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Selection: with tag carbon-stock [56 articles] 

 

Natural climate solutions

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 114, No. 44. (31 October 2017), pp. 11645-11650, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1710465114

Abstract

[Significance] Most nations recently agreed to hold global average temperature rise to well below 2 °C. We examine how much climate mitigation nature can contribute to this goal with a comprehensive analysis of “natural climate solutions” (NCS): 20 conservation, restoration, and/or improved land management actions that increase carbon storage and/or avoid greenhouse gas emissions across global forests, wetlands, grasslands, and agricultural lands. We show that NCS can provide over one-third of the cost-effective climate mitigation needed between now and 2030 to stabilize ...

 

How have past fire disturbances contributed to the current carbon balance of boreal ecosystems?

  
Biogeosciences, Vol. 13, No. 3. (04 February 2016), pp. 675-690, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-13-675-2016

Abstract

Boreal fires have immediate effects on regional carbon budgets by emitting CO2 into the atmosphere at the time of burning, but they also have legacy effects by initiating a long-term carbon sink during post-fire vegetation recovery. Quantifying these different effects on the current-day pan-boreal (44–84° N) carbon balance and quantifying relative contributions of legacy sinks by past fires is important for understanding and predicting the carbon dynamics in this region. Here we used the global dynamic vegetation model ORCHIDEE–SPITFIRE (Organising Carbon and ...

 

Influence of tree species on continental differences in boreal fires and climate feedbacks

  
Nature Geoscience, Vol. 8, No. 3. (2 February 2015), pp. 228-234, https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo2352

Abstract

Wildfires are common in boreal forests around the globe and strongly influence ecosystem processes. However, North American forests support more high-intensity crown fires than Eurasia, where lower-intensity surface fires are common. These two types of fire can result in different net effects on climate as a consequence of their contrasting impacts on terrestrial albedo and carbon stocks. Here we use remote-sensing imagery, climate reanalysis data and forest inventories to evaluate differences in boreal fire dynamics between North America and Eurasia and ...

 

Applicazione del modello dimostrativo di valutazione qualitativa e quantitativa dei servizi ecosistemici nei siti pilota - Parte 1: quantificazione dei servizi ecosistemici

  
(2015)

Abstract

[Excerpt: Introduzione] Sulla base della valutazione qualitativa degli habitat e della copertura, del questionario e degli incontri con gli stakeholder sono stati selezionati 2-3 servizi ecosistemici (SE) per ogni sito pilota LIFE+ MGN [...]. Per ognuno di questi SE viene riportato in questo report il risultato della quantifiazione biofisica e monetaria. [...] [:English version (Ed.): Introduction] For each pilot site LIFE+ MGN, 2-3 ecosystem services (ES) have been selected. The selection considered the qualitative assessment of habitat and cover; the survey and the ...

References

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  3. Autorità di bacino del fiume Arno (2008). Progetto di Piano di Bacino Stralcio “Bilancio Idrico”.
  4. Autorità di bacino del fiume Po (1999). Progetto di Piano stralcio per l’Assetto Idrogeologico (PAI). http://www.adbpo.it/on-multi/ADBPO/Home/Pianificazione/Pianistralcioapprovati/PianostralcioperlAssettoIdrogeologicoPAI.html .
  5. Autorità di bacino del
 

Diversity increases carbon storage and tree productivity in Spanish forests

  
Global Ecology and Biogeography, Vol. 23, No. 3. (1 March 2014), pp. 311-322, https://doi.org/10.1111/geb.12126

Abstract

[Aim] Biodiversity loss could reduce primary productivity and the carbon storage provided by forests; however, the mechanisms underpinning the effects of biodiversity on multiple ecosystem functions are not completely understood. Spanish forests are of particular interest because of the broad variation in environmental conditions and management history. We tested for the existence of a relationship between diversity effects and both carbon storage and tree productivity, and examined the relative importance of complementarity and selection mechanisms in a wide variety of forests, ...

 

Fire history and the global carbon budget: a 1°x 1° fire history reconstruction for the 20th century

  
Global Change Biology, Vol. 11, No. 3. (March 2005), pp. 398-420, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2005.00920.x

Abstract

A yearly global fire history is a prerequisite for quantifying the contribution of previous fires to the past and present global carbon budget. Vegetation fires can have both direct (combustion) and long-term indirect effects on the carbon cycle. Every fire influences the ecosystem carbon budget for many years, as a consequence of internal reorganization, decomposition of dead biomass, and regrowth. We used a two-step process to estimate these effects. First we synthesized the available data available for the 1980s or 1990s ...

 

Storage and drivers of organic carbon in forest soils of southeast Germany (Bavaria) – Implications for carbon sequestration

  
Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 295 (May 2013), pp. 162-172, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2013.01.025

Abstract

[Abstract] Temperate forest soils of central Europe are regarded as important pools for soil organic carbon (SOC) and thought to have a high potential for carbon (C) sequestration. However, comprehensive data on total SOC storage, particularly under different forest types, and its drivers is limited. In this study, we analyzed a forest data set of 596 completely sampled soil profiles down to the parent material or to a depth of 1 m within Bavaria in southeast Germany in order to determine representative ...

 

Carbon storage versus albedo change: radiative forcing of forest expansion in temperate mountainous regions of Switzerland

  
Biogeosciences, Vol. 12, No. 2. (27 January 2015), pp. 467-487, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-12-467-2015

Abstract

In this study, we assess the climate mitigation potential from afforestation in a mountainous snow-rich region (Switzerland) with strongly varying environmental conditions. Using radiative forcing calculations, we quantify both the carbon sequestration potential and the effect of albedo change at high resolution. We calculate the albedo radiative forcing based on remotely sensed data sets of albedo, global radiation and snow cover. Carbon sequestration is estimated from changes in carbon stocks based on national inventories. We first estimate the spatial pattern of ...

 

Influences of evergreen gymnosperm and deciduous angiosperm tree species on the functioning of temperate and boreal forests

  
Biological Reviews, Vol. 90, No. 2. (1 May 2015), pp. 444-466, https://doi.org/10.1111/brv.12119

Abstract

It has been recognized for a long time that the overstorey composition of a forest partly determines its biological and physical–chemical functioning. Here, we review evidence of the influence of evergreen gymnosperm (EG) tree species and deciduous angiosperm (DA) tree species on the water balance, physical–chemical soil properties and biogeochemical cycling of carbon and nutrients. We used scientific publications based on experimental designs where all species grew on the same parent material and initial soil, and were similar in stage of ...

 

How temperature, precipitation and stand age control the biomass carbon density of global mature forests

  
Global Ecology and Biogeography, Vol. 23, No. 3. (March 2014), pp. 323-333, https://doi.org/10.1111/geb.12113

Abstract

[::Aim] To understand: (1) how temperature, precipitation and stand age control the above-ground biomass carbon density (BCDa) of mature forests and its macroecology patterns across latitudes; (2) the age threshold for old-growth forests at a global scale. [::Location] Global forests. [::Methods] We compiled a database (897 sites) of mature forests between 80 and 1200 years old. The site data include latitude, longitude, mean annual temperature, mean annual precipitation, forest type, stand age, BCDa, living biomass (above- and below-ground biomass) carbon density and total (living plus dead) ...

 

The structure, distribution, and biomass of the world's forests

  
Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, Vol. 44, No. 1. (2013), pp. 593-622, https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-ecolsys-110512-135914

Abstract

Forests are the dominant terrestrial ecosystem on Earth. We review the environmental factors controlling their structure and global distribution and evaluate their current and future trajectory. Adaptations of trees to climate and resource gradients, coupled with disturbances and forest dynamics, create complex geographical patterns in forest assemblages and structures. These patterns are increasingly discernible through new satellite and airborne observation systems, improved forest inventories, and global ecosystem models. Forest biomass is a complex property affected by forest distribution, structure, and ecological ...

 

Mechanisms of carbon storage in mountainous headwater rivers

  
Nature Communications, Vol. 3 (11 December 2012), 1263, https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms2274

Abstract

Published research emphasizes rapid downstream export of terrestrial carbon from mountainous headwater rivers, but little work focuses on mechanisms that create carbon storage along these rivers, or on the volume of carbon storage. Here we estimate organic carbon stored in diverse valley types of headwater rivers in Rocky Mountain National Park, CO, USA. We show that low-gradient, broad valley bottoms with old-growth forest or active beaver colonies store the great majority of above- and below-ground carbon. These laterally unconfined valley segments ...

 

Mycorrhiza-mediated competition between plants and decomposers drives soil carbon storage

  
Nature, Vol. 505, No. 7484. (08 January 2014), pp. 543-545, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature12901

Abstract

Soil contains more carbon than the atmosphere and vegetation combined. Understanding the mechanisms controlling the accumulation and stability of soil carbon is critical to predicting the Earth’s future climate. Recent studies suggest that decomposition of soil organic matter is often limited by nitrogen availability to microbes and that plants, via their fungal symbionts, compete directly with free-living decomposers for nitrogen. Ectomycorrhizal and ericoid mycorrhizal (EEM) fungi produce nitrogen-degrading enzymes, allowing them greater access to organic nitrogen sources than arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) ...

 

The role of European forests in the global carbon cycle - A review

  
Biomass and Bioenergy, Vol. 13, No. 6. (January 1997), pp. 345-358, https://doi.org/10.1016/s0961-9534(97)00036-6

Abstract

The first part of this paper presents an overview of national forest carbon balance studies that have been carried out in Europe. Based on these national assessments, an estimate is made of the present role of European forests in the global carbon cycle. Differences in the methodologies applied are discussed. At present, 15 European countries have assessed a national forest and/or forest sector carbon balance. Together, these studies cover 104 million ha and present the average situation in the mid-1980s. Most ...

 

Soil carbon stocks under present and future climate with specific reference to European ecoregions

  
Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, Vol. 81, No. 2. (1 June 2008), pp. 113-127, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10705-007-9147-x

Abstract

World soils and terrestrial ecosystems have been a source of atmospheric abundance of CO2 ever since settled agriculture began about 10–13 millennia ago. The amount of CO2-C emitted into the atmosphere is estimated at 136 ± 55 Pg from terrestrial ecosystems, of which emission from world soils is estimated at 78 ± 12 Pg. Conversion of natural to agricultural ecosystems decreases soil organic carbon (SOC) pool by 30–50% over 50–100 years in temperate regions, and 50–75% over 20–50 years in tropical climates. The projected global warming, with estimated increase in ...

 

Do tree species influence soil carbon stocks in temperate and boreal forests?

  
Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 309 (December 2013), pp. 4-18, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2013.01.017

Abstract

Information on tree species effects on soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks is scattered and there have been few attempts to synthesize results for forest floor and mineral soil C pools. We reviewed and synthesized current knowledge of tree species effects on SOC stocks in temperate and boreal forests based on common garden, retrospective paired stand and retrospective single-tree studies. There was evidence of consistent tree species effects on SOC stocks. Effects were clearest for forest floor C stocks (23 of 24 ...

 

Climate and pest-driven geographic shifts in global coffee production: implications for forest cover, biodiversity and carbon storage

  
PLoS ONE, Vol. 10, No. 7. (15 July 2015), e0133071, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0133071

Abstract

Coffee is highly sensitive to temperature and rainfall, making its cultivation vulnerable to geographic shifts in response to a changing climate. This could lead to the establishment of coffee plantations in new areas and potential conflicts with other land covers including natural forest, with consequent implications for biodiversity and ecosystem services. We project areas suitable for future coffee cultivation based on several climate scenarios and expected responses of the coffee berry borer, a principle pest of coffee crops. We show that ...

 

Modeling potential distribution and carbon dynamics of natural terrestrial ecosystems: a case study of Turkey

  
Sensors, Vol. 7, No. 10. (11 October 2007), pp. 2273-2296, https://doi.org/10.3390/s7102273

Abstract

We derived a simple model that relates the classification of biogeoclimatezones, (co)existence and fractional coverage of plant functional types (PFTs), and patternsof ecosystem carbon (C) stocks to long-term average values of biogeoclimatic indices in atime- and space-varying fashion from climate–vegetation equilibrium models. ProposedDynamic Ecosystem Classification and Productivity (DECP) model is based on the spatialinterpolation of annual biogeoclimatic variables through multiple linear regression (MLR)models and inverse distance weighting (IDW) and was applied to the entire Turkey of780,595 km2 on a 500 m ...

 

Measurement and prediction of biomass and carbon content of Pinus pinaster trees in farm forestry plantations, south-western Australia

  
Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 175, No. 1-3. (March 2003), pp. 103-117, https://doi.org/10.1016/s0378-1127(02)00121-4

Abstract

A total of 148 Pinus pinaster trees from 18 farm plantations in south-western Australia were destructively sampled to develop biomass and carbon mass prediction equations for inventory application. Sampling covered a range of ages (1–47-year-old), sizes (e.g. DBH 0–47 cm) and spacings (close- and open-spaced arrangements). Equations were developed to predict biomass and carbon mass of whole-trees and tree components (stems, crowns, tops and roots) as functions of stem diameter (DBH), tree height (h) and height to crown base (hc) or basal ...

 

Goodbye to carbon neutral: Getting biomass footprints right

  
Environmental Impact Assessment Review, Vol. 29, No. 3. (April 2009), pp. 165-168, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eiar.2008.11.002

Abstract

Most guidance for carbon footprinting, and most published carbon footprints or LCAs, presume that biomass heating fuels are carbon neutral. However, it is recognised increasingly that this is incorrect: biomass fuels are not always carbon neutral. Indeed, they can in some cases be far more carbon positive than fossil fuels. This flaw in carbon footprinting guidance and practice can be remedied. In carbon footprints (not just of biomass or heating fuels, but all carbon footprints), rather than applying sequestration credits and ...

 

Increasing carbon stocks in the forest soils of western Europe

  
Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 169, No. 1-2. (September 2002), pp. 159-175, https://doi.org/10.1016/s0378-1127(02)00306-7

Abstract

The soils of western European forests may be accumulating carbon, because tree biomass has been expanding in these forests already for decades, and the more numerous and larger trees can produce more litter. We calculated the carbon budget of soils and trees in the forests of 14 EU countries plus Norway and Switzerland from 1950 to 2040 by integrating forest resource information (inventory data from 1950 to 1990 and a forest resource forecast from 2000 to 2040), biomass allocation and turnover ...

 

Global forest resources assessment 2010: Main report

  
(2010)

Abstract

The Global Forest Resources Assessment 2010 (FRA 2010) is the most comprehensive assessment of the world’s forests ever. It covers 233 countries and areas for the period 1990 to 2010. This publication, the main report of FRA 2010, contains country data, contributed by national correspondents and reviewed and collated by FAO, for more than 90 key variables related to the extent, condition, uses and values of forests. Seven core chapters evaluate the status and trends for key aspects of sustainable forest ...

 

Evidence for environmentally enhanced forest growth

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 111, No. 26. (01 July 2014), pp. 9527-9532, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1402333111

Abstract

[Significance] Northern forests have sequestered a substantial amount of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere during the past several decades. This large carbon (C) sink usually is considered to be driven by tree regrowth after stand-replacing disturbance and growth enhancement due to environmental changes, but the relative contribution between these two processes remains unclear. In this study, we evaluate the contribution of growth enhancement induced by environmental changes to biomass C sink in Japan’s forests and demonstrate that this growth enhancement accounts ...

 

A large-scale field assessment of carbon stocks in human-modified tropical forests

  
Glob Change Biol (1 May 2014), pp. n/a-n/a, https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.12627

Abstract

Tropical rainforests store enormous amounts of carbon, the protection of which represents a vital component of efforts to mitigate global climate change. Currently, tropical forest conservation, science, policies, and climate mitigation actions focus predominantly on reducing carbon emissions from deforestation alone. However, every year vast areas of the humid tropics are disturbed by selective logging, understory fires, and habitat fragmentation. There is an urgent need to understand the effect of such disturbances on carbon stocks, and how stocks in disturbed forests ...

 

Tree mineral nutrition is deteriorating in Europe

  
Global Change Biology (1 June 2014), pp. n/a-n/a, https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.12657

Abstract

The response of forest ecosystems to increased atmospheric CO2 is constrained by nutrient availability. It is thus crucial to account for nutrient limitation when studying the forest response to climate change. The objectives of this study were to describe the nutritional status of the main European tree species, to identify growth limiting nutrients and to assess changes in tree nutrition during the past two decades. We analysed the foliar nutrition data collected during 1992-2009 on the intensive forest monitoring plots of ...

 

Land ownership drives stand structure and carbon storage of deciduous temperate forests

  
Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 305 (October 2013), pp. 146-157, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2013.05.013

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] We sampled clusters of beech dominated forest stands of different land ownership. [::] Forest ownership drives stand structure; biogeography determines tree diversity. [::] Carbon storage is higher in small-scale private forests than in public forests. [::] Small-scale private forests comprise higher habitat diversity and dead wood amounts. [::] Consideration of ownership is central for forest conservation on a landscape-scale. [Abstract] In European cultural landscapes, forest area is subdivided into a mosaic of stands of different ownership types and sizes. Differences in ownership and ...

 

Cracking Brazil's Forest Code

  
Science, Vol. 344, No. 6182. (25 April 2014), pp. 363-364, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1246663

Abstract

Roughly 53% of Brazil's native vegetation occurs on private properties. Native forests and savannahs on these lands store 105 ± 21 GtCO2e (billion tons of CO2 equivalents) and play a vital role in maintaining a broad range of ecosystem services (1). Sound management of these private landscapes is critical if global efforts to mitigate climate change are to succeed. Recent approval of controversial revisions to Brazil's Forest Code (FC)—the central piece of legislation regulating land use and management on private properties—may ...

 

Fragmentation of forest landscapes in Central Africa: causes, consequences and management

  
In Patterns and Processes in Forest Landscapes (2008), pp. 67-87, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-8504-8_5

Abstract

Forest fragmentation has a paramount impact on landscape pattern and has therefore been a key focus of landscape ecology. Trends and causes of deforestation are analysed for the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda and Burundi, and are put in a regional, continental and global perspective. In order to investigate the role of shifting cultivation as a driver of fragmentation, the dynamics of a forest landscape between 1970 and 2005 for a study area in the Bas-Congo province of the Democratic ...

 

Carbon concentrations and stocks in forest soils of Europe

  
Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 260, No. 3. (30 June 2010), pp. 262-277, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2010.03.025

Abstract

This study presents the results of a series of evaluations of a continent-wide soil database (EU/UN-ECE Level I) with the aim to estimate baseline soil carbon concentrations and stocks. The methodology included the biogeographic stratification of soil carbon measurements throughout Europe using climatic zones derived from the Soil Regions Map of Europe. The presented stock estimates range from 1.3 to 70.8 t C/ha for the O-layer, and from 11.3 to 126.3 t C/ha for the mineral soil 0–20 cm (Germany: 0–30 cm) (5 and 95 percentiles). Histosols ...

 

(INRMM-MiD internal record) List of keywords of the INRMM meta-information database - part 6

  
(February 2014)
Keywords: canopy-density   canopy-irradiance   canopy-opening   capnodis-miliaris   caragana-arborescens   carapa-guianensis   carbohydrates   carbon   carbon-cycle   carbon-dioxide-removal   carbon-emission   carbon-isotope-discrimination   carbon-mitigation   carbon-sequestration   carbon-stock   cardiaspina-fiscella   cardiovascular-benefit   carica-papaya   carnegiea-gigantea   carnivores   carpathian-region   carpinus-betulus   carpinus-cordata   carpinus-orientalis   carpinus-spp   cart   carya-illinoensis   carya-laciniosa   carya-ovata   carya-spp   carya-tomentosa   cascade-of-failures   cassia-fistula   castanea-crenata   castanea-dentata   castanea-mollissima   castanea-sativa   castanea-spp   castanopsis-eyrei   castanopsis-spp   casuarina-equisetifolia   catalonia   catalpa-ovata   catalpa-speciosa   catalpa-spp   catchment-scale   categorical-variables   cathaya-spp   cattle   caucasus   causal-networks   cavitation   ceanothus-thyrsiflorus   cecidomyiidae   cecropia-peltata   cedar-decline   cedrela-fissilis   cedrela-odorata   cedrus-atlantica   cedrus-brevifolia   cedrus-libani   ceiba-chodatii   ceiba-pentandra   cell-structure   cellular-automata   cellulose   celtis-australis   celtis-occidentalis   celtis-reticulata   celtis-spp   central-america   central-asia   central-china   central-europe   central-hardwood-forest   central-mediterranean   cerambycidae   ceratitis-cosyra   ceratocystis-coerulescens   ceratocystis-laricicola   ceratocystis-platani   ceratocystis-polonica   ceratocystis-spp   ceratonia-siliqua   ceratonia-spp   cercidium-microphyllum   cercis-siliquastrum   cercis-spp   cercocarpus-ledifolius   certification   cerura-vinula   chalara-fraxinea   chamaecyparis-lawsoniana   chamaecyparis-nootkatensis   chamaecyparis-obtusa   chamaecyparis-pisifera   chamaecyparis-spp   chamaecytisus-proliferus   inrmm-list-of-tags  

Abstract

List of indexed keywords within the transdisciplinary set of domains which relate to the Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management (INRMM). In particular, the list of keywords maps the semantic tags in the INRMM Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD). [\n] The INRMM-MiD records providing this list are accessible by the special tag: inrmm-list-of-tags ( http://mfkp.org/INRMM/tag/inrmm-list-of-tags ). ...

 

Carbon profiles of typical forest types across Europe assessed with CO2FIX

  
Ecological Indicators, Vol. 1, No. 3. (March 2002), pp. 213-223, https://doi.org/10.1016/s1470-160x(02)00007-9

Abstract

This paper presents for 16 typical forest types across Europe a standard carbon sequestration profile. The study was carried out with the model CO2FIX which was parameterised with local yield table data and additional required parameters. CO2FIX quantifies the carbon of the forest ecosystem–soil–wood products chain at the stand level. To avoid misleading results annual net sequestration rates are not presented here, because these strongly fluctuate in time. Therefore, only its advancing mean is presented as a more reliable indicator. This ...

 

Modelling regional climate change effects on potential natural ecosystems in Sweden

  
Climatic Change In Climatic Change, Vol. 78, No. 2-4. (October 2006), pp. 381-406, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-005-9030-1

Abstract

This study aims to demonstrate the potential of a process-based regional ecosystem model, LPJ-GUESS, driven by climate scenarios generated by a regional climate model system (RCM) to generate predictions useful for assessing effects of climatic and CO2 change on the key ecosystem services of carbon uptake and storage. Scenarios compatible with the A2 and B2 greenhouse gas emission scenarios of the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES) and with boundary conditions from two general circulation models (GCMs) – HadAM3H and ECHAM4/OPYC3 ...

 

Disturbance legacies and climate jointly drive tree growth and mortality in an intensively studied boreal forest

  
Global Change Biology (1 September 2013), pp. n/a-n/a, https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.12404

Abstract

Most North American forests are at some stage of post-disturbance regrowth, subject to a changing climate, and exhibit growth and mortality patterns that may not be closely coupled to annual environmental conditions. Distinguishing the possibly interacting effects of these processes is necessary to put short-term studies in a longer-term context, and particularly important for the carbon-dense, fire-prone boreal forest. The goals of this study were to combine dendrochronological sampling, inventory records, and machine-learning algorithms to understand how tree growth and death ...

 

Historical warming reduced due to enhanced land carbon uptake

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 110, No. 42. (15 September 2013), pp. 16730-16735, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1314047110

Abstract

[Significance] This article provides estimates of the climate benefits due to CO2 fertilization of the terrestrial biosphere. Without these benefits, the atmospheric CO2 concentration would have risen by ∼200 ppm since the preindustrial period instead of the observed ∼115 ppm (an 80% increase), and the global climate would have warmed by an additional 0.31 ± 0.06 °C (a 40% increase). These findings were obtained with a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory comprehensive Earth System Model ESM2G. [Abstract] Previous studies have demonstrated ...

 

Carbon stocks and soil respiration rates during deforestation, grassland use and subsequent Norway spruce afforestation in the Southern Alps, Italy

  
Tree Physiology, Vol. 20, No. 13. (01 July 2000), pp. 849-857, https://doi.org/10.1093/treephys/20.13.849

Abstract

Changes in carbon stocks during deforestation, reforestation and afforestation play an important role in the global carbon cycle. Cultivation of forest lands leads to substantial losses in both biomass and soil carbon, whereas forest regrowth is considered to be a significant carbon sink. We examined below- and aboveground carbon stocks along a chronosequence of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) stands (0–62 years old) regenerating on abandoned meadows in the Southern Alps. A 130-year-old mixed coniferous Norway spruce–white fir (Abies alba ...

 

Assessing REDD+ performance of countries with low monitoring capacities: the matrix approach

  
Environmental Research Letters, Vol. 7, No. 1. (01 March 2012), 014031, https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/7/1/014031

Abstract

Estimating emissions from deforestation and degradation of forests in many developing countries is so uncertain that the effects of changes in forest management could remain within error ranges (i.e. undetectable) for several years. Meanwhile UNFCCC Parties need consistent time series of meaningful performance indicators to set credible benchmarks and allocate REDD+ incentives to the countries, programs and activities that actually reduce emissions, while providing social and environmental benefits. Introducing widespread measuring of carbon in forest land (which would be required to estimate ...

 

Application of the CBM-CFS3 model to estimate Italy's forest carbon budget, 1995–2020

  
Ecological Modelling, Vol. 266 (September 2013), pp. 144-171, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2013.07.007

Abstract

The estimation of past and future forest carbon (C) dynamics in European countries is a challenging task due to complex and varying silvicultural systems, including uneven-aged forest management, and incomplete inventory data time series. In this study, we tested the use of the Carbon Budget Model of the Canadian Forest Sector (CBM-CFS3) in Italy, a country exemplifying most of these challenges. Our objective was to develop estimates of forest carbon budgets of the Forest Management area (including all forests existing in ...

 

First signs of carbon sink saturation in European forest biomass

  
Nature Climate Change, Vol. 3, No. 9. (18 August 2013), pp. 792-796, https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate1853

Abstract

European forests are seen as a clear example of vegetation rebound in the Northern Hemisphere; recovering in area and growing stock since the 1950s, after centuries of stock decline and deforestation. These regrowing forests have shown to be a persistent carbon sink, projected to continue for decades, however, there are early signs of saturation. Forest policies and management strategies need revision if we want to sustain the sink. ...

 

Conventional tree height–diameter relationships significantly overestimate aboveground carbon stocks in the Central Congo Basin

  
Nature Communications, Vol. 4 (5 August 2013), https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms3269

Abstract

Policies to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation largely depend on accurate estimates of tropical forest carbon stocks. Here we present the first field-based carbon stock data for the Central Congo Basin in Yangambi, Democratic Republic of Congo. We find an average aboveground carbon stock of 162±20 Mg C ha−1 for intact old-growth forest, which is significantly lower than stocks recorded in the outer regions of the Congo Basin. The best available tree height–diameter relationships derived for Central Africa do not render accurate ...

 

Continental-scale living forest biomass and carbon stock: a robust fuzzy ensemble of IPCC Tier 1 maps for Europe

  
IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology, Vol. 413 (2013), pp. 271-284, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-41151-9_26

Abstract

Forest ecosystems play a key role in the global carbon cycle. Spatially explicit data and assessments of forest biomass and carbon are therefore crucial for designing and implementing effective sustainable forest management options and forest related policies. In this contribution, we present European-wide maps of forest biomass and carbon stock spatially disaggregated at 1km x 1km. The maps originated from a spatialisation improvement of the IPCC methodology for estimating the forest biomass at IPCC Tier 1 level (IPCC-T1). [\n] Using a categorical ...

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A review of protocols used for assessment of carbon stock in forested landscapes

  
Environmental Science & Policy, Vol. 16 (February 2012), pp. 81-89, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2011.11.001

Abstract

The Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technical Advice of the UNFCCC is focused on methodological issues that include reference levels of CO2 emissions from deforestations and forest degradations under Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD). Quantification of forest carbon stock is a challenging task involving high degrees of uncertainty and discrepancies because of methods used. It is important that the REDD stakeholders be able to compare the REDD designs options, using standardized data. In this paper, we provide a ...

 

Landslide impact on organic carbon cycling in a temperate montane forest

  
Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, Vol. 36, No. 12. (30 September 2011), pp. 1670-1679, https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.2191

Abstract

In humid, forested mountain belts, bedrock landslides can harvest organic carbon from above ground biomass and soil (OCmodern) while acting to refresh the landscape surface and turnover forest ecosystems. Here the impact of landslides on organic carbon cycling in 13 river catchments spanning the length of the western Southern Alps, New Zealand is assessed over four decades. Spatial and temporal landslide maps are combined with the observed distribution and measured variability of hillslope OCmodern stocks. On average, it is estimated that ...

 

Forest soils and carbon sequestration

  
Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 220, No. 1-3. (10 December 2005), pp. 242-258, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2005.08.015

Abstract

Soils in equilibrium with a natural forest ecosystem have high carbon (C) density. The ratio of soil:vegetation C density increases with latitude. Land use change, particularly conversion to agricultural ecosystems, depletes the soil C stock. Thus, degraded agricultural soils have lower soil organic carbon (SOC) stock than their potential capacity. Consequently, afforestation of agricultural soils and management of forest plantations can enhance SOC stock through C sequestration. The rate of SOC sequestration, and the magnitude and quality of soil C stock ...

 

Short- and long-term effects of fire on carbon in US dry temperate forest systems

  
BioScience, Vol. 61, No. 2. (February 2011), pp. 139-146, https://doi.org/10.1525/bio.2011.61.2.9

Abstract

Forests sequester carbon from the atmosphere, and in so doing can mitigate the effects of climate change. Fire is a natural disturbance process in many forest systems that releases carbon back to the atmosphere. In dry temperate forests, fires historically burned with greater frequency and lower severity than they do today. Frequent fires consumed fuels on the forest floor and maintained open stand structures. Fire suppression has resulted in increased understory fuel loads and tree density; a change in structure that ...

 

Soil erosion and the global carbon budget

  
Environment International, Vol. 29, No. 4. (July 2003), pp. 437-450, https://doi.org/10.1016/s0160-4120(02)00192-7

Abstract

Soil erosion is the most widespread form of soil degradation. Land area globally affected by erosion is 1094 million ha (Mha) by water erosion, of which 751 Mha is severely affected, and 549 Mha by wind erosion, of which 296 Mha is severely affected. Whereas the effects of erosion on productivity and non-point source pollution are widely recognized, those on the C dynamics and attendant emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) are not. Despite its global significance, erosion-induced carbon (C) emission into ...

 

A large carbon sink in the woody biomass of Northern forests

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 98, No. 26. (18 December 2001), pp. 14784-14789, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.261555198

Abstract

The terrestrial carbon sink, as of yet unidentified, represents 15–30% of annual global emissions of carbon from fossil fuels and industrial activities. Some of the missing carbon is sequestered in vegetation biomass and, under the Kyoto Protocol of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, industrialized nations can use certain forest biomass sinks to meet their greenhouse gas emissions reduction commitments. Therefore, we analyzed 19 years of data from remote-sensing spacecraft and forest inventories to identify the size and location ...

 

The carbon balance of tropical, temperate and boreal forests

  
Plant, Cell and Environment, Vol. 22, No. 6. (June 1999), pp. 715-740, https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-3040.1999.00453.x

Abstract

Forest biomes are major reserves for terrestrial carbon, and major components of global primary productivity. The carbon balance of forests is determined by a number of component processes of carbon acquisition and carbon loss, and a small shift in the magnitude of these processes would have a large impact on the global carbon cycle. In this paper, we discuss the climatic influences on the carbon dynamics of boreal, temperate and tropical forests by presenting a new synthesis of micrometeorological, ecophysiological and ...

 

Spatially explicit scenario analysis for reconciling agricultural expansion, forest protection, and carbon conservation in Indonesia

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 107, No. 24. (15 June 2010), pp. 11140-11144, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1000530107

Abstract

Palm oil is the world's most important vegetable oil in terms of production quantity. Indonesia, the world's largest palm-oil producer, plans to double its production by 2020, with unclear implications for the other national priorities of food (rice) production, forest and biodiversity protection, and carbon conservation. We modeled the outcomes of alternative development scenarios and show that every single-priority scenario had substantial tradeoffs associated with other priorities. The exception was a hybrid approach wherein expansion targeted degraded and agricultural lands that ...

 

Trading carbon for food: Global comparison of carbon stocks vs. crop yields on agricultural land

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 107, No. 46. (16 November 2010), pp. 19645-19648, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1011078107

Abstract

Expanding croplands to meet the needs of a growing population, changing diets, and biofuel production comes at the cost of reduced carbon stocks in natural vegetation and soils. Here, we present a spatially explicit global analysis of tradeoffs between carbon stocks and current crop yields. The difference among regions is striking. For example, for each unit of land cleared, the tropics lose nearly two times as much carbon (∼120 tons·ha−1 vs. ∼63 tons·ha−1) and produce less than one-half the annual crop ...

 

Projecting global land-use change and its effect on ecosystem service provision and biodiversity with simple models

  
PLoS ONE, Vol. 5, No. 12. (15 December 2010), pp. e14327-e14327, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0014327

Abstract

As the global human population grows and its consumption patterns change, additional land will be needed for living space and agricultural production. A critical question facing global society is how to meet growing human demands for living space, food, fuel, and other materials while sustaining ecosystem services and biodiversity [1]. We spatially allocate two scenarios of 2000 to 2015 global areal change in urban land and cropland at the grid cell-level and measure the impact of this change on the provision ...

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