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Selection: with tag climate [144 articles] 


Satellites reveal contrasting responses of regional climate to the widespread greening of Earth

Science (25 May 2017), eaal1727,


[The vegetation-climate loop] Just as terrestrial plant biomass is growing in response to increasing atmospheric CO2, climate change, and other anthropogenic influences, so is climate affected by those variations in vegetation. Forzieri et al. used satellite observations to analyze how changes in leaf area index (LAI), a measure of vegetation density, have influenced the terrestrial energy balance and local climates over the past several decades. An increase in LAI has helped to warm boreal zones through a reduction of surface albedo and ...


Historical climate controls soil respiration responses to current soil moisture

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 114, No. 24. (13 June 2017), pp. 6322-6327,


[Significance] Ecosystems’ feedback to climate change remains a source of uncertainty in global models that project future climate conditions. That uncertainty rests largely on how much soil carbon will be lost as microbial respiration and how that loss varies across ecosystems. Although there has been a large emphasis on microbial temperature responses, how soil microorganisms respond to changes in moisture remains poorly understood. Here we show that historical rainfall controls soil respiration responses to current moisture. This finding was robust, with historical ...


WorldClim 2: new 1-km spatial resolution climate surfaces for global land areas

International Journal of Climatology (15 May 2017),


We created a new dataset of spatially interpolated monthly climate data for global land areas at a very high spatial resolution (approximately 1 km2). We included monthly temperature (minimum, maximum and average), precipitation, solar radiation, vapour pressure and wind speed, aggregated across a target temporal range of 1970–2000, using data from between 9000 and 60 000 weather stations. Weather station data were interpolated using thin-plate splines with covariates including elevation, distance to the coast and three satellite-derived covariates: maximum and minimum land surface ...


Unmask temporal trade-offs in climate policy debates

Science, Vol. 356, No. 6337. (04 May 2017), pp. 492-493,


Global warming potentials (GWPs) have become an essential element of climate policy and are built into legal structures that regulate greenhouse gas emissions. This is in spite of a well-known shortcoming: GWP hides trade-offs between short- and long-term policy objectives inside a single time scale of 100 or 20 years (1). The most common form, GWP100, focuses on the climate impact of a pulse emission over 100 years, diluting near-term effects and misleadingly implying that short-lived climate pollutants exert forcings in ...


Climate twins - An attempt to quantify climatological similarities

IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology In Environmental Software Systems. Frameworks of eEnvironment, Vol. 359 (2011), pp. 428-436,


As climate change appears, strategies and actions will be necessary to cope with its effects on environment and society in the coming decades. Current climate conditions can be observed everywhere in the world but future climate conditions can only be estimated through climate simulations which produce huge amounts of quantitative data. This data leads to statements like “temperature increase is expected to exceed 2.6°C” or similar and remain fuzzy to non-experts in climate research. The Climate Twins application is designed to ...


Novel climates, no-analog communities, and ecological surprises

Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, Vol. 5, No. 9. (November 2007), pp. 475-482,


No-analog communities (communities that are compositionally unlike any found today) occurred frequently in the past and will develop in the greenhouse world of the future. The well documented no-analog plant communities of late-glacial North America are closely linked to “novel” climates also lacking modern analogs, characterized by high seasonality of temperature. In climate simulations for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change A2 and B1 emission scenarios, novel climates arise by 2100 AD, primarily in tropical and subtropical regions. These future novel ...


Observational evidence for cloud cover enhancement over western European forests

Nature Communications, Vol. 8 (11 January 2017), 14065,


Forests impact regional hydrology and climate directly by regulating water and heat fluxes. Indirect effects through cloud formation and precipitation can be important in facilitating continental-scale moisture recycling but are poorly understood at regional scales. In particular, the impact of temperate forest on clouds is largely unknown. Here we provide observational evidence for a strong increase in cloud cover over large forest regions in western Europe based on analysis of 10 years of 15 min resolution data from geostationary satellites. In addition, ...

Visual summary


BIOMOD - A platform for ensemble forecasting of species distributions

Ecography, Vol. 32, No. 3. (1 June 2009), pp. 369-373,


BIOMOD is a computer platform for ensemble forecasting of species distributions, enabling the treatment of a range of methodological uncertainties in models and the examination of species-environment relationships. BIOMOD includes the ability to model species distributions with several techniques, test models with a wide range of approaches, project species distributions into different environmental conditions (e.g. climate or land use change scenarios) and dispersal functions. It allows assessing species temporal turnover, plot species response curves, and test the strength of species interactions ...


Climate and species functional traits influence maximum live tree stocking in the Lake States, USA

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 386 (February 2017), pp. 51-61,


[Highlights] [::] Specific gravity and shade tolerance impact maximum stocking of tree species. [::] Temperature and precipitation interact with these traits to govern maximum stocking. [::] The results provide a simple, additive density measure for these complex forests. [Abstract] Quantifying the density of live trees in forest stands and partitioning it between species or other stand components is critical for predicting forest dynamics and responses to management, as well as understanding the impacts of stand composition and structure on productivity. As plant traits such as shade ...


Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: science overview and knowledge needs

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 317 (April 2014), pp. 1-8,


[Highlights] [::] Wildland fires have influenced the global carbon cycle for ∼420 million years. [::] Fire moves carbon among terrestrial and atmospheric pools. [::] Fires emit carbon dioxide (CO2), black carbon and other aerosols. [::] Climate change alters fire regimes, potentially increasing wildfire emissions. [::] The global carbon cycle accounting should include wildland fire emissions. [Abstract] Wildland fires have influenced the global carbon cycle for ∼420 million years of Earth history, interacting with climate to define vegetation characteristics and distributions, trigger abrupt ecosystem shifts, and move carbon among ...


Climate, CO2 and human population impacts on global wildfire emissions

Biogeosciences, Vol. 13, No. 1. (15 January 2016), pp. 267-282,


Wildfires are by far the largest contributor to global biomass burning and constitute a large global source of atmospheric traces gases and aerosols. Such emissions have a considerable impact on air quality and constitute a major health hazard. Biomass burning also influences the radiative balance of the atmosphere and is thus not only of societal, but also of significant scientific interest. There is a common perception that climate change will lead to an increase in emissions as hot and dry weather ...


Global and regional analysis of climate and human drivers of wildfire

Science of The Total Environment, Vol. 409, No. 18. (August 2011), pp. 3472-3481,


Identifying and quantifying the statistical relationships between climate and anthropogenic drivers of fire is important for global biophysical modelling of wildfire and other Earth system processes. This study used regression tree and random forest analysis on global data for various climatic and human variables to establish their relative importance. The main interactions found at the global scale also apply regionally: greatest wildfire burned area is associated with high temperature (> 28 °C), intermediate annual rainfall (350–1100 mm), and prolonged dry periods (which varies by ...


Defining pyromes and global syndromes of fire regimes

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 110, No. 16. (16 April 2013), pp. 6442-6447,


Fire is a ubiquitous component of the Earth system that is poorly understood. To date, a global-scale understanding of fire is largely limited to the annual extent of burning as detected by satellites. This is problematic because fire is multidimensional, and focus on a single metric belies its complexity and importance within the Earth system. To address this, we identified five key characteristics of fire regimes—size, frequency, intensity, season, and extent—and combined new and existing global datasets to represent each. We ...


Ecosystem service supply and vulnerability to global change in Europe

Science, Vol. 310, No. 5752. (25 November 2005), pp. 1333-1337,


Global change will alter the supply of ecosystem services that are vital for human well-being. To investigate ecosystem service supply during the 21st century, we used a range of ecosystem models and scenarios of climate and land-use change to conduct a Europe-wide assessment. Large changes in climate and land use typically resulted in large changes in ecosystem service supply. Some of these trends may be positive (for example, increases in forest area and productivity) or offer opportunities (for example, “surplus land” ...


Spatiotemporal patterns of changes in fire regime and climate: defining the pyroclimates of south-eastern France (Mediterranean Basin)

Climatic Change, Vol. 129, No. 1-2. (2015), pp. 239-251,


The impacts of climate change on fires are expected to be highly variable spatially and temporally. In heavily anthropized landscapes, the great number of factors affecting fire regimes further limits our ability to predict future fire activity caused by climate. To address this, we develop a new framework for analysing regional changes in fire regimes from specific spatiotemporal patterns of fires and climate, so-called pyroclimates. We aim to test the trends of fire activity and climate (1973–2009) across the Mediterranean and ...


Global fire size distribution is driven by human impact and climate

Global Ecology and Biogeography, Vol. 24, No. 1. (January 2015), pp. 77-86,


[Aim] In order to understand fire's impacts on vegetation dynamics, it is crucial that the distribution of fire sizes be known. We approached this distribution using a power-law distribution, which derives from self-organized criticality theory (SOC). We compute the global spatial variation in the power-law exponent and determine the main factors that explain its spatial distribution. [Location] Global, at 2° grid resolution. [Methods] We use satellite-derived MODIS burned-area data (MCD45) to obtain global individual fire size data for 2002–2010, grouped together for each 2° grid. A ...


A climate-based model to predict potential treeline position around the globe

Alpine Botany, Vol. 124, No. 1. (2014), pp. 1-12,


In situ temperature measurements revealed that the position of the high-elevation treeline is associated with a minimum seasonal mean air temperature within a temperature-defined minimum season length across latitudes. Here, we build upon this experience and present the results of a global statistical analysis and a predictive model for low temperature treeline positions. We identified 376 natural treelines from satellite images across the globe, and searched for their closest climatic proxies using a climate database. The analysis included a snow and ...


Armed-conflict risks enhanced by climate-related disasters in ethnically fractionalized countries

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, No. 33. (16 August 2016), pp. 9216-9221,


[Significance] Ethnic divides play a major role in many armed conflicts around the world and might serve as predetermined conflict lines following rapidly emerging societal tensions arising from disruptive events like natural disasters. We find evidence in global datasets that risk of armed-conflict outbreak is enhanced by climate-related disaster occurrence in ethnically fractionalized countries. Although we find no indications that environmental disasters directly trigger armed conflicts, our results imply that disasters might act as a threat multiplier in several of the world’s ...


Thermodynamic control of anvil cloud amount

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, No. 32. (09 August 2016), pp. 8927-8932,


[Significance] Assessing the response of clouds to global warming remains a challenge of climate science. Past research has elucidated what controls the height and temperature of high-level anvil clouds, but the factors that control their horizontal extent remained uncertain. We show that the anvil cloud amount is expected to shrink as the climate warms or when convection becomes more clustered, due to a mechanism rooted in basic energetic and thermodynamic properties of the atmosphere. It is supported by three climate models and ...


Tropical anvil clouds and climate sensitivity

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, No. 32. (09 August 2016), pp. 8897-8899,


[Excerpt] The surface temperature of Earth is being increased by human activities, principally by the release of greenhouse gases (1). Future warming will depend upon the rate at which greenhouse gases are released and the sensitivity of Earth’s surface temperature to those increased greenhouse gases. An often used metric of the sensitivity of Earth’s climate is the equilibrium climate sensitivity, the amount of global average surface warming that is the steady, long-term response to a doubling of carbon dioxide. The equilibrium ...


Wave climate in the Arctic 1992–2014: seasonality and trends

The Cryosphere, Vol. 10, No. 4. (26 July 2016), pp. 1605-1629,


Over the past decade, the diminishing Arctic sea ice has impacted the wave field, which depends on the ice-free ocean and wind. This study characterizes the wave climate in the Arctic spanning 1992–2014 from a merged altimeter data set and a wave hindcast that uses CFSR winds and ice concentrations from satellites as input. The model performs well, verified by the altimeters, and is relatively consistent for climate studies. The wave seasonality and extremes are linked to the ice coverage, wind ...


World drought frequency, duration, and severity for 1951-2010

International Journal of Climatology, Vol. 34, No. 8. (June 2014), pp. 2792-2804,


In the context of climate change characterized by rising temperature and more extreme precipitation regimes, drought is one of the most relevant natural disasters. This paper presents maps of global drought frequency, duration, and severity for the periods 1951–1970, 1971–1990, and 1991–2010, to give an overview of the respective drought hot spots. Drought frequency is defined as the number of drought events occurred, drought duration as the number of months in drought conditions, and drought severity as the sum of the ...


Spatial downscaling of European climate data

Int. J. Climatol., Vol. 36, No. 3. (1 March 2016), pp. 1444-1458,


E-OBS(European Observations) is a gridded climate data set which contains maximum temperature, minimum temperature, and precipitation on a daily time step. The data can be as fine as 0.25° in resolution and extends over the entire European continent and parts of Africa and Asia. However, for studying regional or local climatic effects, a finer resolution would be more appropriate. A continental data set with resolution would allow research that is large in scale and still locally relevant. Until now, a climate ...


GECO 2015 - Global energy and climate outlook: road to Paris

Vol. EUR 27239 EN (2015),


This report presents the modelling work quoted in the EC communication "The Paris Protocol - a blueprint for tackling global climate change beyond 2020" in the EU's Energy Union package. It examines the effects of a Baseline scenario where current trends continue beyond 2020, and of a Global Mitigation scenario in line with keeping global warming below 2°C. The analysis uses the POLES and GEM-E3 models in a framework where economic welfare is maximised while tackling climate change. In the Baseline, ...


  1. Arezki, R., Blanchard, O., 2014. Seven Questions about the Recent Oil Price Slump. .
  2. AR5 database, 2015. IPCC Assessment Report 5 database. .
  3. Assunção, J., Gandour, C., Rocha, R., 2015. Deforestation slowdown in the Brazilian Amazon: prices or policies?. Environment and Development Economics, available on CJO2015. .
  4. BGR (German Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources) 2013. Energy Study 2013.

Impacts of uncertainties in European gridded precipitation observations on regional climate analysis

Int. J. Climatol., Vol. 37, No. 1. (1 March 2017), pp. 305-327,


Gridded precipitation data sets are frequently used to evaluate climate models or to remove model output biases. Although precipitation data are error prone due to the high spatio-temporal variability of precipitation and due to considerable measurement errors, relatively few attempts have been made to account for observational uncertainty in model evaluation or in bias correction studies. In this study, we compare three types of European daily data sets featuring two Pan-European data sets and a set that combines eight very high-resolution ...


Climate-driven bedrock incision in an active mountain belt

Science, Vol. 297, No. 5589. (2002), pp. 2036-2038,
Keywords: asia   climate   geomorphology   water-resources  


Measurements of fluvial bedrock incision were made with submillimeter precision in the East Central Range of Taiwan, where long-term exhumation rates and precipitation-driven river discharge are independently known. They indicate that valley lowering is driven by relatively frequent flows of moderate intensity, abrasion by suspended sediment is an important fluvial wear process, and channel bed geometry and the presence of widely spaced planes of weakness in the rock mass influence erosion rate and style. ...


ENSO as an integrating concept in Earth science

Science, Vol. 314, No. 5806. (2006), pp. 1740-1745,
Keywords: climate   education   el-nino   enso   uncertainty  


The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycle of alternating warm El Niño and cold La Niña events is the dominant year-to-year climate signal on Earth. ENSO originates in the tropical Pacific through interactions between the ocean and the atmosphere, but its environmental and socioeconomic impacts are felt worldwide. Spurred on by the powerful 1997-1998 El Niño, efforts to understand the causes and consequences of ENSO have greatly expanded in the past few years. These efforts reveal the breadth of ENSO's influence on ...


Flow and storage in groundwater systems

Science, Vol. 296, No. 5575. (2002), pp. 1985-1990,


The dynamic nature of groundwater is not readily apparent, except where discharge is focused at springs or where recharge enters sinkholes. Yet groundwater flow and storage are continually changing in response to human and climatic stresses. Wise development of groundwater resources requires a more complete understanding of these changes in flow and storage and of their effects on the terrestrial environment and on numerous surface-water features and their biota. ...


Greater transportation energy and GHG offsets from bioelectricity than ethanol

Science, Vol. 324, No. 5930. (2009), pp. 1055-1057,
Keywords: bioenergy   climate   energy   ghg   sustainability  


The quantity of land available to grow biofuel crops without affecting food prices or greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from land conversion is limited. Therefore, bioenergy should maximize land-use efficiency when addressing transportation and climate change goals. Biomass could power either internal combustion or electric vehicles, but the relative land-use efficiency of these two energy pathways is not well quantified. Here, we show that bioelectricity outperforms ethanol across a range of feedstocks, conversion technologies, and vehicle classes. Bioelectricity produces an average of ...


Historical trends in lake and river ice cover in the Northern hemisphere

Science, Vol. 289, No. 5485. (2000), pp. 1743-1746,


Freeze and breakup dates of ice on lakes and rivers provide consistent evidence of later freezing and earlier breakup around the Northern Hemisphere from 1846 to 1995. Over these 150 years, changes in freeze dates averaged 5.8 days per 100 years later, and changes in breakup dates averaged 6.5 days per 100 years earlier; these translate to increasing air temperatures of about 1.2°C per 100 years. Interannual variability in both freeze and breakup dates has increased since 1950. A few longer ...


Simultaneously mitigating near-term climate change and improving human health and food security

Science, Vol. 335, No. 6065. (2012), pp. 183-189,


Tropospheric ozone and black carbon (BC) contribute to both degraded air quality and global warming. We considered ~400 emission control measures to reduce these pollutants by using current technology and experience. We identified 14 measures targeting methane and BC emissions that reduce projected global mean warming ~0.5°C by 2050. This strategy avoids 0.7 to 4.7 million annual premature deaths from outdoor air pollution and increases annual crop yields by 30 to 135 million metric tons due to ozone reductions in 2030 ...


The climatic signature of incised river meanders

Science, Vol. 327, No. 5972. (2010), pp. 1497-1501,


Climate controls landscape evolution, but quantitative signatures of climatic drivers have yet to be found in topography on a broad scale. Here we describe how a topographic signature of typhoon rainfall is recorded in the meandering of incising mountain rivers in the western North Pacific. Spatially averaged river sinuosity generated from digital elevation data peaks in the typhoon-dominated subtropics, where extreme rainfall and flood events are common, and decreases toward the equatorial tropics and mid-latitudes, where such extremes are rare. Once ...


European atlas of forest tree species

Keywords: bioeconomy   chorology   classification   climate   constrained-spatial-multi-frequency-analysis   data-heterogeneity   data-integration   data-uncertainty   disasters   disturbances   ecological-zones   ecology   ecosystem-services   europe   floods   forest-fires   forest-pests   forest-resources   free-software   geospatial   geospatial-semantic-array-programming   gis   gnu-bash   gnu-linux   gnu-octave   habitat-suitability   integrated-modelling   integrated-natural-resources-modelling-and-management   integration-techniques   knowledge-integration   landslides   mastrave-modelling-library   modelling-uncertainty   open-data   paleoecology   relative-distance-similarity   reproducible-research   review   science-policy-interface   science-society-interface   semantic-array-programming   semantic-constraints   semantics   semap   software-uncertainty   soil-erosion   soil-resources   species-distribution   tree-species   uncertainty   water-resources   windstorm  


[Excerpt] The European Atlas of Forest Tree Species is the first comprehensive publication of such a unique and essential environmental resource, that is, our trees. Leading scientists and forestry professionals have contributed in the many stages of the production of this atlas, through the collection of ground data on the location of tree species, elaboration of the distribution and suitability maps, production of the photographic material and compilation of the different chapters. The European Atlas of Forest Tree Species is both ...


Grundriss der Klimakunde



[Excerpt] Der erste Teil dieses Buches ist eine Umarbeitung des unter dem Titel Klimakunde I, Allgemeine Klimalehre, erschienenen 114. Bändchens der Sammlung Göschen. ...


Global climate and the distribution of plant biomes

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, Vol. 359, No. 1450. (29 October 2004), pp. 1465-1476,


Biomes are areas of vegetation that are characterized by the same life-form. Traditional definitions of biomes have also included either geographical or climatic descriptors. This approach describes a wide range of biomes that can be correlated with characteristic climatic conditions, or climatic envelopes. The application of remote sensing technology to the frequent observation of biomes has led to a move away from the often subjective definition of biomes to one that is objective. Carefully characterized observations of life-form, by satellite, have been used to reconsider biome ...


Storage and drivers of organic carbon in forest soils of southeast Germany (Bavaria) – Implications for carbon sequestration

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 295 (May 2013), pp. 162-172,


[Abstract] Temperate forest soils of central Europe are regarded as important pools for soil organic carbon (SOC) and thought to have a high potential for carbon (C) sequestration. However, comprehensive data on total SOC storage, particularly under different forest types, and its drivers is limited. In this study, we analyzed a forest data set of 596 completely sampled soil profiles down to the parent material or to a depth of 1 m within Bavaria in southeast Germany in order to determine representative ...


Physical and biological feedbacks of deforestation

Reviews of Geophysics, Vol. 50, No. 4. (14 December 2012),


Forest vegetation can interact with its surrounding environment in ways that enhance conditions favorable for its own existence. Removal of forest vegetation has been shown to alter these conditions in a number of ways, thereby inhibiting the reestablishment of the same community of woody plants. The effect of vegetation on an environmental variable along with vegetation susceptibility to the associated environmental conditions may imply a positive feedback: Changes in the internal conditions controlling this variable such as deforestation could inhibit the ...


Vegetation-microclimate feedbacks in woodland-grassland ecotones

Global Ecology and Biogeography, Vol. 22, No. 4. (April 2013), pp. 364-379,


[Aim] Climatic conditions exert a strong control on the geographic distribution of many woodland-to-grassland transition zones (or ‘tree lines’). Because woody plants have, in general, a weaker cold tolerance than herbaceous vegetation, their altitudinal or latitudinal limits are strongly controlled by cold sensitivity. While temperature controls on the dynamics of woodland–grassland ecotones are relatively well established, the ability of woody plants to modify their microclimate and to create habitat for seedling establishment and growth may involve a variety of processes that are ...


Carbon storage versus albedo change: radiative forcing of forest expansion in temperate mountainous regions of Switzerland

Biogeosciences, Vol. 12, No. 2. (27 January 2015), pp. 467-487,


In this study, we assess the climate mitigation potential from afforestation in a mountainous snow-rich region (Switzerland) with strongly varying environmental conditions. Using radiative forcing calculations, we quantify both the carbon sequestration potential and the effect of albedo change at high resolution. We calculate the albedo radiative forcing based on remotely sensed data sets of albedo, global radiation and snow cover. Carbon sequestration is estimated from changes in carbon stocks based on national inventories. We first estimate the spatial pattern of ...


Structural factors driving boreal forest albedo in Finland

Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 175 (March 2016), pp. 43-51,


[Highlights] [::] Analyzed factors driving fine spatial resolution changes in boreal forest albedo. [::] Based on field plot measurements, ALS data and albedos from Landsat-5 TM data. [::] Tree species, forest structure and understory affected albedo. [::] The dependency of albedo on forest structural variables was species-specific. [::] At high volumes albedo saturated and was mainly governed by tree species. [Abstract] Understanding the influence of forest structure on forest albedo, and thus on the energy exchange between the forest and the atmosphere, is urgently needed in areas with ...


Relationship between forest density and albedo in the boreal zone

Ecological Modelling, Vol. 261-262 (July 2013), pp. 74-79,


[Highlights] [::] We simulated albedo of boreal zone forests using a radiative transfer model. [::] Species composition had a strong impact on forest albedo. [::] Diurnal courses of albedo were related to forest density. [::] The albedos decreased with increasing stand biomass, LAI, and canopy cover. [Abstract] The relationship between albedo and forest areas is complex. Little is known about the driving factors of albedo in the boreal zone. Using a radiative transfer model and an extensive forest inventory database, we simulated albedo of forest stands composed ...


Forest summer albedo is sensitive to species and thinning: how should we account for this in Earth system models?

Biogeosciences, Vol. 11, No. 8. (29 April 2014), pp. 2411-2427,


Although forest management is one of the instruments proposed to mitigate climate change, the relationship between forest management and canopy albedo has been ignored so far by climate models. Here we develop an approach that could be implemented in Earth system models. A stand-level forest gap model is combined with a canopy radiation transfer model and satellite-derived model parameters to quantify the effects of forest thinning on summertime canopy albedo. This approach reveals which parameter has the largest affect on summer ...


Canopy nitrogen, carbon assimilation, and albedo in temperate and boreal forests: functional relations and potential climate feedbacks

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 105, No. 49. (09 December 2008), pp. 19336-19341,


The availability of nitrogen represents a key constraint on carbon cycling in terrestrial ecosystems, and it is largely in this capacity that the role of N in the Earth's climate system has been considered. Despite this, few studies have included continuous variation in plant N status as a driver of broad-scale carbon cycle analyses. This is partly because of uncertainties in how leaf-level physiological relationships scale to whole ecosystems and because methods for regional to continental detection of plant N concentrations ...


Climate modulates the effects of tree diversity on forest productivity

Journal of Ecology (1 December 2015), pp. n/a-n/a,


[Summary] [::] Despite growing evidence that, on average, diverse forests tend to be more productive than species-poor ones, individual studies often report strongly contrasting relationships between tree species richness and above-ground wood production (AWP). In the attempt to reconcile these apparently inconsistent results, we explored whether the strength and shape of AWP–diversity relationships shifts along spatial and temporal environmental gradients in forests across Europe. [::] We used tree ring data from a network of permanent forest plots distributed at six sites across Europe ...


Climatic feedbacks and desertification: the Mediterranean model

Journal of Climate, Vol. 18, No. 5. (1 March 2005), pp. 684-701,


Mesometeorological information obtained in several research projects in southern Europe has been used to analyze perceived changes in the western Mediterranean summer storm regime. A procedure was developed to disaggregate daily precipitation data into three main components: frontal precipitation, summer storms, and Mediterranean cyclogenesis. Working hypotheses were derived on the likely processes involved. The results indicate that the precipitation regime in this Mediterranean region is very sensitive to variations in surface airmass temperature and moisture. Land-use perturbations that accumulated over historical ...


Environmental portfolio of central European tree species (Appendix S1)



The PorTree project has generated a suite of species distribution (=habitat suitability) models (SDMs) for tree species of the European Alps. These encompass all major tree species of Switzerland, and include also some that can be expected to become suitable under climate change in the near or farther future. To do so, we compiled forest inventory data for the whole Alps, spanning the whole country area of Switzerland, Austria, and Slovenia, and including the parts the Alps and adjacent areas for ...


An introduction to climate


Climate Change and British Woodland

Forestry Commission Information Note (June 2005)
Keywords: british-isles   change   climate   woodland  


The global climate is changing as a result of human activity, caused primarily by the increased concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. The most recent predictions for the UK suggest an increase in temperature and changes in rainfall patterns, wind speed, cloud cover and humidity. This Information Note explains how these environmental changes may affect the growth of trees, including the distribution of individual species. Implications for woodland management and practice are outlined, and guidance is given on climate change ...


Long-term interactions between Mediterranean climate, vegetation and fire regime at Lago di Massaciuccoli (Tuscany, Italy)

Journal of Ecology, Vol. 95, No. 4. (1 July 2007), pp. 755-770,
Keywords: climate   fire   long-term   mediterranean   tuscany   vegetation  


* 1A Holocene sedimentary sequence from a coastal lake in the Mediterranean area (Lago di Massaciuccoli, Tuscany, Italy, 0 m a.s.l.) was sampled for pollen and microscopic charcoal analyses. Contiguous 1-cm samples represent an estimated time interval of c. 13 years, thus providing a high-resolution sequence from 6100 to 5400 cal. years bp. * 2Just before 6000 cal. years bp, sub-Mediterranean and Mediterranean forests were present together with fir (Abies alba), a submontane species that is today absent at low altitudes in ...


Vegetation, environment, and time: The origination and termination of ecosystems

Journal of Vegetation Science, Vol. 17, No. 5. (1 October 2006), pp. 549-557,
Keywords: climate   ecosystem   plant-species   vegetation  


Terrestrial ecosystems originate when particular plant species attain dominance at specific locations under specific environmental regimes. Ecosystems terminate, gradually or abruptly, when the dominant species or functional types are replaced by others, usually owing to environmental change or severe and irreversible disturbance. Assessing whether current ecosystems are sustainable in the face of future environmental change can be aided by examining the range of environmental variation those ecosystems have experienced in the past, and by determining the environmental conditions under which those ...

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