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Selection: with tag classification [45 articles] 


European Forest Types: toward an automated classification

Annals of Forest Science, Vol. 75, No. 1. (2018), pp. 1-14,


[Key message] The outcome of the present study leads to the application of a spatially explicit rule-based expert system (RBES) algorithm aimed at automatically classifying forest areas according to the European Forest Types (EFT) system of nomenclature at pan-European scale level. With the RBES, the EFT system of nomenclature can be now easily implemented for objective, replicable, and automatic classification of field plots for forest inventories or spatial units (pixels or polygons) for thematic mapping. [Context] Forest Types classification systems are aimed at stratifying ...


Multispecies coalescent delimits structure, not species

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 114, No. 7. (14 February 2017), pp. 1607-1612,


[Significance] Despite its widespread application to the species delimitation problem, our study demonstrates that what the multispecies coalescent actually delimits is structure. The current implementations of species delimitation under the multispecies coalescent do not provide any way for distinguishing between structure due to population-level processes and that due to species boundaries. The overinflation of species due to the misidentification of general genetic structure for species boundaries has profound implications for our understanding of the generation and dynamics of biodiversity, because any ecological ...


Harmonized classification scheme of fire causes in the EU adopted for the European Fire Database of EFFIS



The information on the causes of forest fires is of paramount importance to support the environmental and civil protection policies and design appropriate prevention measure. At the European level a simple common scheme with 4 fire causes classes (deliberate, accident/negligence, natural and unknown) has been used to record information on fire causes since 1992. European countries use national schemes which in most cases are much more detailed than the simple 4 common classes, but they are not harmonized and detailed cross ...


The economic possibilities of conservation

The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 27, No. 3. (01 May 1913), pp. 497-519,


[Excerpt] It is desirable to confine the idea of conservation to its original application to natural resources. Even in this sense the concept as developed in the conservation movement comprises several distinct purposes, which are not clearly separated in the popular mind. In the first place, it expresses a demand for a fair distribution of the natural resources not yet alienated. [\n] [...] The real heart of the conservation problem presents an issue which taxes the resources of economic theory to the utmost. ...


Assessing live fuel moisture for fire management applications

In Fire in ecosystem management: shifting the paradigm from suppression to prescription, Vol. 20 (1998), pp. 49-55


The variation associated with sampling live fuel moisture was examined for several shrub and canopy fuels in southern California, Arizona, and Colorado. Ninety-five % confidence intervals ranged from 5 to % . Estimated sample sizes varied greatly. The value of knowing the live fuel moisture content in fire decision making is unknown. If the fuel moisture is highly variable, then it is possible for the confidence intervals to span one or more fire behavior or danger classes. Errors in live fuel ...


Calibration of remotely sensed proportion or area estimates for misclassification error

Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 39, No. 1. (January 1992), pp. 29-43,


Classifications of remotely sensed data contain misclassification errors that bias areal estimates. Monte Carlo techniques were used to compare two statistical methods that correct or calibrate remotely sensed areal estimates for misclassification bias using reference data from an error matrix. The inverse calibration estimator was consistently superior to the classical estimator using a simple random sample of reference plots. The effects of sample size of reference plots, detail of the classification system, and classification accuracy on the precision of the inverse ...


Production of global land cover data – GLCNMO2008

Journal of Geography and Geology, Vol. 6, No. 3. (20 July 2014), pp. 99-122,


A fifteen-second global land cover dataset –– GLCNMO2008 (or GLCNMO version 2) was produced by the authors in the Global Mapping Project coordinated by the International Steering Committee for Global Mapping (ISCGM). The primary source data of this land cover mapping were 23-period, 16-day composite, 7-band, 500-m MODIS data of 2008. GLCNMO2008 has 20 land cover classes, within which 14 classes were mapped by supervised classification. Training data for supervised classification consisting of about 2,000 polygons were collected globally using Google ...


Above-ground carbon storage by urban trees in Leipzig, Germany: analysis of patterns in a European city

Landscape and Urban Planning, Vol. 104, No. 1. (January 2012), pp. 95-104,


Many aspects of global change, including carbon dioxide emissions, have been attributed to urban areas. On the other hand, cities have been found to provide valuable ecosystem services such as carbon storage. The aim of this study is to estimate the above-ground carbon storage in trees in the central European city of Leipzig and produce spatially explicit carbon storage maps. We used stratified random sampling across 19 land cover classes using 190 sample plots to measure carbon storage. In addition, we ...


Ecological services of urban forest in Barcelona



[Excerpt: Summary] Forests and urban trees generally offer multiple services and environmental benefits to society. These trees are distributed into different land uses (in our case, land uses are defined from the third edition of Mapa Ecològic de Barcelona, 2006), ranging from forest environments and gardens, to densely built areas or polluted urban environments. The structure, and consequently the composition, of urban forest vary in these different land uses, whether public or private. Trees, and the functions and services that they offer, such as air quality improvement, carbon sequestration or temperature reduction, ...


A quantitative review of relationships between ecosystem services

Ecological Indicators, Vol. 66 (July 2016), pp. 340-351,


[Highlights] [::] Relationships between ecosystem services (ES) were analyzed across case studies. [::] For many pairs of ES a dominant relationship was identified. [::] These relationships were not significantly moderated by scale or by land system. [::] Methods used to identify the relationship influenced the result. [::] Descriptive methods showed a higher probability to identify trade-off relationships. [Abstract] Ecosystems provide multiple ecosystem services (ES) to society. Ignoring the multi-functionality of land systems in natural resource management generates potential trade-offs with respect to the provisioning of ES. Understanding relationships ...


European atlas of forest tree species

Keywords: bioeconomy   chorology   classification   climate   constrained-spatial-multi-frequency-analysis   data-heterogeneity   data-integration   data-uncertainty   disasters   disturbances   ecological-zones   ecology   ecosystem-services   europe   floods   forest-fires   forest-pests   forest-resources   free-software   geospatial   geospatial-semantic-array-programming   gis   gnu-bash   gnu-linux   gnu-octave   habitat-suitability   integrated-modelling   integrated-natural-resources-modelling-and-management   integration-techniques   knowledge-integration   landslides   mastrave-modelling-library   modelling-uncertainty   open-data   paleoecology   relative-distance-similarity   reproducible-research   review   science-policy-interface   science-society-interface   semantic-array-programming   semantic-constraints   semantics   semap   software-uncertainty   soil-erosion   soil-resources   species-distribution   tree-species   uncertainty   water-resources   windstorm  


[Excerpt] The European Atlas of Forest Tree Species is the first comprehensive publication of such a unique and essential environmental resource, that is, our trees. Leading scientists and forestry professionals have contributed in the many stages of the production of this atlas, through the collection of ground data on the location of tree species, elaboration of the distribution and suitability maps, production of the photographic material and compilation of the different chapters. The European Atlas of Forest Tree Species is both ...


Changes of Holdridge life zone diversity in all of China over half a century

Ecological Modelling, Vol. 144, No. 2-3. (October 2001), pp. 153-162,


The research results show that diversity at the scale of Holdridge life zone observation has had a decreasing trend since the 1950s, and the ecological environment has become considerably unstable in China. The phenomena of unstable environment include continuous expansion of calamity areas since the 1950s, the seldom-seen flood that occurred in the summer of 1998 and the seldom-seen sand and dust weather that occurred in the spring of 2000. Both human activities and climate change are driving forces of the ...


Climatic change and the broad-scale distribution of terrestrial ecosystem complexes

Climatic Change In Climatic Change, Vol. 7, No. 1. (1 March 1985), pp. 29-43,


The broad-scale distribution of terrestrial ecosystem complexes is determined in large part by climate and can be altered by climatic change due to natural causes or due to human activities such as those leading to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration. Classifications that recognize the dependence of natural vegetation on climate provide one means of constructing maps to display the impact of climatic change on the geography of major vegetation zones. A world map of the Holdridge Life-Zone Classification, developed from approximately 8,000 ...


Grundriss der Klimakunde



[Excerpt] Der erste Teil dieses Buches ist eine Umarbeitung des unter dem Titel Klimakunde I, Allgemeine Klimalehre, erschienenen 114. Bändchens der Sammlung Göschen. ...


A classification of the biogeographical provinces of the world

Vol. 18 (1975)


[Excerpt: Foreword] This report was prepared for IUCN by Professor Miklos D.F. Udvardy, California State University, Sacramento, California, and it is being submitted to UNESCO as part of IUCN's contribution to the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Programme. This report is one of two submitted to UNESCO as part of UNESCO Contract No. 618.057. It is complementary to the report by Professor G. Carleton Ray, 'A Preliminary Classification of Coastal and Marine Environments', (IUCN 1975, Occasional Paper No. 14). [\n] Many people have contributed material or suggestions which were ...


Explanatory Supplement to Ecoregions Map of the Continents

Environmental Conservation, Vol. 16 (December 1989), pp. 307-309,


This explanatory note is intended to accompany the map included in this issue. The map is on a scale of 1:30,000,000 (1 cm = 300 km) and shows regional-scale ‘ecosystem’ units, or ecoregions, differentiated according to a scheme modified from J.M. Crowley (1967), and using climate and vegetation as indicators of the extent of each unit. The units are similar in concept to ‘ecobiomes’ as proposed by Polunin (1984). The map was developed following a proposal by Bailey & Hogg (1986) ...


Conterminous U.S. and Alaska Forest Type Mapping Using Forest Inventory and Analysis Data

Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing (November 2008), pp. 1379-1388,


Classification-trees were used to model forest type groups and forest types for the conterminous United States and Alaska. The predictor data were a geospatial data set with a spatial resolution of 250 m developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service (USFS). The response data were plot data from the USFS Forest Inventory and Analysis program. Overall accuracies for the conterminous U.S. for the forest type group and forest type were 69 percent (Kappa = 0.66) and 50 percent (Kappa ...


Topographic position and landforms analysis

In ESRI International User Conference (2001)


[Excerpt: Introduction] Many physical and biological processes acting on the landscape are highly correlated with topographic position: a hilltop, valley bottom, exposed ridge, flat plain, upper or lower slope, and so on. Examples of these processes include soil erosion and deposition; hydrological balance and response; wind exposure; and cold air drainage. These biophysical attributes in turn are key predictors of habitat suitability, community composition, and species distribution and abundance. This poster presents an algorithm, implemented in GRID, for generating a multi-scale Topographic Position Index, classifying this index into slope position and ...


Landform classification for site evaluation and forest planning: integration between scientific approach and traditional concept

Sains Malaysiana, Vol. 43, No. 3. (2014), pp. 349-358


In this paper, we present an automated classification method of landform elements using an application of SAGA GIS software. The spatial assessment was done on the Yambaru forest area (YFA) in the northernmost part of Okinawa Island, Japan. This task is performed through the detailed elevation grid analyses from DTM of YFA with a spatial scale of 10 × 10 m2 supported by The Geospatial Information Authority of Japan. The classification has ten classes; high ridges, midslope ridges, upland drainage, upper ...


The structure, distribution, and biomass of the world's forests

Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, Vol. 44, No. 1. (2013), pp. 593-622,


Forests are the dominant terrestrial ecosystem on Earth. We review the environmental factors controlling their structure and global distribution and evaluate their current and future trajectory. Adaptations of trees to climate and resource gradients, coupled with disturbances and forest dynamics, create complex geographical patterns in forest assemblages and structures. These patterns are increasingly discernible through new satellite and airborne observation systems, improved forest inventories, and global ecosystem models. Forest biomass is a complex property affected by forest distribution, structure, and ecological ...


An indicator framework for assessing ecosystem services in support of the EU Biodiversity Strategy to 2020

Ecosystem Services, Vol. 17 (February 2016), pp. 14-23,


[Highlights] [::] EU Member states have to map and assess ecosystems and their services (MAES). [::] We present the MAES conceptual model which links biodiversity to human wellbeing. [::] Typologies of ecosystems and their services ensure comparability across countries. [::] We present a list of indicators that can be used for national MAES assessments. [::] We critically discuss the data gaps and challenges of the MAES typologies. [Abstract] In the EU, the mapping and assessment of ecosystems and their services, abbreviated to MAES, is seen as a key ...

Visual summary


Mapping and assessment of ecosystems and their services indicators for ecosystem assessments under action 5 of the EU biodiversity strategy to 2020: 2nd report - final, February 2014



The second MAES report presents indicators that can be used at European and Member State's level to map and assess biodiversity, ecosystem condition and ecosystem services according to the Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services (CICES v4.3). This work is based on a review of data and indicators available at national and European level and is applying the MAES analytical framework adopted in 2013. ...


The economics of ecosystems and biodiversity: ecological and economic foundations



Human well-being relies critically on ecosystem services provided by nature. Examples include water and air quality regulation, nutrient cycling and decomposition, plant pollination and flood control, all of which are dependent on biodiversity. They are predominantly public goods with limited or no markets and do not command any price in the conventional economic system, so their loss is often not detected and continues unaddressed and unabated. This in turn not only impacts human well-being, but also seriously undermines the sustainability of ...


Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services (CICES): Consultation on Version 4, August-December 2012



[Excerpt: Executive Summary] [:1] This Report documents the development of a Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services (CICES), following the most recent round of consultation between August and December 2012. [:2] We confirm the need to frame the Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services (CICES) around human needs, and recommend that CICES is regarded primarily as a way of describing ecosystem outputs as they directly contribute to human well-being, so that discussions about appropriate assessment frameworks (economic, social, aesthetic and moral) can take ...


Expert group and workshop on valuation of forest ecosystem services



[Excerpt: Foreword] Forests create multiple benefits for the society, providing renewable raw materials and play an important role in human wellbeing, biological diversity, the global carbon cycle, water balance, erosion control, combating desertification and the prevention of natural hazards, among others. Forests contribute to environmental stability, economic prosperity and offer social, ecosystem and recreational services. [\n] They improve the knowledge about ecosystem services, its value and natural capital allow us to see the direct ways in which we depend on the natural environment and how local policy makers can address policy challenges in many ...


An introduction to climate


Populus L.

In Flora Europaea, Volume 1: Psilotaceae to Platanaceae (1993), pp. 64-67


Published in five volumes, Flora Europaea is the definitive account of the flowering plants, ferns and fern-allies of Europe, covering all plants growing in the wild, including many naturalized species and all widely cultivated crop species. It provides full keys and concise descriptions of families, genera, species and subspecies, together with bibliographic details for accepted species, summaries of geographical distribution, chromosome numbers and habitat information. This new edition of Volume 1 brings the treatment of the first 79 families up to ...


Betula L.

In Flora Europaea, Volume 1: Psilotaceae to Platanaceae (1993), pp. 69-70


Published in five volumes, Flora Europaea is the definitive account of the flowering plants, ferns and fern-allies of Europe, covering all plants growing in the wild, including many naturalized species and all widely cultivated crop species. It provides full keys and concise descriptions of families, genera, species and subspecies, together with bibliographic details for accepted species, summaries of geographical distribution, chromosome numbers and habitat information. This new edition of Volume 1 brings the treatment of the first 79 families up to ...


Phylogenetic relationships in Betula (Betulaceae) based on AFLP markers

Tree Genetics & Genomes In Tree Genetics & Genomes, Vol. 4, No. 4. (1 October 2008), pp. 911-924,


Abstract  The genus Betula comprises various species in boreal and temperate climate zones of the Northern Hemisphere. The taxonomy of Betula is controversial and complicated by parallel evolution of morphological traits, polyploidization events, and extensive hybridization and introgression among species. Multilocus molecular data from AFLPs were used to provide phylogenetic information. A large number of polymorphic markers (321 variable bands) were produced in 107 Betula accessions from 23 species and 11 hybrids. The AFLP results were largely congruent with the results from ...


A forest typology for monitoring sustainable forest management: the case of European Forest Types

Plant Biosystems, Vol. 141, No. 1. (15 February 2007), pp. 93-103,


Sustainable forest management (SFM) is presently widely accepted as the overriding objective for forest policy and practice. Regional processes are in progress all over the world to develop and implement criteria and indicators of SFM. In continental Europe, a set of 35 Pan-European indicators has been endorsed under the Ministerial Conference on the Protection of Forests in Europe (MCPFE) to measure progress towards SFM in the 44 countries of the region. The formulation of seven indicators (forest area, growing stock, age ...


European forest types. Categories and types for sustainable forest management reporting and policy

EEA Technical report, Vol. 9 (May 2007)


The European forest types — Categories and types for sustainable forest management reporting and policy presents the findings of a study carried out by an international consortium of experts aimed at providing the Ministerial Conference on the Protection of Forests in Europe (MCPFE) with an user‑friendly forest types classification. The primary goal of the scheme is to improve the MCPFE reporting on sustainable forest management (SFM) in Europe, with special regard to forest type based SFM indicators. ...


Phylogeny of Elms (Ulmus, Ulmaceae): Molecular Evidence for a Sectional Classification

Systematic Botany, Vol. 19, No. 4. (1994), pp. 590-610


The approximately 45 woody species of Ulmus (Ulmaceae) have been placed in five to nine sections on the basis of morphological characters. Cladistic analyses of chloroplast DNA restriction site variation were employed to examine phylogenetic relationships among 29 Ulmus accessions, including representatives from all proposed sections and subsections, and Zelkova serrata. Sufficient variation was detected to construct cladograms with branches both well-resolved and supported. The cpDNA results are largely congruent with those based on nuclear ribosomal DNA. Inclusion of 18 morphological/chemical ...


Use of Simultaneous Analyses to Guide Fossil‐Based Calibrations of Pinaceae Phylogeny

International Journal of Plant Sciences, Vol. 169, No. 8. (October 2008), pp. 1086-1099,


Uncertainties in the age and phylogenetic position of Pinaceae fossils present significant obstacles to our understanding of the timing of diversification in the family. We demonstrate that simultaneous phylogenetic analyses of chloroplast DNA (matK and rbcL) and nonmolecular characters that include both extant genera and a limited number of fossil taxa provide useful hypotheses for calibrating molecular trees. Root placements varied for Pinaceae, with Bayesian analyses recovering mutually monophyletic subfamilies Pinoideae and Abietoideae and parsimony analyses recovering Abietoideae as paraphyletic by placing the root between Cedrus ...


Phylogeny and classification of Pinus

Taxon, Vol. 54, No. 1. (February 2005), pp. 29-42


We used chloroplast DNA sequences from matK and rbcL to infer the phylogeny for 101 of the approximately 111 species of Pinus (Pinaceae). At the level of subsection and above, the cpDNA tree is congruent with phylogenies based on nuclear DNA with one notable exception: cpDNA sequences from subsect. Contortae are sister to all other North American hard pines rather than occupying a more derived position in the same clade. We used the cpDNA tree plus evidence from nuclear ribosomal DNA ...


Phylogenetic Relationships of Diploxylon Pines (Subgenus Pinus) Based on Plastid Sequence Data

International Journal of Plant Sciences, Vol. 163, No. 5. (September 2002), pp. 737-747,


Recent diversification followed by secondary contact and hybridization may explain complex patterns of intra- and interspecific morphological and genetic variation in the North American hard pines (Pinus section Trifoliae), a group of approximately 49 tree species distributed in North and Central America and the Caribbean islands. We concatenated five plastid DNA markers for an average of 3.9 individuals per putative species and assessed the suitability of the five regions as DNA bar codes for species identification, species delimitation, and phylogenetic reconstruction. ...


Using ROC Curves to Choose Minimally Important Change Thresholds when Sensitivity and Specificity Are Valued Equally: The Forgotten Lesson of Pythagoras. Theoretical Considerations and an Example Application of Change in Health Status

PLoS ONE, Vol. 9, No. 12. (4 December 2014), e114468,


[Background] Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curves are being used to identify Minimally Important Change (MIC) thresholds on scales that measure a change in health status. In quasi-continuous patient reported outcome measures, such as those that measure changes in chronic diseases with variable clinical trajectories, sensitivity and specificity are often valued equally. Notwithstanding methodologists agreeing that these should be valued equally, different approaches have been taken to estimating MIC thresholds using ROC curves. [Aims and objectives] We aimed to compare the different approaches used with ...


New untrained aggregation methods for classifier combination

In Neural Networks (IJCNN), 2014 International Joint Conference on (July 2014), pp. 617-622,


The combined classification is a promising direction in pattern recognition and there are numerous methods that deal with forming classifier ensembles. The most popular approaches employ voting, where the final decision of compound classifier is a combination of individual classifiers' outputs, i.e., class labels or support functions. This paper concentrates on the problem how to design an effective combination rule, which takes into consideration the values of support functions returned by the individual classifiers. Because in many practical tasks we do ...


A survey of multiple classifier systems as hybrid systems

Information Fusion, Vol. 16 (March 2014), pp. 3-17,


A current focus of intense research in pattern classification is the combination of several classifier systems, which can be built following either the same or different models and/or datasets building approaches. These systems perform information fusion of classification decisions at different levels overcoming limitations of traditional approaches based on single classifiers. This paper presents an up-to-date survey on multiple classifier system (MCS) from the point of view of Hybrid Intelligent Systems. The article discusses major issues, such as diversity and decision ...


Computer science and parsimony: a reappraisal, with discussion of methods for poorly structured datasets

Cladistics (1 June 2014), pp. n/a-n/a,


In recent years, several publications in computer science journals have proposed new heuristic methods for parsimony analysis. This contribution discusses those papers, including methods highly praised by their authors, such as Hydra, Sampars and GA + PR + LS. Trees of comparable or better scores can be obtained using the program TNT, but from one to three orders of magnitude faster. In some cases, the search methods are very similar to others long in use in phylogenetics, but the enormous speed differences seem to correspond ...


A climatic stratification of the environment of Europe

Global Ecology and Biogeography, Vol. 14, No. 6. (1 November 2005), pp. 549-563,


Aim  To produce a statistical stratification of the European environment, suitable for stratified random sampling of ecological resources, the selection of sites for representative studies across the continent, and to provide strata for modelling exercises and reporting. Location  A ‘Greater European Window’ with the following boundaries: 11° W, 32° E, 34° N, 72° N. Methods  Twenty of the most relevant available environmental variables were selected, based on experience from previous studies. Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to explain 88% of the variation into three ...


(INRMM-MiD internal record) List of keywords of the INRMM meta-information database - part 7

(February 2014)
Keywords: chamaerops-humilis   change   change-factor   channel-network   chaos   characteristics   charcoal   charcoal-analysis   check-list   chemical-analisys   chemical-composition   chemical-control   chemicals   chemosystematics   chenopodium-spp   chernobyl   chestnut-disease   chile   chilopsis-linearis   chimborazo   china   chionosphaera-cuniculicola   chionosphaera-spp   chloroplast-dna   chlorosis   cholera   chorisia-speciosa   choristoneura-conflictana   choristoneura-fumiferana   choristoneura-spp   chorology   chosenia-arbutifolia   chromium   chrysomela-populi   chrysomela-scripta   chrysomela-tremulae   chrysophyllum-albidum   chrysoptharta-bimaculata   chytridiopsis-typographi   cinchona-pubescens   cinnamomum-camphora   circular-economy   cistus-spp   citation-errors   citation-metrics   citeulike   citizen-science   citizen-sensor   citrus-aurantium   classification   classification-trees   clc   clear-cutting   clematis-alpina   clematis-vitalba   cliamte-change   cliffs   climate   climate-change   climate-change-impacts   climate-change-velocity   climate-engineering   climate-equity   climate-extremes   climate-growth-relations   climate-history   climate-models   climate-policy   climate-projections   climate-signal   climate-zones   climatic-conditions   climatic-gradient   climatic-niche   climatic-niche-shift   clostera-anachoreta   clostera-anastomosis   cloud-condensation   cloud-formation   cloudiness   clusia-rosea   clustering   co-evolution   co2   coal   coastal-settlement   coastline   coccoloba-uvifera   cocos-nucifera   codelet   coeloides-bostrichorum   coffea-arabica   coffea-canephora   cognitive-biases   cognitive-breakdown   cognitive-complexity   cognitive-load   cognitive-structure   cold-tolerance   inrmm-list-of-tags  


List of indexed keywords within the transdisciplinary set of domains which relate to the Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management (INRMM). In particular, the list of keywords maps the semantic tags in the INRMM Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD). [\n] The INRMM-MiD records providing this list are accessible by the special tag: inrmm-list-of-tags ( ). ...


A review of assessing the accuracy of classifications of remotely sensed data

Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 37, No. 1. (July 1991), pp. 35-46,


This paper reviews the necessary considerations and available techniques for assessing the accuracy of remotely sensed data. Included in this review are the classification system, the sampling scheme, the sample size, spatial autocorrelation, and the assessment techniques. All analysis is based on the use of an error matrix or contingency table. Example matrices and results of the analysis are presented. Future trends including the need for assessment of other spatial data are also discussed. ...


Classification of Natural and Semi-natural Vegetation

In Vegetation Ecology (07 January 2013), pp. 28-70,


This chapter covers classification of natural and semi-natural vegetation, including classification frameworks, components of classification, project planning and data acquisition, data preparation and integration, community entitation, cluster assessment, community characterization and determination, classification integration, documentation, and future directions and challenges. ...


Categorizing Ideas about Trees: A Tree of Trees

PLoS ONE, Vol. 8, No. 8. (7 August 2013), pp. e68814-e68814,


The aim of this study is to explore whether matrices and MP trees used to produce systematic categories of organisms could be useful to produce categories of ideas in history of science. We study the history of the use of trees in systematics to represent the diversity of life from 1766 to 1991. We apply to those ideas a method inspired from coding homologous parts of organisms. We discretize conceptual parts of ideas, writings and drawings about trees contained in 41 ...


Global ecological zoning for the Global Forest Resources Assessment 2000 - Final report

Vol. 56 (2001)
edited by Henk Simons


A global ecological zoning (GEZ) map and data base has been developed for the "Global Forest Resources Assessment 2000" (FRA 2000) conducted by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization. The underlying strategy for FRA’s ecological zoning closely reflects both the thematic and technical requirements of the map and the many operational constraints for implementation. Characteristics and components of the FAO EZ classification include the use of the Köppen-Trewartha system (1968), with some modifications, in combination with vegetation characteristics as a ...

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Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management - Meta-information Database.

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Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD).
This database integrates a dedicated meta-information database in CiteULike (the CiteULike INRMM Group) with the meta-information available in Google Scholar, CrossRef and DataCite. The Altmetric database with Article-Level Metrics is also harvested. Part of the provided semantic content (machine-readable) is made even human-readable thanks to the DCMI Dublin Core viewer. Digital preservation of the meta-information indexed within the INRMM-MiD publication records is implemented thanks to the Internet Archive.
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Full-text and abstracts of the publications indexed by the INRMM meta-information database are copyrighted by the respective publishers/authors. They are subject to all applicable copyright protection. The conditions of use of each indexed publication is defined by its copyright owner. Please, be aware that the indexed meta-information entirely relies on voluntary work and constitutes a quite incomplete and not homogeneous work-in-progress.
INRMM-MiD was experimentally established by the Maieutike Research Initiative in 2008 and then improved with the help of several volunteers (with a major technical upgrade in 2011). This new integrated interface is operational since 2014.