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Selection: with tag climate [152 articles] 

 

Fire regime changes in the Western Mediterranean Basin: from fuel-limited to drought-driven fire regime

  
Climatic Change In Climatic Change, Vol. 110, No. 1-2. (1 January 2012), pp. 215-226, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-011-0060-6

Abstract

Wildfires are an integral part of Mediterranean ecosystems; humans impact on landscapes imply changes in fuel amount and continuity, and thus in fire regime. We tested the hypothesis that fire regime changed in western Mediterranean Basin during the last century using time series techniques. We first compiled a 130-year fire history for the Valencia province (Spain, Eastern Iberian Peninsula, Western Mediterranean Basin) from contemporary statistics plus old forest administration dossiers and newspapers. We also compiled census on rural population and climatic ...

 

Southern Annular Mode drives multicentury wildfire activity in southern South America

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 114, No. 36. (05 September 2017), pp. 9552-9557, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1705168114

Abstract

[Significance] Fire is a key ecological process affecting ecosystem dynamics and services, driven primarily by variations in fuel amount and condition, ignition patterns, and climate. In the Southern Hemisphere, current warming conditions are linked to the upward trend in the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) due to ozone depletion. Here we use tree ring fire scar data obtained from diverse biomes ranging from subtropical dry woodlands to sub-Antarctic rainforests to assess the effect of the SAM on regional fire activity over the past ...

 

New water-cooling solar panels could lower the cost of air conditioning by 20%

  

Abstract

[Excerpt] Most of us have heard of solar water heaters. Now there’s a solar water cooler, and the technology may sharply lower the cost of industrial-scale air conditioning and refrigeration. [...] Researchers at Stanford University in Palo Alto, California, recently placed three water cooling panels—each 0.37 square meters—atop a building on campus and circulated water through them at a rate of 0.2 liters every minute. They report today in Nature Energy that their setup cooled the water as much as 5°C ...

 

Sub-ambient non-evaporative fluid cooling with the sky

  
Nature Energy, Vol. 2, No. 9. (4 September 2017), 17143, https://doi.org/10.1038/nenergy.2017.143

Abstract

Cooling systems consume 15% of electricity generated globally and account for 10% of global greenhouse gas emissions. With demand for cooling expected to grow tenfold by 2050, improving the efficiency of cooling systems is a critical part of the twenty-first-century energy challenge. Building upon recent demonstrations of daytime radiative sky cooling, here we demonstrate fluid cooling panels that harness radiative sky cooling to cool fluids below the air temperature with zero evaporative losses, and use almost no electricity. Over three days ...

 

Cheap plastic film cools whatever it touches up to 10°C

  
Science (March 2017), 2354204, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aal0732

Abstract

[Excerpt] [...] During the day most materials [...] absorb visible and near-infrared (IR) light from the sun. That added energy excites molecules, which warm up and, over time, emit the energy back out as photons with longer wavelengths, typically in the midrange of the infrared spectrum. That helps the materials cool back down, particularly at night when they are no longer absorbing visible light but are still radiating IR photons. [\n] In recent years, researchers have tried to goose this “passive cooling” ...

 

Scalable-manufactured randomized glass-polymer hybrid metamaterial for daytime radiative cooling

  
Science, Vol. 355, No. 6329. (10 March 2017), pp. 1062-1066, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aai7899

Abstract

[The lazy way to keep cool in the sun] Passive radiative cooling requires a material that radiates heat away while allowing solar radiation to pass through. Zhai et al. solve this riddle by constructing a metamaterial composed of a polymer layer embedded with microspheres, backed with a thin layer of silver (see the Perspective by Zhang). The result is an easy-to-manufacture material near the theoretical limit for daytime radiative cooling. The translucent and flexible film can be made in large quantities for ...

 

Fears rise for US climate report as Trump officials take reins

  
Nature, Vol. 548, No. 7665. (1 August 2017), pp. 15-16, https://doi.org/10.1038/548015a

Abstract

Officials at the US Environmental Protection Agency are consulting global-warming sceptics as they weigh up a technical review. ...

 

Influence of tree species on continental differences in boreal fires and climate feedbacks

  
Nature Geoscience, Vol. 8, No. 3. (2 February 2015), pp. 228-234, https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo2352

Abstract

Wildfires are common in boreal forests around the globe and strongly influence ecosystem processes. However, North American forests support more high-intensity crown fires than Eurasia, where lower-intensity surface fires are common. These two types of fire can result in different net effects on climate as a consequence of their contrasting impacts on terrestrial albedo and carbon stocks. Here we use remote-sensing imagery, climate reanalysis data and forest inventories to evaluate differences in boreal fire dynamics between North America and Eurasia and ...

 

Satellites reveal contrasting responses of regional climate to the widespread greening of Earth

  
Science (25 May 2017), eaal1727, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aal1727

Abstract

[The vegetation-climate loop] Just as terrestrial plant biomass is growing in response to increasing atmospheric CO2, climate change, and other anthropogenic influences, so is climate affected by those variations in vegetation. Forzieri et al. used satellite observations to analyze how changes in leaf area index (LAI), a measure of vegetation density, have influenced the terrestrial energy balance and local climates over the past several decades. An increase in LAI has helped to warm boreal zones through a reduction of surface albedo and ...

 

Historical climate controls soil respiration responses to current soil moisture

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 114, No. 24. (13 June 2017), pp. 6322-6327, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1620811114

Abstract

[Significance] Ecosystems’ feedback to climate change remains a source of uncertainty in global models that project future climate conditions. That uncertainty rests largely on how much soil carbon will be lost as microbial respiration and how that loss varies across ecosystems. Although there has been a large emphasis on microbial temperature responses, how soil microorganisms respond to changes in moisture remains poorly understood. Here we show that historical rainfall controls soil respiration responses to current moisture. This finding was robust, with historical ...

 

WorldClim 2: new 1-km spatial resolution climate surfaces for global land areas

  
International Journal of Climatology (15 May 2017), https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.5086

Abstract

We created a new dataset of spatially interpolated monthly climate data for global land areas at a very high spatial resolution (approximately 1 km2). We included monthly temperature (minimum, maximum and average), precipitation, solar radiation, vapour pressure and wind speed, aggregated across a target temporal range of 1970–2000, using data from between 9000 and 60 000 weather stations. Weather station data were interpolated using thin-plate splines with covariates including elevation, distance to the coast and three satellite-derived covariates: maximum and minimum land surface ...

 

Unmask temporal trade-offs in climate policy debates

  
Science, Vol. 356, No. 6337. (04 May 2017), pp. 492-493, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aaj2350

Abstract

Global warming potentials (GWPs) have become an essential element of climate policy and are built into legal structures that regulate greenhouse gas emissions. This is in spite of a well-known shortcoming: GWP hides trade-offs between short- and long-term policy objectives inside a single time scale of 100 or 20 years (1). The most common form, GWP100, focuses on the climate impact of a pulse emission over 100 years, diluting near-term effects and misleadingly implying that short-lived climate pollutants exert forcings in ...

 

Climate twins - An attempt to quantify climatological similarities

  
IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology In Environmental Software Systems. Frameworks of eEnvironment, Vol. 359 (2011), pp. 428-436, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-22285-6_46

Abstract

As climate change appears, strategies and actions will be necessary to cope with its effects on environment and society in the coming decades. Current climate conditions can be observed everywhere in the world but future climate conditions can only be estimated through climate simulations which produce huge amounts of quantitative data. This data leads to statements like “temperature increase is expected to exceed 2.6°C” or similar and remain fuzzy to non-experts in climate research. The Climate Twins application is designed to ...

 

Novel climates, no-analog communities, and ecological surprises

  
Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, Vol. 5, No. 9. (November 2007), pp. 475-482, https://doi.org/10.1890/070037

Abstract

No-analog communities (communities that are compositionally unlike any found today) occurred frequently in the past and will develop in the greenhouse world of the future. The well documented no-analog plant communities of late-glacial North America are closely linked to “novel” climates also lacking modern analogs, characterized by high seasonality of temperature. In climate simulations for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change A2 and B1 emission scenarios, novel climates arise by 2100 AD, primarily in tropical and subtropical regions. These future novel ...

 

Observational evidence for cloud cover enhancement over western European forests

  
Nature Communications, Vol. 8 (11 January 2017), 14065, https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms14065

Abstract

Forests impact regional hydrology and climate directly by regulating water and heat fluxes. Indirect effects through cloud formation and precipitation can be important in facilitating continental-scale moisture recycling but are poorly understood at regional scales. In particular, the impact of temperate forest on clouds is largely unknown. Here we provide observational evidence for a strong increase in cloud cover over large forest regions in western Europe based on analysis of 10 years of 15 min resolution data from geostationary satellites. In addition, ...

Visual summary

 

BIOMOD - A platform for ensemble forecasting of species distributions

  
Ecography, Vol. 32, No. 3. (1 June 2009), pp. 369-373, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0587.2008.05742.x

Abstract

BIOMOD is a computer platform for ensemble forecasting of species distributions, enabling the treatment of a range of methodological uncertainties in models and the examination of species-environment relationships. BIOMOD includes the ability to model species distributions with several techniques, test models with a wide range of approaches, project species distributions into different environmental conditions (e.g. climate or land use change scenarios) and dispersal functions. It allows assessing species temporal turnover, plot species response curves, and test the strength of species interactions ...

 

Climate and species functional traits influence maximum live tree stocking in the Lake States, USA

  
Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 386 (February 2017), pp. 51-61, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2016.12.007

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] Specific gravity and shade tolerance impact maximum stocking of tree species. [::] Temperature and precipitation interact with these traits to govern maximum stocking. [::] The results provide a simple, additive density measure for these complex forests. [Abstract] Quantifying the density of live trees in forest stands and partitioning it between species or other stand components is critical for predicting forest dynamics and responses to management, as well as understanding the impacts of stand composition and structure on productivity. As plant traits such as shade ...

 

Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: science overview and knowledge needs

  
Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 317 (April 2014), pp. 1-8, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2013.12.014

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] Wildland fires have influenced the global carbon cycle for ∼420 million years. [::] Fire moves carbon among terrestrial and atmospheric pools. [::] Fires emit carbon dioxide (CO2), black carbon and other aerosols. [::] Climate change alters fire regimes, potentially increasing wildfire emissions. [::] The global carbon cycle accounting should include wildland fire emissions. [Abstract] Wildland fires have influenced the global carbon cycle for ∼420 million years of Earth history, interacting with climate to define vegetation characteristics and distributions, trigger abrupt ecosystem shifts, and move carbon among ...

 

Climate, CO2 and human population impacts on global wildfire emissions

  
Biogeosciences, Vol. 13, No. 1. (15 January 2016), pp. 267-282, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-13-267-2016

Abstract

Wildfires are by far the largest contributor to global biomass burning and constitute a large global source of atmospheric traces gases and aerosols. Such emissions have a considerable impact on air quality and constitute a major health hazard. Biomass burning also influences the radiative balance of the atmosphere and is thus not only of societal, but also of significant scientific interest. There is a common perception that climate change will lead to an increase in emissions as hot and dry weather ...

 

Global and regional analysis of climate and human drivers of wildfire

  
Science of The Total Environment, Vol. 409, No. 18. (August 2011), pp. 3472-3481, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2011.05.032

Abstract

Identifying and quantifying the statistical relationships between climate and anthropogenic drivers of fire is important for global biophysical modelling of wildfire and other Earth system processes. This study used regression tree and random forest analysis on global data for various climatic and human variables to establish their relative importance. The main interactions found at the global scale also apply regionally: greatest wildfire burned area is associated with high temperature (> 28 °C), intermediate annual rainfall (350–1100 mm), and prolonged dry periods (which varies by ...

 

Defining pyromes and global syndromes of fire regimes

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 110, No. 16. (16 April 2013), pp. 6442-6447, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1211466110

Abstract

Fire is a ubiquitous component of the Earth system that is poorly understood. To date, a global-scale understanding of fire is largely limited to the annual extent of burning as detected by satellites. This is problematic because fire is multidimensional, and focus on a single metric belies its complexity and importance within the Earth system. To address this, we identified five key characteristics of fire regimes—size, frequency, intensity, season, and extent—and combined new and existing global datasets to represent each. We ...

 

Ecosystem service supply and vulnerability to global change in Europe

  
Science, Vol. 310, No. 5752. (25 November 2005), pp. 1333-1337, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1115233

Abstract

Global change will alter the supply of ecosystem services that are vital for human well-being. To investigate ecosystem service supply during the 21st century, we used a range of ecosystem models and scenarios of climate and land-use change to conduct a Europe-wide assessment. Large changes in climate and land use typically resulted in large changes in ecosystem service supply. Some of these trends may be positive (for example, increases in forest area and productivity) or offer opportunities (for example, “surplus land” ...

 

Spatiotemporal patterns of changes in fire regime and climate: defining the pyroclimates of south-eastern France (Mediterranean Basin)

  
Climatic Change, Vol. 129, No. 1-2. (2015), pp. 239-251, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-015-1332-3

Abstract

The impacts of climate change on fires are expected to be highly variable spatially and temporally. In heavily anthropized landscapes, the great number of factors affecting fire regimes further limits our ability to predict future fire activity caused by climate. To address this, we develop a new framework for analysing regional changes in fire regimes from specific spatiotemporal patterns of fires and climate, so-called pyroclimates. We aim to test the trends of fire activity and climate (1973–2009) across the Mediterranean and ...

 

Global fire size distribution is driven by human impact and climate

  
Global Ecology and Biogeography, Vol. 24, No. 1. (January 2015), pp. 77-86, https://doi.org/10.1111/geb.12246

Abstract

[Aim] In order to understand fire's impacts on vegetation dynamics, it is crucial that the distribution of fire sizes be known. We approached this distribution using a power-law distribution, which derives from self-organized criticality theory (SOC). We compute the global spatial variation in the power-law exponent and determine the main factors that explain its spatial distribution. [Location] Global, at 2° grid resolution. [Methods] We use satellite-derived MODIS burned-area data (MCD45) to obtain global individual fire size data for 2002–2010, grouped together for each 2° grid. A ...

 

A climate-based model to predict potential treeline position around the globe

  
Alpine Botany, Vol. 124, No. 1. (2014), pp. 1-12, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00035-014-0124-0

Abstract

In situ temperature measurements revealed that the position of the high-elevation treeline is associated with a minimum seasonal mean air temperature within a temperature-defined minimum season length across latitudes. Here, we build upon this experience and present the results of a global statistical analysis and a predictive model for low temperature treeline positions. We identified 376 natural treelines from satellite images across the globe, and searched for their closest climatic proxies using a climate database. The analysis included a snow and ...

 

Armed-conflict risks enhanced by climate-related disasters in ethnically fractionalized countries

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, No. 33. (16 August 2016), pp. 9216-9221, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1601611113

Abstract

[Significance] Ethnic divides play a major role in many armed conflicts around the world and might serve as predetermined conflict lines following rapidly emerging societal tensions arising from disruptive events like natural disasters. We find evidence in global datasets that risk of armed-conflict outbreak is enhanced by climate-related disaster occurrence in ethnically fractionalized countries. Although we find no indications that environmental disasters directly trigger armed conflicts, our results imply that disasters might act as a threat multiplier in several of the world’s ...

 

Thermodynamic control of anvil cloud amount

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, No. 32. (09 August 2016), pp. 8927-8932, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1601472113

Abstract

[Significance] Assessing the response of clouds to global warming remains a challenge of climate science. Past research has elucidated what controls the height and temperature of high-level anvil clouds, but the factors that control their horizontal extent remained uncertain. We show that the anvil cloud amount is expected to shrink as the climate warms or when convection becomes more clustered, due to a mechanism rooted in basic energetic and thermodynamic properties of the atmosphere. It is supported by three climate models and ...

 

Tropical anvil clouds and climate sensitivity

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, No. 32. (09 August 2016), pp. 8897-8899, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1610455113

Abstract

[Excerpt] The surface temperature of Earth is being increased by human activities, principally by the release of greenhouse gases (1). Future warming will depend upon the rate at which greenhouse gases are released and the sensitivity of Earth’s surface temperature to those increased greenhouse gases. An often used metric of the sensitivity of Earth’s climate is the equilibrium climate sensitivity, the amount of global average surface warming that is the steady, long-term response to a doubling of carbon dioxide. The equilibrium ...

 

Wave climate in the Arctic 1992–2014: seasonality and trends

  
The Cryosphere, Vol. 10, No. 4. (26 July 2016), pp. 1605-1629, https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-10-1605-2016

Abstract

Over the past decade, the diminishing Arctic sea ice has impacted the wave field, which depends on the ice-free ocean and wind. This study characterizes the wave climate in the Arctic spanning 1992–2014 from a merged altimeter data set and a wave hindcast that uses CFSR winds and ice concentrations from satellites as input. The model performs well, verified by the altimeters, and is relatively consistent for climate studies. The wave seasonality and extremes are linked to the ice coverage, wind ...

 

World drought frequency, duration, and severity for 1951-2010

  
International Journal of Climatology, Vol. 34, No. 8. (June 2014), pp. 2792-2804, https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.3875

Abstract

In the context of climate change characterized by rising temperature and more extreme precipitation regimes, drought is one of the most relevant natural disasters. This paper presents maps of global drought frequency, duration, and severity for the periods 1951–1970, 1971–1990, and 1991–2010, to give an overview of the respective drought hot spots. Drought frequency is defined as the number of drought events occurred, drought duration as the number of months in drought conditions, and drought severity as the sum of the ...

 

Spatial downscaling of European climate data

  
Int. J. Climatol., Vol. 36, No. 3. (1 March 2016), pp. 1444-1458, https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.4436

Abstract

E-OBS(European Observations) is a gridded climate data set which contains maximum temperature, minimum temperature, and precipitation on a daily time step. The data can be as fine as 0.25° in resolution and extends over the entire European continent and parts of Africa and Asia. However, for studying regional or local climatic effects, a finer resolution would be more appropriate. A continental data set with resolution would allow research that is large in scale and still locally relevant. Until now, a climate ...

 

GECO 2015 - Global energy and climate outlook: road to Paris

  
Vol. EUR 27239 EN (2015), https://doi.org/10.2791/198028

Abstract

This report presents the modelling work quoted in the EC communication "The Paris Protocol - a blueprint for tackling global climate change beyond 2020" in the EU's Energy Union package. It examines the effects of a Baseline scenario where current trends continue beyond 2020, and of a Global Mitigation scenario in line with keeping global warming below 2°C. The analysis uses the POLES and GEM-E3 models in a framework where economic welfare is maximised while tackling climate change. In the Baseline, ...

References

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  2. AR5 database, 2015. IPCC Assessment Report 5 database. https://secure.iiasa.ac.at/web-apps/ene/AR5DB/dsd?Action=htmlpage&page=welcome .
  3. Assunção, J., Gandour, C., Rocha, R., 2015. Deforestation slowdown in the Brazilian Amazon: prices or policies?. Environment and Development Economics, available on CJO2015. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1355770X15000078 .
  4. BGR (German Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources) 2013. Energy Study 2013.
 

Impacts of uncertainties in European gridded precipitation observations on regional climate analysis

  
Int. J. Climatol., Vol. 37, No. 1. (1 March 2017), pp. 305-327, https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.4706

Abstract

Gridded precipitation data sets are frequently used to evaluate climate models or to remove model output biases. Although precipitation data are error prone due to the high spatio-temporal variability of precipitation and due to considerable measurement errors, relatively few attempts have been made to account for observational uncertainty in model evaluation or in bias correction studies. In this study, we compare three types of European daily data sets featuring two Pan-European data sets and a set that combines eight very high-resolution ...

 

Climate-driven bedrock incision in an active mountain belt

  
Science, Vol. 297, No. 5589. (2002), pp. 2036-2038, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1075078
Keywords: asia   climate   geomorphology   water-resources  

Abstract

Measurements of fluvial bedrock incision were made with submillimeter precision in the East Central Range of Taiwan, where long-term exhumation rates and precipitation-driven river discharge are independently known. They indicate that valley lowering is driven by relatively frequent flows of moderate intensity, abrasion by suspended sediment is an important fluvial wear process, and channel bed geometry and the presence of widely spaced planes of weakness in the rock mass influence erosion rate and style. ...

 

ENSO as an integrating concept in Earth science

  
Science, Vol. 314, No. 5806. (2006), pp. 1740-1745, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1132588
Keywords: climate   education   el-nino   enso   uncertainty  

Abstract

The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycle of alternating warm El Niño and cold La Niña events is the dominant year-to-year climate signal on Earth. ENSO originates in the tropical Pacific through interactions between the ocean and the atmosphere, but its environmental and socioeconomic impacts are felt worldwide. Spurred on by the powerful 1997-1998 El Niño, efforts to understand the causes and consequences of ENSO have greatly expanded in the past few years. These efforts reveal the breadth of ENSO's influence on ...

 

Flow and storage in groundwater systems

  
Science, Vol. 296, No. 5575. (2002), pp. 1985-1990, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1067123

Abstract

The dynamic nature of groundwater is not readily apparent, except where discharge is focused at springs or where recharge enters sinkholes. Yet groundwater flow and storage are continually changing in response to human and climatic stresses. Wise development of groundwater resources requires a more complete understanding of these changes in flow and storage and of their effects on the terrestrial environment and on numerous surface-water features and their biota. ...

 

Greater transportation energy and GHG offsets from bioelectricity than ethanol

  
Science, Vol. 324, No. 5930. (2009), pp. 1055-1057, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1168885
Keywords: bioenergy   climate   energy   ghg   sustainability  

Abstract

The quantity of land available to grow biofuel crops without affecting food prices or greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from land conversion is limited. Therefore, bioenergy should maximize land-use efficiency when addressing transportation and climate change goals. Biomass could power either internal combustion or electric vehicles, but the relative land-use efficiency of these two energy pathways is not well quantified. Here, we show that bioelectricity outperforms ethanol across a range of feedstocks, conversion technologies, and vehicle classes. Bioelectricity produces an average of ...

 

Historical trends in lake and river ice cover in the Northern hemisphere

  
Science, Vol. 289, No. 5485. (2000), pp. 1743-1746, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.289.5485.1743

Abstract

Freeze and breakup dates of ice on lakes and rivers provide consistent evidence of later freezing and earlier breakup around the Northern Hemisphere from 1846 to 1995. Over these 150 years, changes in freeze dates averaged 5.8 days per 100 years later, and changes in breakup dates averaged 6.5 days per 100 years earlier; these translate to increasing air temperatures of about 1.2°C per 100 years. Interannual variability in both freeze and breakup dates has increased since 1950. A few longer ...

 

Simultaneously mitigating near-term climate change and improving human health and food security

  
Science, Vol. 335, No. 6065. (2012), pp. 183-189, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1210026

Abstract

Tropospheric ozone and black carbon (BC) contribute to both degraded air quality and global warming. We considered ~400 emission control measures to reduce these pollutants by using current technology and experience. We identified 14 measures targeting methane and BC emissions that reduce projected global mean warming ~0.5°C by 2050. This strategy avoids 0.7 to 4.7 million annual premature deaths from outdoor air pollution and increases annual crop yields by 30 to 135 million metric tons due to ozone reductions in 2030 ...

 

The climatic signature of incised river meanders

  
Science, Vol. 327, No. 5972. (2010), pp. 1497-1501, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1184406

Abstract

Climate controls landscape evolution, but quantitative signatures of climatic drivers have yet to be found in topography on a broad scale. Here we describe how a topographic signature of typhoon rainfall is recorded in the meandering of incising mountain rivers in the western North Pacific. Spatially averaged river sinuosity generated from digital elevation data peaks in the typhoon-dominated subtropics, where extreme rainfall and flood events are common, and decreases toward the equatorial tropics and mid-latitudes, where such extremes are rare. Once ...

 

European atlas of forest tree species

  
Keywords: bioeconomy   chorology   classification   climate   constrained-spatial-multi-frequency-analysis   data-heterogeneity   data-integration   data-uncertainty   disasters   disturbances   ecological-zones   ecology   ecosystem-services   europe   floods   forest-fires   forest-pests   forest-resources   free-software   geospatial   geospatial-semantic-array-programming   gis   gnu-bash   gnu-linux   gnu-octave   habitat-suitability   integrated-modelling   integrated-natural-resources-modelling-and-management   integration-techniques   knowledge-integration   landslides   mastrave-modelling-library   modelling-uncertainty   open-data   paleoecology   relative-distance-similarity   reproducible-research   review   science-policy-interface   science-society-interface   semantic-array-programming   semantic-constraints   semantics   semap   software-uncertainty   soil-erosion   soil-resources   species-distribution   tree-species   uncertainty   water-resources   windstorm  

Abstract

[Excerpt] The European Atlas of Forest Tree Species is the first comprehensive publication of such a unique and essential environmental resource, that is, our trees. Leading scientists and forestry professionals have contributed in the many stages of the production of this atlas, through the collection of ground data on the location of tree species, elaboration of the distribution and suitability maps, production of the photographic material and compilation of the different chapters. The European Atlas of Forest Tree Species is both ...

 

Grundriss der Klimakunde

  
(1931)

Abstract

[Excerpt] Der erste Teil dieses Buches ist eine Umarbeitung des unter dem Titel Klimakunde I, Allgemeine Klimalehre, erschienenen 114. Bändchens der Sammlung Göschen. ...

 

Global climate and the distribution of plant biomes

  
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, Vol. 359, No. 1450. (29 October 2004), pp. 1465-1476, https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2004.1525

Abstract

Biomes are areas of vegetation that are characterized by the same life-form. Traditional definitions of biomes have also included either geographical or climatic descriptors. This approach describes a wide range of biomes that can be correlated with characteristic climatic conditions, or climatic envelopes. The application of remote sensing technology to the frequent observation of biomes has led to a move away from the often subjective definition of biomes to one that is objective. Carefully characterized observations of life-form, by satellite, have been used to reconsider biome ...

 

Storage and drivers of organic carbon in forest soils of southeast Germany (Bavaria) – Implications for carbon sequestration

  
Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 295 (May 2013), pp. 162-172, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2013.01.025

Abstract

[Abstract] Temperate forest soils of central Europe are regarded as important pools for soil organic carbon (SOC) and thought to have a high potential for carbon (C) sequestration. However, comprehensive data on total SOC storage, particularly under different forest types, and its drivers is limited. In this study, we analyzed a forest data set of 596 completely sampled soil profiles down to the parent material or to a depth of 1 m within Bavaria in southeast Germany in order to determine representative ...

 

Physical and biological feedbacks of deforestation

  
Reviews of Geophysics, Vol. 50, No. 4. (14 December 2012), https://doi.org/10.1029/2012rg000394

Abstract

Forest vegetation can interact with its surrounding environment in ways that enhance conditions favorable for its own existence. Removal of forest vegetation has been shown to alter these conditions in a number of ways, thereby inhibiting the reestablishment of the same community of woody plants. The effect of vegetation on an environmental variable along with vegetation susceptibility to the associated environmental conditions may imply a positive feedback: Changes in the internal conditions controlling this variable such as deforestation could inhibit the ...

 

Vegetation-microclimate feedbacks in woodland-grassland ecotones

  
Global Ecology and Biogeography, Vol. 22, No. 4. (April 2013), pp. 364-379, https://doi.org/10.1111/geb.12000

Abstract

[Aim] Climatic conditions exert a strong control on the geographic distribution of many woodland-to-grassland transition zones (or ‘tree lines’). Because woody plants have, in general, a weaker cold tolerance than herbaceous vegetation, their altitudinal or latitudinal limits are strongly controlled by cold sensitivity. While temperature controls on the dynamics of woodland–grassland ecotones are relatively well established, the ability of woody plants to modify their microclimate and to create habitat for seedling establishment and growth may involve a variety of processes that are ...

 

Carbon storage versus albedo change: radiative forcing of forest expansion in temperate mountainous regions of Switzerland

  
Biogeosciences, Vol. 12, No. 2. (27 January 2015), pp. 467-487, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-12-467-2015

Abstract

In this study, we assess the climate mitigation potential from afforestation in a mountainous snow-rich region (Switzerland) with strongly varying environmental conditions. Using radiative forcing calculations, we quantify both the carbon sequestration potential and the effect of albedo change at high resolution. We calculate the albedo radiative forcing based on remotely sensed data sets of albedo, global radiation and snow cover. Carbon sequestration is estimated from changes in carbon stocks based on national inventories. We first estimate the spatial pattern of ...

 

Structural factors driving boreal forest albedo in Finland

  
Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 175 (March 2016), pp. 43-51, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2015.12.035

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] Analyzed factors driving fine spatial resolution changes in boreal forest albedo. [::] Based on field plot measurements, ALS data and albedos from Landsat-5 TM data. [::] Tree species, forest structure and understory affected albedo. [::] The dependency of albedo on forest structural variables was species-specific. [::] At high volumes albedo saturated and was mainly governed by tree species. [Abstract] Understanding the influence of forest structure on forest albedo, and thus on the energy exchange between the forest and the atmosphere, is urgently needed in areas with ...

 

Relationship between forest density and albedo in the boreal zone

  
Ecological Modelling, Vol. 261-262 (July 2013), pp. 74-79, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2013.04.009

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] We simulated albedo of boreal zone forests using a radiative transfer model. [::] Species composition had a strong impact on forest albedo. [::] Diurnal courses of albedo were related to forest density. [::] The albedos decreased with increasing stand biomass, LAI, and canopy cover. [Abstract] The relationship between albedo and forest areas is complex. Little is known about the driving factors of albedo in the boreal zone. Using a radiative transfer model and an extensive forest inventory database, we simulated albedo of forest stands composed ...

 

Forest summer albedo is sensitive to species and thinning: how should we account for this in Earth system models?

  
Biogeosciences, Vol. 11, No. 8. (29 April 2014), pp. 2411-2427, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-11-2411-2014

Abstract

Although forest management is one of the instruments proposed to mitigate climate change, the relationship between forest management and canopy albedo has been ignored so far by climate models. Here we develop an approach that could be implemented in Earth system models. A stand-level forest gap model is combined with a canopy radiation transfer model and satellite-derived model parameters to quantify the effects of forest thinning on summertime canopy albedo. This approach reveals which parameter has the largest affect on summer ...

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