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Selection: with tag climate [164 articles] 

 

Avaliação dos incêndios ocorridos entre 14 e 16 de outubro de 2017 em Portugal Continental - Relatório Final

  
(2018)

Abstract

[Excerpt] Os incêndios rurais que afetaram o território continental, nos dias 14, 15 e 16 de outubro de 2017, geraram um novo ambiente caracterizado simultaneamente de consternação, de impotência e de explicitação da fragilidade da nossa organização social. O ano de 2017 foi aliás pleno de episódios consumidores e destrutivos de áreas florestais, desde os incêndios de Pedrógão Grande até aos fogos que atingiram grandes áreas territoriais, afetando não só espaços florestais privados, como também áreas agrícolas, matas nacionais, infraestruturas empresariais, equipamentos municipais, instalações de turismo rural e ...

 

Positive biodiversity-productivity relationships in forests: climate matters

  
Biology Letters, Vol. 14, No. 4. (04 April 2018), 20170747, https://doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2017.0747

Abstract

While it is widely acknowledged that forest biodiversity contributes to climate change mitigation through improved carbon sequestration, conversely how climate affects tree species diversity–forest productivity relationships is still poorly understood. We combined the results of long-term experiments where forest mixtures and corresponding monocultures were compared on the same site to estimate the yield of mixed-species stands at a global scale, and its response to climatic factors. We found positive mixture effects on productivity using a meta-analysis of 126 case studies established ...

 

Climate-vegetation-fire interactions and feedbacks: trivial detail or major barrier to projecting the future of the Earth system?

  
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, Vol. 7, No. 6. (1 November 2016), pp. 910-931, https://doi.org/10.1002/wcc.428

Abstract

Fire is a complex process involving interactions and feedbacks between biological, socioeconomic, and physical drivers across multiple spatial and temporal scales. This complexity limits our ability to incorporate fire into Earth system models and project future fire activity under climate change. Conceptual, empirical, and process models have identified the mechanisms and processes driving fire regimes, and provide a useful basis to consider future fire activity. However, these models generally deal with only one component of fire regimes, fire frequency, and do ...

 

Impact of El Niño-Southern Oscillation on European climate

  
Reviews of Geophysics, Vol. 45, No. 3. (11 September 2007), pp. n/a-n/a, https://doi.org/10.1029/2006rg000199

Abstract

El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is arguably the most important global climate pattern. While the effects in the Pacific–North American sector and the tropical regions are relatively well understood, the impacts on the circulation in the North Atlantic–European sector are discussed more controversially. Studies from the past 10 years demonstrate that ENSO does affect European climate. However, some of the effects undergo a seasonal modulation or are nonlinear. The signal can be modified by other factors and might be nonstationary on multidecadal ...

 

The seasonal effects of ENSO on European precipitation: observational analysis

  
Journal of Climate, Vol. 27, No. 17. (13 September 2014), pp. 6423-6438, https://doi.org/10.1175/jcli-d-14-00008.1

Abstract

An analysis and characterization of seasonal changes in the atmospheric teleconnection between ENSO and western European precipitation, as well as atmospheric conditions over the North Atlantic and Europe, are presented. Significant ENSO-associated changes in precipitation are evident during the boreal spring and fall seasons, marginal during boreal summer, and absent during boreal winter. The spring and fall precipitation anomalies are accompanied by statistically significant ENSO-related changes in large-scale fields over the North Atlantic and Europe. These seasonal teleconnections appear to be ...

 

How cleaner air changes the climate

  
Science, Vol. 360, No. 6385. (13 April 2018), pp. 148-150, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aat1723

Abstract

Aerosols have a strong influence on the present climate, but this influence will likely be reduced over the coming decades as air pollution measures are implemented around the world. At a global level, aerosols have helped to reduce the warming effect from greenhouse gas emissions, and necessary reductions in air pollution may thus make it harder to achieve ambitious global climate and environmental aims, such as the Paris Agreement's 2°C target. Furthermore, the local nature of air pollution means that the ...

 

Attribution of recent temperature behaviour reassessed by a neural-network method

  
Scientific Reports, Vol. 7, No. 1. (15 December 2017), https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-18011-8

Abstract

Attribution studies on recent global warming by Global Climate Model (GCM) ensembles converge in showing the fundamental role of anthropogenic forcings as primary drivers of temperature in the last half century. However, despite their differences, all these models pertain to the same dynamical approach and come from a common ancestor, so that their very similar results in attribution studies are not surprising and cannot be considered as a clear proof of robustness of the results themselves. Thus, here we adopt a ...

 

Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification

  
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, Vol. 11, No. 5. (11 October 2007), pp. 1633-1644, https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-11-1633-2007

Abstract

Although now over 100 years old, the classification of climate originally formulated by Wladimir Köppen and modified by his collaborators and successors, is still in widespread use. It is widely used in teaching school and undergraduate courses on climate. It is also still in regular use by researchers across a range of disciplines as a basis for climatic regionalisation of variables and for assessing the output of global climate models. Here we have produced a new global map of climate using ...

 

Global models underestimate large decadal declining and rising water storage trends relative to GRACE satellite data

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (22 January 2018), 201704665, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1704665115

Abstract

[Significance] We increasingly rely on global models to project impacts of humans and climate on water resources. How reliable are these models? While past model intercomparison projects focused on water fluxes, we provide here the first comprehensive comparison of land total water storage trends from seven global models to trends from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites, which have been likened to giant weighing scales in the sky. The models underestimate the large decadal (2002–2014) trends in water storage relative to ...

 

Climate impacts from a removal of anthropogenic aerosol emissions

  
Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 45, No. 2. (28 January 2018), pp. 1020-1029, https://doi.org/10.1002/2017gl076079

Abstract

Limiting global warming to 1.5 or 2.0°C requires strong mitigation of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Concurrently, emissions of anthropogenic aerosols will decline, due to coemission with GHG, and measures to improve air quality. However, the combined climate effect of GHG and aerosol emissions over the industrial era is poorly constrained. Here we show the climate impacts from removing present-day anthropogenic aerosol emissions and compare them to the impacts from moderate GHG-dominated global warming. Removing aerosols induces a global mean surface ...

 

Extreme weather explicitly blamed on humans for the first time

  
Nature, Vol. 552, No. 7685. (2017), pp. 291-292, https://doi.org/10.1038/d41586-017-08808-y

Abstract

Scientists take the bold step of saying phenomena wouldn’t have happened without global warming. [Excerpt] [...] Now, for the first time, climate researchers are reporting that some weather events would have been outright impossible without the warming influence of humanity’s greenhouse-gas emissions. [\n] This kind of confident assertion rarely makes its way into the scientific literature. Yet it appeared in three studies included in a special annual edition of the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society (BAMS) dedicated to attributing the causes of ...

 

Why mountain passes are higher in the tropics

  
The American Naturalist, Vol. 101, No. 919. (1 May 1967), pp. 233-249, https://doi.org/10.1086/282487

Abstract

This paper is designed to draw attention to the relation between tropical climatic uniformity at a given site and the effectiveness of topographic barriers adjacent to the site in preventing movements of plants and animals. This is not an attempt to explain tropical species diversity (see Pianka, 1966, for a review of this subject), but rather to discuss a factor that should be considered in any discussion of the relation between topographic and climatic diversity, and population isolation. Simpson (1964) states ...

 

Fire regime changes in the Western Mediterranean Basin: from fuel-limited to drought-driven fire regime

  
Climatic Change In Climatic Change, Vol. 110, No. 1-2. (1 January 2012), pp. 215-226, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-011-0060-6

Abstract

Wildfires are an integral part of Mediterranean ecosystems; humans impact on landscapes imply changes in fuel amount and continuity, and thus in fire regime. We tested the hypothesis that fire regime changed in western Mediterranean Basin during the last century using time series techniques. We first compiled a 130-year fire history for the Valencia province (Spain, Eastern Iberian Peninsula, Western Mediterranean Basin) from contemporary statistics plus old forest administration dossiers and newspapers. We also compiled census on rural population and climatic ...

 

Southern Annular Mode drives multicentury wildfire activity in southern South America

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 114, No. 36. (05 September 2017), pp. 9552-9557, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1705168114

Abstract

[Significance] Fire is a key ecological process affecting ecosystem dynamics and services, driven primarily by variations in fuel amount and condition, ignition patterns, and climate. In the Southern Hemisphere, current warming conditions are linked to the upward trend in the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) due to ozone depletion. Here we use tree ring fire scar data obtained from diverse biomes ranging from subtropical dry woodlands to sub-Antarctic rainforests to assess the effect of the SAM on regional fire activity over the past ...

 

New water-cooling solar panels could lower the cost of air conditioning by 20%

  

Abstract

[Excerpt] Most of us have heard of solar water heaters. Now there’s a solar water cooler, and the technology may sharply lower the cost of industrial-scale air conditioning and refrigeration. [...] Researchers at Stanford University in Palo Alto, California, recently placed three water cooling panels—each 0.37 square meters—atop a building on campus and circulated water through them at a rate of 0.2 liters every minute. They report today in Nature Energy that their setup cooled the water as much as 5°C ...

 

Sub-ambient non-evaporative fluid cooling with the sky

  
Nature Energy, Vol. 2, No. 9. (4 September 2017), 17143, https://doi.org/10.1038/nenergy.2017.143

Abstract

Cooling systems consume 15% of electricity generated globally and account for 10% of global greenhouse gas emissions. With demand for cooling expected to grow tenfold by 2050, improving the efficiency of cooling systems is a critical part of the twenty-first-century energy challenge. Building upon recent demonstrations of daytime radiative sky cooling, here we demonstrate fluid cooling panels that harness radiative sky cooling to cool fluids below the air temperature with zero evaporative losses, and use almost no electricity. Over three days ...

 

Cheap plastic film cools whatever it touches up to 10°C

  
Science (March 2017), 2354204, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aal0732

Abstract

[Excerpt] [...] During the day most materials [...] absorb visible and near-infrared (IR) light from the sun. That added energy excites molecules, which warm up and, over time, emit the energy back out as photons with longer wavelengths, typically in the midrange of the infrared spectrum. That helps the materials cool back down, particularly at night when they are no longer absorbing visible light but are still radiating IR photons. [\n] In recent years, researchers have tried to goose this “passive cooling” ...

 

Scalable-manufactured randomized glass-polymer hybrid metamaterial for daytime radiative cooling

  
Science, Vol. 355, No. 6329. (10 March 2017), pp. 1062-1066, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aai7899

Abstract

[The lazy way to keep cool in the sun] Passive radiative cooling requires a material that radiates heat away while allowing solar radiation to pass through. Zhai et al. solve this riddle by constructing a metamaterial composed of a polymer layer embedded with microspheres, backed with a thin layer of silver (see the Perspective by Zhang). The result is an easy-to-manufacture material near the theoretical limit for daytime radiative cooling. The translucent and flexible film can be made in large quantities for ...

 

Fears rise for US climate report as Trump officials take reins

  
Nature, Vol. 548, No. 7665. (1 August 2017), pp. 15-16, https://doi.org/10.1038/548015a

Abstract

Officials at the US Environmental Protection Agency are consulting global-warming sceptics as they weigh up a technical review. ...

 

Influence of tree species on continental differences in boreal fires and climate feedbacks

  
Nature Geoscience, Vol. 8, No. 3. (2 February 2015), pp. 228-234, https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo2352

Abstract

Wildfires are common in boreal forests around the globe and strongly influence ecosystem processes. However, North American forests support more high-intensity crown fires than Eurasia, where lower-intensity surface fires are common. These two types of fire can result in different net effects on climate as a consequence of their contrasting impacts on terrestrial albedo and carbon stocks. Here we use remote-sensing imagery, climate reanalysis data and forest inventories to evaluate differences in boreal fire dynamics between North America and Eurasia and ...

 

Satellites reveal contrasting responses of regional climate to the widespread greening of Earth

  
Science (25 May 2017), eaal1727, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aal1727

Abstract

[The vegetation-climate loop] Just as terrestrial plant biomass is growing in response to increasing atmospheric CO2, climate change, and other anthropogenic influences, so is climate affected by those variations in vegetation. Forzieri et al. used satellite observations to analyze how changes in leaf area index (LAI), a measure of vegetation density, have influenced the terrestrial energy balance and local climates over the past several decades. An increase in LAI has helped to warm boreal zones through a reduction of surface albedo and ...

 

Historical climate controls soil respiration responses to current soil moisture

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 114, No. 24. (13 June 2017), pp. 6322-6327, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1620811114

Abstract

[Significance] Ecosystems’ feedback to climate change remains a source of uncertainty in global models that project future climate conditions. That uncertainty rests largely on how much soil carbon will be lost as microbial respiration and how that loss varies across ecosystems. Although there has been a large emphasis on microbial temperature responses, how soil microorganisms respond to changes in moisture remains poorly understood. Here we show that historical rainfall controls soil respiration responses to current moisture. This finding was robust, with historical ...

 

WorldClim 2: new 1-km spatial resolution climate surfaces for global land areas

  
International Journal of Climatology, Vol. 37, No. 12. (October 2017), pp. 4302-4315, https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.5086

Abstract

We created a new dataset of spatially interpolated monthly climate data for global land areas at a very high spatial resolution (approximately 1 km2). We included monthly temperature (minimum, maximum and average), precipitation, solar radiation, vapour pressure and wind speed, aggregated across a target temporal range of 1970–2000, using data from between 9000 and 60 000 weather stations. Weather station data were interpolated using thin-plate splines with covariates including elevation, distance to the coast and three satellite-derived covariates: maximum and minimum land surface ...

 

Unmask temporal trade-offs in climate policy debates

  
Science, Vol. 356, No. 6337. (04 May 2017), pp. 492-493, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aaj2350

Abstract

Global warming potentials (GWPs) have become an essential element of climate policy and are built into legal structures that regulate greenhouse gas emissions. This is in spite of a well-known shortcoming: GWP hides trade-offs between short- and long-term policy objectives inside a single time scale of 100 or 20 years (1). The most common form, GWP100, focuses on the climate impact of a pulse emission over 100 years, diluting near-term effects and misleadingly implying that short-lived climate pollutants exert forcings in ...

 

Climate twins - An attempt to quantify climatological similarities

  
IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology In Environmental Software Systems. Frameworks of eEnvironment, Vol. 359 (2011), pp. 428-436, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-22285-6_46

Abstract

As climate change appears, strategies and actions will be necessary to cope with its effects on environment and society in the coming decades. Current climate conditions can be observed everywhere in the world but future climate conditions can only be estimated through climate simulations which produce huge amounts of quantitative data. This data leads to statements like “temperature increase is expected to exceed 2.6°C” or similar and remain fuzzy to non-experts in climate research. The Climate Twins application is designed to ...

 

Novel climates, no-analog communities, and ecological surprises

  
Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, Vol. 5, No. 9. (November 2007), pp. 475-482, https://doi.org/10.1890/070037

Abstract

No-analog communities (communities that are compositionally unlike any found today) occurred frequently in the past and will develop in the greenhouse world of the future. The well documented no-analog plant communities of late-glacial North America are closely linked to “novel” climates also lacking modern analogs, characterized by high seasonality of temperature. In climate simulations for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change A2 and B1 emission scenarios, novel climates arise by 2100 AD, primarily in tropical and subtropical regions. These future novel ...

 

Observational evidence for cloud cover enhancement over western European forests

  
Nature Communications, Vol. 8 (11 January 2017), 14065, https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms14065

Abstract

Forests impact regional hydrology and climate directly by regulating water and heat fluxes. Indirect effects through cloud formation and precipitation can be important in facilitating continental-scale moisture recycling but are poorly understood at regional scales. In particular, the impact of temperate forest on clouds is largely unknown. Here we provide observational evidence for a strong increase in cloud cover over large forest regions in western Europe based on analysis of 10 years of 15 min resolution data from geostationary satellites. In addition, ...

Visual summary

 

BIOMOD - A platform for ensemble forecasting of species distributions

  
Ecography, Vol. 32, No. 3. (1 June 2009), pp. 369-373, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0587.2008.05742.x

Abstract

BIOMOD is a computer platform for ensemble forecasting of species distributions, enabling the treatment of a range of methodological uncertainties in models and the examination of species-environment relationships. BIOMOD includes the ability to model species distributions with several techniques, test models with a wide range of approaches, project species distributions into different environmental conditions (e.g. climate or land use change scenarios) and dispersal functions. It allows assessing species temporal turnover, plot species response curves, and test the strength of species interactions ...

 

Climate and species functional traits influence maximum live tree stocking in the Lake States, USA

  
Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 386 (February 2017), pp. 51-61, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2016.12.007

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] Specific gravity and shade tolerance impact maximum stocking of tree species. [::] Temperature and precipitation interact with these traits to govern maximum stocking. [::] The results provide a simple, additive density measure for these complex forests. [Abstract] Quantifying the density of live trees in forest stands and partitioning it between species or other stand components is critical for predicting forest dynamics and responses to management, as well as understanding the impacts of stand composition and structure on productivity. As plant traits such as shade ...

 

Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: science overview and knowledge needs

  
Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 317 (April 2014), pp. 1-8, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2013.12.014

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] Wildland fires have influenced the global carbon cycle for ∼420 million years. [::] Fire moves carbon among terrestrial and atmospheric pools. [::] Fires emit carbon dioxide (CO2), black carbon and other aerosols. [::] Climate change alters fire regimes, potentially increasing wildfire emissions. [::] The global carbon cycle accounting should include wildland fire emissions. [Abstract] Wildland fires have influenced the global carbon cycle for ∼420 million years of Earth history, interacting with climate to define vegetation characteristics and distributions, trigger abrupt ecosystem shifts, and move carbon among ...

 

Climate, CO2 and human population impacts on global wildfire emissions

  
Biogeosciences, Vol. 13, No. 1. (15 January 2016), pp. 267-282, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-13-267-2016

Abstract

Wildfires are by far the largest contributor to global biomass burning and constitute a large global source of atmospheric traces gases and aerosols. Such emissions have a considerable impact on air quality and constitute a major health hazard. Biomass burning also influences the radiative balance of the atmosphere and is thus not only of societal, but also of significant scientific interest. There is a common perception that climate change will lead to an increase in emissions as hot and dry weather ...

 

Global and regional analysis of climate and human drivers of wildfire

  
Science of The Total Environment, Vol. 409, No. 18. (August 2011), pp. 3472-3481, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2011.05.032

Abstract

Identifying and quantifying the statistical relationships between climate and anthropogenic drivers of fire is important for global biophysical modelling of wildfire and other Earth system processes. This study used regression tree and random forest analysis on global data for various climatic and human variables to establish their relative importance. The main interactions found at the global scale also apply regionally: greatest wildfire burned area is associated with high temperature (> 28 °C), intermediate annual rainfall (350–1100 mm), and prolonged dry periods (which varies by ...

 

Defining pyromes and global syndromes of fire regimes

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 110, No. 16. (16 April 2013), pp. 6442-6447, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1211466110

Abstract

Fire is a ubiquitous component of the Earth system that is poorly understood. To date, a global-scale understanding of fire is largely limited to the annual extent of burning as detected by satellites. This is problematic because fire is multidimensional, and focus on a single metric belies its complexity and importance within the Earth system. To address this, we identified five key characteristics of fire regimes—size, frequency, intensity, season, and extent—and combined new and existing global datasets to represent each. We ...

 

Ecosystem service supply and vulnerability to global change in Europe

  
Science, Vol. 310, No. 5752. (25 November 2005), pp. 1333-1337, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1115233

Abstract

Global change will alter the supply of ecosystem services that are vital for human well-being. To investigate ecosystem service supply during the 21st century, we used a range of ecosystem models and scenarios of climate and land-use change to conduct a Europe-wide assessment. Large changes in climate and land use typically resulted in large changes in ecosystem service supply. Some of these trends may be positive (for example, increases in forest area and productivity) or offer opportunities (for example, “surplus land” ...

 

Spatiotemporal patterns of changes in fire regime and climate: defining the pyroclimates of south-eastern France (Mediterranean Basin)

  
Climatic Change, Vol. 129, No. 1-2. (2015), pp. 239-251, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-015-1332-3

Abstract

The impacts of climate change on fires are expected to be highly variable spatially and temporally. In heavily anthropized landscapes, the great number of factors affecting fire regimes further limits our ability to predict future fire activity caused by climate. To address this, we develop a new framework for analysing regional changes in fire regimes from specific spatiotemporal patterns of fires and climate, so-called pyroclimates. We aim to test the trends of fire activity and climate (1973–2009) across the Mediterranean and ...

 

Global fire size distribution is driven by human impact and climate

  
Global Ecology and Biogeography, Vol. 24, No. 1. (January 2015), pp. 77-86, https://doi.org/10.1111/geb.12246

Abstract

[Aim] In order to understand fire's impacts on vegetation dynamics, it is crucial that the distribution of fire sizes be known. We approached this distribution using a power-law distribution, which derives from self-organized criticality theory (SOC). We compute the global spatial variation in the power-law exponent and determine the main factors that explain its spatial distribution. [Location] Global, at 2° grid resolution. [Methods] We use satellite-derived MODIS burned-area data (MCD45) to obtain global individual fire size data for 2002–2010, grouped together for each 2° grid. A ...

 

A climate-based model to predict potential treeline position around the globe

  
Alpine Botany, Vol. 124, No. 1. (2014), pp. 1-12, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00035-014-0124-0

Abstract

In situ temperature measurements revealed that the position of the high-elevation treeline is associated with a minimum seasonal mean air temperature within a temperature-defined minimum season length across latitudes. Here, we build upon this experience and present the results of a global statistical analysis and a predictive model for low temperature treeline positions. We identified 376 natural treelines from satellite images across the globe, and searched for their closest climatic proxies using a climate database. The analysis included a snow and ...

 

Armed-conflict risks enhanced by climate-related disasters in ethnically fractionalized countries

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, No. 33. (16 August 2016), pp. 9216-9221, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1601611113

Abstract

[Significance] Ethnic divides play a major role in many armed conflicts around the world and might serve as predetermined conflict lines following rapidly emerging societal tensions arising from disruptive events like natural disasters. We find evidence in global datasets that risk of armed-conflict outbreak is enhanced by climate-related disaster occurrence in ethnically fractionalized countries. Although we find no indications that environmental disasters directly trigger armed conflicts, our results imply that disasters might act as a threat multiplier in several of the world’s ...

 

Thermodynamic control of anvil cloud amount

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, No. 32. (09 August 2016), pp. 8927-8932, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1601472113

Abstract

[Significance] Assessing the response of clouds to global warming remains a challenge of climate science. Past research has elucidated what controls the height and temperature of high-level anvil clouds, but the factors that control their horizontal extent remained uncertain. We show that the anvil cloud amount is expected to shrink as the climate warms or when convection becomes more clustered, due to a mechanism rooted in basic energetic and thermodynamic properties of the atmosphere. It is supported by three climate models and ...

 

Tropical anvil clouds and climate sensitivity

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, No. 32. (09 August 2016), pp. 8897-8899, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1610455113

Abstract

[Excerpt] The surface temperature of Earth is being increased by human activities, principally by the release of greenhouse gases (1). Future warming will depend upon the rate at which greenhouse gases are released and the sensitivity of Earth’s surface temperature to those increased greenhouse gases. An often used metric of the sensitivity of Earth’s climate is the equilibrium climate sensitivity, the amount of global average surface warming that is the steady, long-term response to a doubling of carbon dioxide. The equilibrium ...

 

Wave climate in the Arctic 1992–2014: seasonality and trends

  
The Cryosphere, Vol. 10, No. 4. (26 July 2016), pp. 1605-1629, https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-10-1605-2016

Abstract

Over the past decade, the diminishing Arctic sea ice has impacted the wave field, which depends on the ice-free ocean and wind. This study characterizes the wave climate in the Arctic spanning 1992–2014 from a merged altimeter data set and a wave hindcast that uses CFSR winds and ice concentrations from satellites as input. The model performs well, verified by the altimeters, and is relatively consistent for climate studies. The wave seasonality and extremes are linked to the ice coverage, wind ...

 

World drought frequency, duration, and severity for 1951-2010

  
International Journal of Climatology, Vol. 34, No. 8. (June 2014), pp. 2792-2804, https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.3875

Abstract

In the context of climate change characterized by rising temperature and more extreme precipitation regimes, drought is one of the most relevant natural disasters. This paper presents maps of global drought frequency, duration, and severity for the periods 1951–1970, 1971–1990, and 1991–2010, to give an overview of the respective drought hot spots. Drought frequency is defined as the number of drought events occurred, drought duration as the number of months in drought conditions, and drought severity as the sum of the ...

 

Spatial downscaling of European climate data

  
Int. J. Climatol., Vol. 36, No. 3. (1 March 2016), pp. 1444-1458, https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.4436

Abstract

E-OBS(European Observations) is a gridded climate data set which contains maximum temperature, minimum temperature, and precipitation on a daily time step. The data can be as fine as 0.25° in resolution and extends over the entire European continent and parts of Africa and Asia. However, for studying regional or local climatic effects, a finer resolution would be more appropriate. A continental data set with resolution would allow research that is large in scale and still locally relevant. Until now, a climate ...

 

GECO 2015 - Global energy and climate outlook: road to Paris

  
Vol. EUR 27239 EN (2015), https://doi.org/10.2791/198028

Abstract

This report presents the modelling work quoted in the EC communication "The Paris Protocol - a blueprint for tackling global climate change beyond 2020" in the EU's Energy Union package. It examines the effects of a Baseline scenario where current trends continue beyond 2020, and of a Global Mitigation scenario in line with keeping global warming below 2°C. The analysis uses the POLES and GEM-E3 models in a framework where economic welfare is maximised while tackling climate change. In the Baseline, ...

References

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Impacts of uncertainties in European gridded precipitation observations on regional climate analysis

  
Int. J. Climatol., Vol. 37, No. 1. (1 March 2017), pp. 305-327, https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.4706

Abstract

Gridded precipitation data sets are frequently used to evaluate climate models or to remove model output biases. Although precipitation data are error prone due to the high spatio-temporal variability of precipitation and due to considerable measurement errors, relatively few attempts have been made to account for observational uncertainty in model evaluation or in bias correction studies. In this study, we compare three types of European daily data sets featuring two Pan-European data sets and a set that combines eight very high-resolution ...

 

Climate-driven bedrock incision in an active mountain belt

  
Science, Vol. 297, No. 5589. (2002), pp. 2036-2038, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1075078
Keywords: asia   climate   geomorphology   water-resources  

Abstract

Measurements of fluvial bedrock incision were made with submillimeter precision in the East Central Range of Taiwan, where long-term exhumation rates and precipitation-driven river discharge are independently known. They indicate that valley lowering is driven by relatively frequent flows of moderate intensity, abrasion by suspended sediment is an important fluvial wear process, and channel bed geometry and the presence of widely spaced planes of weakness in the rock mass influence erosion rate and style. ...

 

ENSO as an integrating concept in Earth science

  
Science, Vol. 314, No. 5806. (2006), pp. 1740-1745, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1132588
Keywords: climate   education   el-nino   enso   uncertainty  

Abstract

The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycle of alternating warm El Niño and cold La Niña events is the dominant year-to-year climate signal on Earth. ENSO originates in the tropical Pacific through interactions between the ocean and the atmosphere, but its environmental and socioeconomic impacts are felt worldwide. Spurred on by the powerful 1997-1998 El Niño, efforts to understand the causes and consequences of ENSO have greatly expanded in the past few years. These efforts reveal the breadth of ENSO's influence on ...

 

Flow and storage in groundwater systems

  
Science, Vol. 296, No. 5575. (2002), pp. 1985-1990, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1067123

Abstract

The dynamic nature of groundwater is not readily apparent, except where discharge is focused at springs or where recharge enters sinkholes. Yet groundwater flow and storage are continually changing in response to human and climatic stresses. Wise development of groundwater resources requires a more complete understanding of these changes in flow and storage and of their effects on the terrestrial environment and on numerous surface-water features and their biota. ...

 

Greater transportation energy and GHG offsets from bioelectricity than ethanol

  
Science, Vol. 324, No. 5930. (2009), pp. 1055-1057, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1168885
Keywords: bioenergy   climate   energy   ghg   sustainability  

Abstract

The quantity of land available to grow biofuel crops without affecting food prices or greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from land conversion is limited. Therefore, bioenergy should maximize land-use efficiency when addressing transportation and climate change goals. Biomass could power either internal combustion or electric vehicles, but the relative land-use efficiency of these two energy pathways is not well quantified. Here, we show that bioelectricity outperforms ethanol across a range of feedstocks, conversion technologies, and vehicle classes. Bioelectricity produces an average of ...

 

Historical trends in lake and river ice cover in the Northern hemisphere

  
Science, Vol. 289, No. 5485. (2000), pp. 1743-1746, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.289.5485.1743

Abstract

Freeze and breakup dates of ice on lakes and rivers provide consistent evidence of later freezing and earlier breakup around the Northern Hemisphere from 1846 to 1995. Over these 150 years, changes in freeze dates averaged 5.8 days per 100 years later, and changes in breakup dates averaged 6.5 days per 100 years earlier; these translate to increasing air temperatures of about 1.2°C per 100 years. Interannual variability in both freeze and breakup dates has increased since 1950. A few longer ...

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Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD).
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