1.5 °C warming stabilization

Nature Climate Change, Vol. 7, No. 8. (24 July 2017), pp. 568-572,


The Paris Agreement aims to constrain global mean temperature (GMT) increases to 2 °C above pre-industrial levels, with an aspirational target of 1.5 °C. However, the pathway to these targets and the impacts of a 1.5 °C and 2 °C warming on extreme El Niño and La Niña events—which severely influence weather patterns, agriculture, ecosystems, public health and economies—is little known. Here, by analysing climate models participating in the Climate Model Intercomparison Project’s Phase 5 (CMIP5; ref. 17) under a most likely emission scenario, we ...


Legal threat exposes gaps in climate-change planning

Nature, Vol. 548, No. 7669. (29 August 2017), pp. 508-509,


Australian lawsuit highlights how difficult it is to turn global warming data into useful advice. [Excerpt] [...] Climate scientist Andy Pitman at the Centre of Excellence for Climate System Science in Sydney, Australia, says that researchers have been warning companies and governments for years about the need to invest in climate modelling and the related field of climate services, which provides forecasts and other information to public and private users. [...] To be useful, he says, the forecasts would need to be ...


Mechanisms of plant survival and mortality during drought: why do some plants survive while others succumb to drought?

New Phytologist, Vol. 178, No. 4. (1 June 2008), pp. 719-739,


Severe droughts have been associated with regional-scale forest mortality worldwide. Climate change is expected to exacerbate regional mortality events; however, prediction remains difficult because the physiological mechanisms underlying drought survival and mortality are poorly understood. We developed a hydraulically based theory considering carbon balance and insect resistance that allowed development and examination of hypotheses regarding survival and mortality. Multiple mechanisms may cause mortality during drought. A common mechanism for plants with isohydric regulation of water status results from avoidance of drought-induced ...


Trends in extreme weather and climate events: issues related to modeling extremes in projections of future climate change

Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Vol. 81, No. 3. (1 March 2000), pp. 427-436,<0427:tiewac>;2


Projections of statistical aspects of weather and climate extremes can be derived from climate models representing possible future climate states. Some of the recent models have reproduced results previously reported in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Second Assessment Report, such as a greater frequency of extreme warm days and lower frequency of extreme cold days associated with a warmer mean climate, a decrease in diurnal temperature range associated with higher nighttime temperatures, increased precipitation intensity, midcontinent summer drying, decreasing ...


Climate extremes: observations, modeling, and impacts

Science In Science, Vol. 289, No. 5487. (22 September 2000), pp. 2068-2074,


One of the major concerns with a potential change in climate is that an increase in extreme events will occur. Results of observational studies suggest that in many areas that have been analyzed, changes in total precipitation are amplified at the tails, and changes in some temperature extremes have been observed. Model output has been analyzed that shows changes in extreme events for future climates, such as increases in extreme high temperatures, decreases in extreme low temperatures, and increases in intense ...


Annex III: glossary

In Climate Change 2013: the physical science basis - Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2013), pp. 1447-1465


[Excerpt] This glossary defines some specific terms as the Lead Authors intend them to be interpreted in the context of this report. Red, italicized words indicate that the term is defined in the Glossary. [\n] [...] ...


Terrestrial ecosystems, soil and forests

In Climate change, impacts and vulnerability in Europe 2016 - An indicator-based report, Vol. 1/2017 (January 2017), pp. 153-182,


[Excerpt: Key messages] [::] Observed climate change has had many impacts on terrestrial ecosystems, such as changes in soil conditions, advances in phenological stages, altitudinal and latitudinal migration of plant and animal species (generally northwards and upwards), and changes in species interactions and species composition in communities, including local extinctions. [::] The relative importance of climate change as a major driver of biodiversity and ecosystem change is projected to increase further in the future. In addition to climate change, human efforts to mitigate and adapt to ...


  1. Alkemade, R., Bakkenes, M., Eickhout, B., 2011. Towards a general relationship between climate change and biodiversity: An example for plant species in Europe. Regional Environmental Change 11, 143–150. .
  2. Allen, C. D., Macalady, A. K., Chenchouni, H., Bachelet, D., McDowell, N., Vennetier, M., Kitzberger, T., Rigling, A., Breshears, D. D., Hogg, E. H. (Ted), Gonzalez, P., Fensham, R., Zhang, Z., Castro, J., Demidova, N., Lim, J.-H., Allard, G., Running, S. W., Semerci, A.,

Executive summary

In Climate change, impacts and vulnerability in Europe 2016 - An indicator-based report, Vol. 1/2017 (January 2017), pp. 12-30,


[Excerpt: Key messages] [::] All of the key findings from the 2012 European Environment Agency (EEA) report on climate change, impacts and vulnerability in Europe are still valid. [::] Climate change is continuing globally and in Europe. Land and sea temperatures are increasing; precipitation patterns are changing, generally making wet regions in Europe wetter, particularly in winter, and dry regions drier, particularly in summer; sea ice extent, glacier volume and snow cover are decreasing; sea levels are rising; and climate-related extremes such as heat waves, heavy precipitation ...


  1. Ciscar, J.-C., Feyen, L., Soria, A., Lavalle, C., Raes, F., Perry, M., Nemry, F., Demirel, H., Rozsai, M., Dosio, A., Donatelli, M., Srivastava, A. K., Fumagalli, D., Niemeyer, S., Shrestha, S., Ciaian, P., Himics, M., Van Doorslaer, B., Barrios, S., Ibáñez, N., Forzieri, G., Rojas, R., Bianchi, A., Dowling, P., Camia, A., Libertà, G., San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., de Rigo, D., Caudullo, G., Barredo, J. I., Paci, D., Pycroft, J., Saveyn, B., Van Regemorter, D., Revesz, T., Vandyck, T.,

Climate change, impacts and vulnerability in Europe 2016 - An indicator-based report

Vol. 1/2017 (January 2017),


[Excerpt: Executive summary] Key messages [::] All of the key findings from the 2012 European Environment Agency (EEA) report on climate change, impacts and vulnerability in Europe are still valid. [::] Climate change is continuing globally and in Europe. Land and sea temperatures are increasing; precipitation patterns are changing, generally making wet regions in Europe wetter, particularly in winter, and dry regions drier, particularly in summer; sea ice extent, glacier volume and snow cover are decreasing; sea levels are rising; and climate-related extremes such as heat waves, heavy ...


Climate Change 2007: the physical science basis - Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change



[Excerpt: Preface] This Working Group I contribution to the IPCC’s Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) provides a comprehensive assessment of the physical science of climate change and continues to broaden the view of that science, following on from previous Working Group I assessments. The results presented here are based on the extensive scientific literature that has become available since completion of the IPCC’s Third Assessment Report, together with expanded data sets, new analyses, and more sophisticated climate modelling capabilities. [\n] This report has been prepared in accordance with rules and procedures ...


Uncertainties in projecting future changes in atmospheric rivers and their impacts on heavy precipitation over Europe

Journal of Climate, Vol. 29, No. 18. (24 June 2016), pp. 6711-6726,


This study investigates the North Atlantic atmospheric rivers (ARs) making landfall over western Europe in the present and future climate from the multimodel ensemble of phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). Overall, CMIP5 captures the seasonal and spatial variations of historical landfalling AR days, with the large intermodel variability strongly correlated with the intermodel spread of historical near-surface westerly jet position. Under representative concentration pathway 8.5 (RCP8.5), AR frequency is projected to increase significantly by the end of ...


Projected changes in intense precipitation over Europe at the daily and subdaily time scales

Journal of Climate, Vol. 28, No. 15. (19 May 2015), pp. 6193-6203,


Heavy precipitation is a major hazard over Europe. It is well established that climate model projections indicate a tendency toward more extreme daily rainfall events. It is still uncertain, however, how this changing intensity translates at the subdaily time scales. The main goal of the present study is to examine possible differences in projected changes in intense precipitation events over Europe at the daily and subdaily (3-hourly) time scales using a state-of-the-science climate model. The focus will be on one representative ...


Discussing the role of tropical and subtropical moisture sources in cold season extreme precipitation events in the Mediterranean region from a climate change perspective

Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, Vol. 16, No. 1. (27 January 2016), pp. 269-285,


This paper presents a review of a large number of research studies performed during the last few decades that focused on the investigation of cold season extreme precipitation events (EPEs) in the Mediterranean region (MR). The publications demonstrate the important role of anomalously intense transports of moist air from the tropical and subtropical Atlantic in the occurrence of EPEs in the MR. EPEs in the MR are directly or indirectly connected to narrow bands with a high concentration of moisture in ...


Magnitude of extreme heat waves in present climate and their projection in a warming world

J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., Vol. 119, No. 22. (27 November 2014), pp. 12,500-12,512,


An extreme heat wave occurred in Russia in the summer of 2010. It had serious impacts on humans and natural ecosystems, it was the strongest recorded globally in recent decades and exceeded in amplitude and spatial extent the previous hottest European summer in 2003. Earlier studies have not succeeded in comparing the magnitude of heat waves across continents and in time. This study introduces a new Heat Wave Magnitude Index that can be compared over space and time. The index is ...


On the relationships between forest fires and weather conditions in Greece from long-term national observations (1894-2010)

International Journal of Wildland Fire, Vol. 22, No. 4. (2013), 493,


Historical fire records and meteorological observations, spanning more than 1 century (1894–2010), were gathered and assembled in a database, to provide long-term fire–weather associations. We investigated the relationships between forest fire activity and meteorological parameters and sought to find temporal patterns and trends in these historical records and to identify any linkages between meteorological parameters and fire occurrence in the eastern Mediterranean region. Trend analysis of the time series revealed a statistically significant increase in the number of fires and air ...


Atmospheric conditions associated with the exceptional fire season of 2003 in Portugal

International Journal of Climatology, Vol. 26, No. 13. (15 November 2006), pp. 1741-1757,


The summer of 2003 was characterised by exceptional warm weather in Europe, particularly during the first two weeks of August, when a devastating sequence of large fires was observed, reaching an amount of circa 450 000 ha, the largest figure ever recorded in Portugal in modern times. They were concentrated in two relatively confined regions of Portugal and a considerable proportion of burnt area was due to fires started on the 2nd and 3rd of August. [\n] It is shown that the ...


A review of the European summer heat wave of 2003

Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 40, No. 4. (9 March 2010), pp. 267-306,


This paper reviews the European summer heat wave of 2003, with special emphasis on the first half of August 2003, jointly with its significant societal and environmental impact across Western and Central Europe. We show the pattern of record-breaking temperature anomalies, discuss it in the context of the past, and address the role of the main contributing factors responsible for the occurrence and persistence of this event: blocking episodes, soil moisture deficit, and sea surface temperatures. We show that the anticyclonic ...


Allowable CO2 emissions based on regional and impact-related climate targets

Nature, Vol. 529, No. 7587. (20 January 2016), pp. 477-483,


Targets for reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide are related to regional changes in climate extremes rather than to changes in global mean temperature, in order to convey their urgency better to individual countries. ...


Where, why and how? Explaining the low-temperature range limits of temperate tree species

Journal of Ecology, Vol. 104, No. 4. (July 2016), pp. 1076-1088,


Attempts at explaining range limits of temperate tree species still rest on correlations with climatic data that lack a physiological justification. Here, we present a synthesis of a multidisciplinary project that offers mechanistic explanations. Employing climatology, biogeography, dendrology, population and reproduction biology, stress physiology and phenology, we combine results from in situ elevational (Swiss Alps) and latitudinal (Alps vs. Scandinavia) comparisons, from reciprocal common garden and phytotron studies for eight European broadleaf tree species. [\n] We show that ...


World drought frequency, duration, and severity for 1951-2010

International Journal of Climatology, Vol. 34, No. 8. (June 2014), pp. 2792-2804,


In the context of climate change characterized by rising temperature and more extreme precipitation regimes, drought is one of the most relevant natural disasters. This paper presents maps of global drought frequency, duration, and severity for the periods 1951–1970, 1971–1990, and 1991–2010, to give an overview of the respective drought hot spots. Drought frequency is defined as the number of drought events occurred, drought duration as the number of months in drought conditions, and drought severity as the sum of the ...


Forest Service survey finds record 66 million dead trees in Southern Sierra Nevada

(June 2016)


[Excerpt] The U.S. Forest Service today announced that it has identified an additional 26 million trees dead in California since October 2015. These trees are located in six counties across 760,000 acres in the southern Sierra Nevada region of the state, and are in addition to the 40 million trees that died statewide from 2010 to October 2015, bringing the total to at least 66 million dead trees. Four consecutive years of severe drought in California, a dramatic rise in bark ...


Drought sensitivity of the Amazon rainforest

Science, Vol. 323, No. 5919. (06 March 2009), pp. 1344-1347,


Amazon forests are a key but poorly understood component of the global carbon cycle. If, as anticipated, they dry this century, they might accelerate climate change through carbon losses and changed surface energy balances. We used records from multiple long-term monitoring plots across Amazonia to assess forest responses to the intense 2005 drought, a possible analog of future events. Affected forest lost biomass, reversing a large long-term carbon sink, with the greatest impacts observed where the dry season was unusually intense. ...


Historical warnings of future food insecurity with unprecedented seasonal heat

Science, Vol. 323, No. 5911. (2009), pp. 240-244,


Higher growing season temperatures can have dramatic impacts on agricultural productivity, farm incomes, and food security. We used observational data and output from 23 global climate models to show a high probability (>90%) that growing season temperatures in the tropics and subtropics by the end of the 21st century will exceed the most extreme seasonal temperatures recorded from 1900 to 2006. In temperate regions, the hottest seasons on record will represent the future norm in many locations. We used historical examples ...


Will a warmer world be stormier?

IEEE Earthzine, Vol. 4, No. 2. (2011), 291714


[Excerpt] Increases in carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases have almost certainly played a major role in the observed temperature increases of the 20th Century, according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report. Global climate model (GCM) projections suggest that continued 21st Century increases in greenhouse gases will further warm the climate by a few degrees. A temperature change this small may not seem very serious, since local weather can fluctuate by much more than this from ...


Climate science: where climate models fall short

Nature, Vol. 531, No. 7592. (2 March 2016), pp. 10-10,


Climate models tend to overestimate the extent to which climate change contributes to weather events such as extreme heat and rain. [\n] Omar Bellprat and Francisco Doblas-Reyes at the Catalan Institute of Climate Sciences in Barcelona, Spain, used an idealized statistical model to compare the frequency of weather extremes in simulations [...] ...


Adjustment of forest management strategies to changing climate

In Forest Management and the Water Cycle, Vol. 212 (2011), pp. 313-329,


Research work on the influence of global warming on forests predicts a rise in air temperature and changes in precipitation for a large part of Europe. Climate change has been forecast to increase runoff and nutrient leaching from the boreal catchments. Windiness, cloudiness and more frequent extreme-weather events are expected in the temperate region. The Mediterranean region is expected to suffer considerable impacts because of increased drought conditions. The need to understand and control the hydrological role of forests is rising, ...


Reframing ecosystem management in the era of climate change: issues and knowledge from forests

Biological Conservation, Vol. 165 (September 2013), pp. 115-127,


We discuss “ecosystem management (EM)” to face contemporary climate change issues. EM focuses on sustaining ecosystems to meet both ecological and human needs. EM plans have been largely developed independent of concerns about climate change. However, EM is potentially effective for climate change mitigation and adaptation. We provide the principle guidelines based on EM to adaptively tackle the issues. Climate change is one of the significant concerns in land and resource management, creating an urgent need to build social–ecological capacity to ...


More Intense, More Frequent, and Longer Lasting Heat Waves in the 21st Century

Science, Vol. 305, No. 5686. (13 August 2004), pp. 994-997,


A global coupled climate model shows that there is a distinct geographic pattern to future changes in heat waves. Model results for areas of Europe and North America, associated with the severe heat waves in Chicago in 1995 and Paris in 2003, show that future heat waves in these areas will become more intense, more frequent, and longer lasting in the second half of the 21st century. Observations and the model show that present-day heat waves over Europe and North America ...


An appraisal of downscaling methods used in climate change research

WIREs Clim Change, Vol. 6, No. 3. (1 March 2015), pp. 301-319,


The term ‘downscaling’ refers to the process of translating information from global climate model simulations to a finer spatial resolution. There are numerous methods by which this translation of information can occur. For users of downscaled information, it is important to have some understanding of the properties of different methods (in terms of their capabilities and limitations to convey the change signal, as simulated by the global model), as these dictate the type of applications that the downscaled information can be ...


Climate Change 2013: the physical science basis - Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change



[Excerpt: Preface] The Working Group I contribution to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) provides a comprehensive assessment of the physical science basis of climate change. It builds upon the Working Group I contribution to the IPCC’s Fourth Assessment Report in 2007 and incorporates subsequent new findings from the Special Report on Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation, as well as from research published in the extensive ...


2014 was the hottest year on record



[Excerpt] This past year was the hottest since at least 1891, the Japan Meteorological Agency said on 5 January. According to the JMA, the average temperature in 2014 was 0.27 °C warmer than the 1981 to 2010 baseline average. [\n] [...] The warmth in 2014 is also notable for another reason: the absence of El Niño. Three years that were previously considered to be the hottest in the global record — 2010, 2005 and 1998 — got a boost from the weather pattern ...


IPCC fifth assessment synthesis report - Climate Change 2014 synthesis report

(1 November 2014)


The Synthesis Report (SYR) of the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) provides an overview of the state of knowledge concerning the science of climate change, emphasizing new results since the publication of the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report in 2007 (AR4). The SYR synthesizes the main findings of the AR5 (IPCC) based on contributions from Working Group I (The Physical Science Basis), Working Group II (Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability), and Working Group III (Mitigation of Climate Change), plus two additional IPCC reports ...


Contrasting responses of mean and extreme snowfall to climate change

Nature, Vol. 512, No. 7515. (27 August 2014), pp. 416-418,


Snowfall is an important element of the climate system, and one that is expected to change in a warming climate1, 2, 3, 4. Both mean snowfall and the intensity distribution of snowfall are important, with heavy snowfall events having particularly large economic and human impacts5, 6, 7. Simulations with climate models indicate that annual mean snowfall declines with warming in most regions but increases in regions with very low surface temperatures3, 4. The response of heavy snowfall events to a changing ...


The climatic interpretation of pan-European signature years in oak ring-width series

The Holocene, Vol. 12, No. 6. (01 September 2002), pp. 689-694,


Large-scale signature years, in which oak growth across much of northern Europe varies consistently, are identified. Postulating that the likely cause of such widespread departures in growth is climatic, it is shown that these years were characterized by pan-European anomalies in soil-moisture availability, rainfall and temperature, with enhanced growth associated with an extended period of increased soil-moisture availability and reduced growth associated with lower temperatures and reduced soil moisture. These climatic anomalies are, in turn, associated with a large-scale and persistent ...


Abiotic and biotic factors and their interactions as causes of oak decline in Central Europe

Forest Pathology, Vol. 32, No. 4-5. (August 2002), pp. 277-307,


Incidences of oak decline have occurred repeatedly during the past three centuries as well as in the most recent decades. On the basis of historical records and dendrochronological measurements, oak decline in Central Europe has been attributed to the single or combined effects of climatic extremes (winter frost, summer drought), defoliating insects, and pathogenic fungi. Starting from a literature review, we discuss the possible roles of various abiotic (air pollution, nitrogen eutrophication, soil chemical stress, climatic extremes, site conditions) and biotic ...


Beyond climatological extremes - assessing how the odds of hydrometeorological extreme events in South-East Europe change in a warming climate

Climatic Change In Climatic Change, Vol. 125, No. 3-4. (2014), pp. 381-398,


With record breaking heat waves, dryness, and floods in several parts of the world in recent years the question arises whether and to what extent the hazard of hydrometeorological extreme weather events has changed, and if changes can be attributed to specific causes. The methodology of probabilistic event attribution allows to evaluate such potential changes in the occurence probabilities of particular types of extreme events. We show that such a probabilistic assessment not only provides information on changing hazards in hydrometerological ...


Preferential cooling of hot extremes from cropland albedo management

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 111, No. 27. (08 July 2014), pp. 9757-9761,


[Significance] The projected increase in warm extremes associated with climate change is a major concern for society and represents a threat to humans and ecosystems. This study shows that heat wave impacts could be attenuated locally by increasing surface albedo through crop residue management (no-till farming). This is due to an identified asymmetric impact of surface albedo change on summer temperature distribution resulting in a much stronger influence on hot extremes than on mean temperatures. This finding has important implications for ...


Regional vegetation die-off in response to global-change-type drought

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 102, No. 42. (10 October 2005), pp. 15144-15148,


Future drought is projected to occur under warmer temperature conditions as climate change progresses, referred to here as global-change-type drought, yet quantitative assessments of the triggers and potential extent of drought-induced vegetation die-off remain pivotal uncertainties in assessing climate-change impacts. Of particular concern is regional-scale mortality of overstory trees, which rapidly alters ecosystem type, associated ecosystem properties, and land surface conditions for decades. Here, we quantify regional-scale vegetation die-off across southwestern North American woodlands in 2002-2003 in response to drought and ...


Canopy recovery after drought dieback in holm-oak Mediterranean forests of Catalonia (NE Spain)

Global Change Biology, Vol. 10, No. 12. (December 2004), pp. 2092-2099,


Climate change is likely to produce more frequent and longer droughts in the Mediterranean region, like that of 1994, which produced important changes in the Quercus ilex forests, with up to 76% of the trees showing complete canopy dieback. At the landscape level, a mosaic of responses to the drought was observed, linked to the distribution of lithological substrates. Damage to the dominant tree species (Q. ilex) and the most common understorey shrub (Erica arborea) was more noticeable on the compact ...


The impacts of climate change on the risk of natural disasters

Disasters, Vol. 30, No. 1. (March 2006), pp. 5-18,


Human emissions of greenhouse gases are already changing our climate. This paper provides an overview of the relation between climate change and weather extremes, and examines three specific cases where recent acute events have stimulated debate on the potential role of climate change: the European heatwave of 2003; the risk of inland flooding, such as recently in Central Europe and Great Britain; and the harsh Atlantic hurricane seasons of 2004 and 2005. Furthermore, it briefly assesses the relation between climate change ...


State of Mediterranean forests 2013



[Abstract] Forest ecosystems and other wooded lands are an important component of landscapes in the Mediterranean region, contributing significantly to rural development, poverty alleviation and food security. They are sources of wood, cork, energy, food and incomes, and they provide important ecosystem services such as biodiversity conservation, soil and water protection, recreation and carbon storage. They are crucial for many of the region’s economic sectors, such as food supply, agriculture, soil and water conservation, drinking water supply, tourism and energy. The ...


Mechanism behind mega-heatwaves pinpointed



Two recent record hot spells traced to feedback loop between dry soils and trapped air. [Excerpt] The 'mega-heatwaves' that parched Europe in 2003 and Russia in 2010 were exacerbated by a vicious feedback loop between soil and atmosphere, researchers report today in Nature Geoscience1. Drying ground added more heat into air close to Earth's surface, a process that repeated over time to produce record-breaking warmth that shrivelled crops, set forests ablaze and claimed tens of thousands of lives. Without the extraordinarily dry ...


(INRMM-MiD internal record) List of keywords of the INRMM meta-information database - part 7

(February 2014)
Keywords: chamaerops-humilis   change   change-factor   channel-network   chaos   characteristics   charcoal   charcoal-analysis   check-list   chemical-analisys   chemical-composition   chemical-control   chemicals   chemosystematics   chenopodium-spp   chernobyl   chestnut-disease   chile   chilopsis-linearis   chimborazo   china   chionosphaera-cuniculicola   chionosphaera-spp   chloroplast-dna   chlorosis   cholera   chorisia-speciosa   choristoneura-conflictana   choristoneura-fumiferana   choristoneura-spp   chorology   chosenia-arbutifolia   chromium   chrysomela-populi   chrysomela-scripta   chrysomela-tremulae   chrysophyllum-albidum   chrysoptharta-bimaculata   chytridiopsis-typographi   cinchona-pubescens   cinnamomum-camphora   circular-economy   cistus-spp   citation-errors   citation-metrics   citeulike   citizen-science   citizen-sensor   citrus-aurantium   classification   classification-trees   clc   clear-cutting   clematis-alpina   clematis-vitalba   cliamte-change   cliffs   climate   climate-change   climate-change-impacts   climate-change-velocity   climate-engineering   climate-equity   climate-extremes   climate-growth-relations   climate-history   climate-models   climate-policy   climate-projections   climate-signal   climate-zones   climatic-conditions   climatic-gradient   climatic-niche   climatic-niche-shift   clostera-anachoreta   clostera-anastomosis   cloud-condensation   cloud-formation   cloudiness   clusia-rosea   clustering   co-evolution   co2   coal   coastal-settlement   coastline   coccoloba-uvifera   cocos-nucifera   codelet   coeloides-bostrichorum   coffea-arabica   coffea-canephora   cognitive-biases   cognitive-breakdown   cognitive-complexity   cognitive-load   cognitive-structure   cold-tolerance   inrmm-list-of-tags  


List of indexed keywords within the transdisciplinary set of domains which relate to the Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management (INRMM). In particular, the list of keywords maps the semantic tags in the INRMM Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD). [\n] The INRMM-MiD records providing this list are accessible by the special tag: inrmm-list-of-tags ( ). ...


State of the Climate: Global Analysis for November 2013

(December 2013)


[Global Highlights] [::] The combined average temperature over global land and ocean surfaces for November 2013 was record highest for the 134-year period of record, at 0.78°C (1.40°F) above the 20th century average of 12.9°C (55.2°F). [::] The global land surface temperature was 1.43°C (2.57°F) above the 20th century average of 5.9°C (42.6°F), the second highest for November on record, behind 2010. For the global oceans, the November average sea surface temperature was 0.54°C (0.97°F) above the 20th century average of 15.8°C (60.4°F), ...


Can the 2011 East African drought be attributed to human-induced climate change?

Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 40, No. 6. (28 March 2013), pp. 1177-1181,


This study applies the technique of event attribution to the East African rainy seasons preceding the drought of 2011. Using observed sea surface temperatures (SSTs), sea ice conditions with a state-of-the-art atmosphere model, the precipitation totals during late 2010 (the “short rains”) and early 2011 (the “long rains”) were simulated hundreds of times to produce possible distributions of precipitation. Alternative distributions of precipitation were produced consistent with a world with neither anthropogenic forcings nor human influence on SSTs and sea ice. ...


Soil biotic legacy effects of extreme weather events influence plant invasiveness

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 110, No. 24. (11 June 2013), pp. 9835-9838,


Climate change is expected to increase future abiotic stresses on ecosystems through extreme weather events leading to more extreme drought and rainfall incidences [Jentsch A, et al. (2007) Front Ecol Environ 5(7):365–374]. These fluctuations in precipitation may affect soil biota, soil processes [Evans ST, Wallenstein MD (2012) Biogeochemistry 109:101–116], and the proportion of exotics in invaded plant communities [Jiménez MA, et al. (2011) Ecol Lett 14:1277–1235]. However, little is known about legacy effects in soil on the performance of exotics and ...

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