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Selection: with tag carbon-emission [27 articles] 


Forest fires

In EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2016 - Technical guidance to prepare national emission inventories, Vol. 21/2016 (2016), 11.B,


[Excerpt: Overview] This chapter describes emissions from (naturally or man-induced) burning of non-managed and managed forests and other vegetation, excluding agricultural burning of stubble, etc. This includes domestic fires (fuel wood-, crop residue-, dung and charcoal burning) as well as open vegetation fires (forest, shrub- , grass- and cropland burning). According to Barbosa (2006, personal communication), 95 % of the forest fires in the Mediterranean region are related to human impact (negligence, arson, etc.). For the boreal area, Molicone et al. (2006) estimate 87 % of forest ...


How have past fire disturbances contributed to the current carbon balance of boreal ecosystems?

Biogeosciences, Vol. 13, No. 3. (04 February 2016), pp. 675-690,


Boreal fires have immediate effects on regional carbon budgets by emitting CO2 into the atmosphere at the time of burning, but they also have legacy effects by initiating a long-term carbon sink during post-fire vegetation recovery. Quantifying these different effects on the current-day pan-boreal (44–84° N) carbon balance and quantifying relative contributions of legacy sinks by past fires is important for understanding and predicting the carbon dynamics in this region. Here we used the global dynamic vegetation model ORCHIDEE–SPITFIRE (Organising Carbon and ...


Well below 2 °C: mitigation strategies for avoiding dangerous to catastrophic climate changes

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 114, No. 39. (26 September 2017), pp. 10315-10323,


The historic Paris Agreement calls for limiting global temperature rise to “well below 2 °C.” Because of uncertainties in emission scenarios, climate, and carbon cycle feedback, we interpret the Paris Agreement in terms of three climate risk categories and bring in considerations of low-probability (5%) high-impact (LPHI) warming in addition to the central (∼50% probability) value. The current risk category of dangerous warming is extended to more categories, which are defined by us here as follows: >1.5 °C as dangerous; >3 ...


A new global burned area product for climate assessment of fire impacts

Global Ecology and Biogeography, Vol. 25, No. 5. (May 2016), pp. 619-629,


[Aim] This paper presents a new global burned area (BA) product developed within the framework of the European Space Agency's Climate Change Initiative (CCI) programme, along with a first assessment of its potentials for atmospheric and carbon cycle modelling. [Innovation] Methods are presented for generating a new global BA product, along with a comparison with existing BA products, in terms of BA extension, fire size and shapes and emissions derived from biomass burnings. [Main conclusions] Three years of the global BA product were ...


Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: science overview and knowledge needs

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 317 (April 2014), pp. 1-8,


[Highlights] [::] Wildland fires have influenced the global carbon cycle for ∼420 million years. [::] Fire moves carbon among terrestrial and atmospheric pools. [::] Fires emit carbon dioxide (CO2), black carbon and other aerosols. [::] Climate change alters fire regimes, potentially increasing wildfire emissions. [::] The global carbon cycle accounting should include wildland fire emissions. [Abstract] Wildland fires have influenced the global carbon cycle for ∼420 million years of Earth history, interacting with climate to define vegetation characteristics and distributions, trigger abrupt ecosystem shifts, and move carbon among ...


Wildfires in a warmer climate: emission fluxes, emission heights, and black carbon concentrations in 2090-2099

Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 121, No. 7. (16 April 2016), pp. 3195-3223,


Global warming is expected to considerably impact wildfire activity and aerosol emission release in the future. Due to their complexity, the future interactions between climate change, wildfire activity, emission release, and atmospheric aerosol processes are still uncertain. Here we use the process-based fire model SPITFIRE within the global vegetation model JSBACH to simulate wildfire activity for present-day climate conditions and future Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs). The modeled fire emission fluxes and fire radiative power serve as input for the aerosol-climate model ...


The trouble with negative emissions

Science, Vol. 354, No. 6309. (14 October 2016), pp. 182-183,


In December 2015, member states of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) adopted the Paris Agreement, which aims to hold the increase in the global average temperature to below 2°C and to pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5°C. The Paris Agreement requires that anthropogenic greenhouse gas emission sources and sinks are balanced by the second half of this century. Because some nonzero sources are unavoidable, this leads to the abstract concept of “negative emissions,” the ...


Impact of anthropogenic climate change on wildfire across western US forests

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (10 October 2016), 201607171,


[Significance] Increased forest fire activity across the western United States in recent decades has contributed to widespread forest mortality, carbon emissions, periods of degraded air quality, and substantial fire suppression expenditures. Although numerous factors aided the recent rise in fire activity, observed warming and drying have significantly increased fire-season fuel aridity, fostering a more favorable fire environment across forested systems. We demonstrate that human-caused climate change caused over half of the documented increases in fuel aridity since the 1970s and doubled the ...


Fire history and the global carbon budget: a 1°x 1° fire history reconstruction for the 20th century

Global Change Biology, Vol. 11, No. 3. (March 2005), pp. 398-420,


A yearly global fire history is a prerequisite for quantifying the contribution of previous fires to the past and present global carbon budget. Vegetation fires can have both direct (combustion) and long-term indirect effects on the carbon cycle. Every fire influences the ecosystem carbon budget for many years, as a consequence of internal reorganization, decomposition of dead biomass, and regrowth. We used a two-step process to estimate these effects. First we synthesized the available data available for the 1980s or 1990s ...


The FAOSTAT database of greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture - IOPscience

Environmental Research Letters, Vol. 8, No. 1. (2013), 015009,


Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture, including crop and livestock production, forestry and associated land use changes, are responsible for a significant fraction of anthropogenic emissions, up to 30% according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Yet while emissions from fossil fuels are updated yearly and by multiple sources—including national-level statistics from the International Energy Agency (IEA)—no comparable efforts for reporting global statistics for agriculture, forestry and other land use (AFOLU) emissions exist: the latest complete assessment was the ...

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Tackle climate change in Europe

In MEPs' Action Plans for a One Planet Europe (2014)


[Excerpt] In order to give certainty to investors and a clear position for international negotiations, the EU is developing a new framework of climate and energy laws for 2030. The recent European Parliament own-initiative report on the 2030 climate and energy targets goes further than the agreement reached by the European Council. A major weakness of the Commission’s assessment of the impact of decarbonisation is that it considers only costs, and fail to account for the benefits of climate and energy policies. WWF believes it is not ...


  1. DG for Climate Action, 2013. Special Eurobarometer 409 - Climate change. (pp.45-48). TNS Opinion and Social, European Commission, Brussels.
  2. European Commission, 2014. Commission staff working document impact assessment: Accompanying the document Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions A policy framework for climate and energy in the period from 2020 up to 2030.

Targeted carbon conservation at national scales with high-resolution monitoring

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 111, No. 47. (25 November 2014), pp. E5016-E5022,


[Significance] Land use is a principal driver of carbon emissions, either directly through land change processes such as deforestation or indirectly via transportation and industries supporting natural resource use. To minimize the effects of land use on the climate system, natural ecosystems are needed to offset gross emissions through carbon sequestration. Managing this critically important service must be achieved tactically if it is to be cost-effective. We have developed a high-resolution carbon mapping approach that can identify biogeographically explicit targets for carbon ...


Consequences of climate change damages for economic growth

OECD Economics Department Working Papers, Vol. 2014, No. 1135. (2014)


This report focuses on the effects of climate change impacts on economic growth. Simulations with the OECD’s dynamic global general equilibrium model ENV-Linkages assess the consequences of a selected number of climate change impacts in the various world regions at the macroeconomic and sectoral level. This is complemented with an assessment of very long-run implications, using the AD-RICE model. The analysis finds that the effect of climate change impacts on annual global GDP is projected to increase over time, leading to ...


  1. Agrawala, S. and S. Fankhauser (2008), “Economic Aspects of Adaptation to Climate Change”, OECD Publishing.
  2. Agrawala, S., F. Bosello, C. Carraro, E. De Cian, E. Lanzi, K.C. De Bruin and R.B. Dellink (2011), “Plan or React? Analysis of adaptation costs and benefits using Integrated Assessment Models”, Climate Change Economics, Vol. 2(3), pp. 175-208.
  3. Berrittella, M., Bigano, A., Roson, R. and R.S.J. Tol (2006), “A general equilibrium analysis of climate change

Quantifying fire-wide carbon emissions in interior Alaska using field measurements and Landsat imagery

Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, Vol. 119, No. 8. (1 August 2014), 2014JG002657,


Carbon emissions from boreal forest fires are projected to increase with continued warming and constitute a potentially significant positive feedback to climate change. The highest consistent combustion levels are reported in interior Alaska and can be highly variable depending on the consumption of soil organic matter. Here we present an approach for quantifying emissions within a fire perimeter using remote sensing of fire severity. Combustion from belowground and aboveground pools was quantified at 22 sites (17 black spruce and five white ...


Climate impacts: Fire fuels change

Nature Climate Change, Vol. 4, No. 8. (August 2014), pp. 662-662,


[Excerpt] The burning of vegetation — biomass burning — impacts on climate and air pollution. The fires produce gases and particles that interact and change the atmosphere and clouds. Most biomass burning is human-caused, resulting from land-clearing and land-use change, with a small proportion due to natural causes. Mark Jacobson, of Stanford University, USA, uses a 3D global model to simulate biomass burning [...] Over a 20-year period, biomass burning caused a net temperature increase of 0.4 °C globally, largely because of ...


Effects of biomass burning on climate, accounting for heat and moisture fluxes, black and brown carbon, and cloud absorption effects

Journal of Geophysical Research, Atmospheres, Vol. 119, No. 14. (27 July 2014), 2014JD021861,


This paper examines the effects on climate and air pollution of open biomass burning (BB) when heat and moisture fluxes, gases and aerosols (including black and brown carbon, tar balls, and reflective particles), cloud absorption effects (CAEs) I and II, and aerosol semidirect and indirect effects on clouds are treated. It also examines the climate impacts of most anthropogenic heat and moisture fluxes (AHFs and AMFs). Transient 20 year simulations indicate BB may cause a net global warming of ~0.4 K because ...


Forest Cover Changes in Tropical South and Central America from 1990 to 2005 and Related Carbon Emissions and Removals

Remote Sensing, Vol. 4, No. 5. (11 May 2012), pp. 1369-1391,


This paper outlines the methods and results for monitoring forest change and resulting carbon emissions for the 1990–2000 and 200–2005 periods carried out over tropical Central and South America. To produce our forest change estimates we used a systematic sample of medium resolution satellite data processed to forest change maps covering 1230 sites of 20 km by 20 km, each located at the degree confluence. Biomass data were spatially associated to each individual sample site so that annual carbon emissions could ...


An incentive mechanism for reducing emissions from conversion of intact and non-intact forests

Climatic Change In Climatic Change, Vol. 83, No. 4. (1 August 2007), pp. 477-493,


This paper presents a new accounting mechanism in the context of the UNFCCC issue on reducing emissions from deforestation in developing countries, including technical options for determining baselines of forest conversions. This proposal builds on the recent scientific achievements related to the estimation of tropical deforestation rates and to the assessment of ‘intact’ forest areas. The distinction between ‘intact’ and ‘non intact’ forests used here arises from experience with satellite-based deforestation measurements and allows accounting for carbon losses from forest degradation. ...


Renewable energy: back the renewables boom

Nature, Vol. 507, No. 7492. (19 March 2014), pp. 300-302,


Low-carbon technologies are getting better and cheaper each year, but continued public-policy support is needed to sustain progress, says Jessika E. Trancik. [Excerpt] [...] Public policies to encourage the development and adoption of renewable-energy technologies are essential, because low-carbon performance is not visible to most consumers and carbon is not priced in the global market. [...] The speed of energy-technology innovation is only just coming to light as long-term data sets become available. My analyses of 30 or more years of data2–4 show ...


Modeling biomass burning and related carbon emissions during the 21st century in Europe

Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, Vol. 118, No. 4. (December 2013), pp. 1732-1747,


In this study we present an assessment of the impact of future climate change on total fire probability, burned area, and carbon (C) emissions from fires in Europe. The analysis was performed with the Community Land Model (CLM) extended with a prognostic treatment of fires that was specifically refined and optimized for application over Europe. Simulations over the 21st century are forced by five different high-resolution Regional Climate Models under the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios A1B. Both original and bias-corrected ...


(INRMM-MiD internal record) List of keywords of the INRMM meta-information database - part 6

(February 2014)
Keywords: canopy-density   canopy-irradiance   canopy-opening   capnodis-miliaris   caragana-arborescens   carapa-guianensis   carbohydrates   carbon   carbon-cycle   carbon-dioxide-removal   carbon-emission   carbon-isotope-discrimination   carbon-mitigation   carbon-sequestration   carbon-stock   cardiaspina-fiscella   cardiovascular-benefit   carica-papaya   carnegiea-gigantea   carnivores   carpathian-region   carpinus-betulus   carpinus-cordata   carpinus-orientalis   carpinus-spp   cart   carya-illinoensis   carya-laciniosa   carya-ovata   carya-spp   carya-tomentosa   cascade-of-failures   cassia-fistula   castanea-crenata   castanea-dentata   castanea-mollissima   castanea-sativa   castanea-spp   castanopsis-eyrei   castanopsis-spp   casuarina-equisetifolia   catalonia   catalpa-ovata   catalpa-speciosa   catalpa-spp   catchment-scale   categorical-variables   cathaya-spp   cattle   caucasus   causal-networks   cavitation   ceanothus-thyrsiflorus   cecidomyiidae   cecropia-peltata   cedar-decline   cedrela-fissilis   cedrela-odorata   cedrus-atlantica   cedrus-brevifolia   cedrus-libani   ceiba-chodatii   ceiba-pentandra   cell-structure   cellular-automata   cellulose   celtis-australis   celtis-occidentalis   celtis-reticulata   celtis-spp   central-america   central-asia   central-china   central-europe   central-hardwood-forest   central-mediterranean   cerambycidae   ceratitis-cosyra   ceratocystis-coerulescens   ceratocystis-laricicola   ceratocystis-platani   ceratocystis-polonica   ceratocystis-spp   ceratonia-siliqua   ceratonia-spp   cercidium-microphyllum   cercis-siliquastrum   cercis-spp   cercocarpus-ledifolius   certification   cerura-vinula   chalara-fraxinea   chamaecyparis-lawsoniana   chamaecyparis-nootkatensis   chamaecyparis-obtusa   chamaecyparis-pisifera   chamaecyparis-spp   chamaecytisus-proliferus   inrmm-list-of-tags  


List of indexed keywords within the transdisciplinary set of domains which relate to the Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management (INRMM). In particular, the list of keywords maps the semantic tags in the INRMM Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD). [\n] The INRMM-MiD records providing this list are accessible by the special tag: inrmm-list-of-tags ( ). ...


Rapid growth in CO2 emissions after the 2008–2009 global financial crisis

Nature Climate Change, Vol. 2, No. 1. (4 December 2011), pp. 2-4,


Global carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion and cement production grew 5.9% in 2010, surpassed 9 Pg of carbon (Pg C) for the first time, and more than offset the 1.4% decrease in 2009. The impact of the 2008–2009 global financial crisis (GFC) on emissions has been short-lived owing to strong emissions growth in emerging economies, a return to emissions growth in developed economies, and an increase in the fossil-fuel intensity of the world economy. ...


Ensemble projections of wildfire activity and carbonaceous aerosol concentrations over the western United States in the mid-21st century

Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 77 (October 2013), pp. 767-780,


We apply ensemble projection for future wildfire using output from 15 GCMs. We develop and evaluate both regressions and a parameterization for fire predictions. We investigate the impacts of climate change on fuel load by the midcentury. We examine fire-induced changes in OC/BC by the midcentury. We estimate future wildfire activity over the western United States during the mid-21st century (2046–2065), based on results from 15 climate models following the A1B scenario. We develop fire prediction models by regressing meteorological variables ...


Assessing REDD+ performance of countries with low monitoring capacities: the matrix approach

Environmental Research Letters, Vol. 7, No. 1. (01 March 2012), 014031,


Estimating emissions from deforestation and degradation of forests in many developing countries is so uncertain that the effects of changes in forest management could remain within error ranges (i.e. undetectable) for several years. Meanwhile UNFCCC Parties need consistent time series of meaningful performance indicators to set credible benchmarks and allocate REDD+ incentives to the countries, programs and activities that actually reduce emissions, while providing social and environmental benefits. Introducing widespread measuring of carbon in forest land (which would be required to estimate ...


Game theory: building up cooperation

Nature Climate Change, Vol. 3, No. 9. (14 July 2013), pp. 782-783,


Can we achieve the ambitious mitigation targets needed to avert dangerous global warming? Research now shows that local sanctioning institutions may succeed where global agreements fall short. ...


Dynamic data driven ensemble for wildfire behaviour assessment: a case study

IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology, Vol. 413 (2013), pp. 11-22,


Wildfire information has long been collected in Europe, with particular focus on forest fires. The European Forest Fire Information System (EFFIS) of the European Commission complements and harmonises the information collected by member countries and covers the forest fire management cycle. This latter ranges from forest fire preparedness to post-fire impact analysis. However, predicting and simulating fire event dynamics requires the integrated modelling of several sources of uncertainty. Here we present a case study of a novel conceptualization based on a Semantic ...


An architecture for adaptive robust modelling of wildfire behaviour under deep uncertainty

IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology, Vol. 413 (2013), pp. 367-380,


Wildfires in Europe - especially in the Mediterranean region - are one of the major treats at landscape scale. While their immediate impact ranges from endangering human life to the destruction of economic assets, other damages exceed the spatio-temporal scale of a fire event. Wildfires involving forest resources are associated with intense carbon emissions and alteration of surrounding ecosystems. The induced land cover degradation has also a potential role in exacerbating soil erosion and shallow landslides. A component of the complexity in assessing ...

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Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD).
This database integrates a dedicated meta-information database in CiteULike (the CiteULike INRMM Group) with the meta-information available in Google Scholar, CrossRef and DataCite. The Altmetric database with Article-Level Metrics is also harvested. Part of the provided semantic content (machine-readable) is made even human-readable thanks to the DCMI Dublin Core viewer. Digital preservation of the meta-information indexed within the INRMM-MiD publication records is implemented thanks to the Internet Archive.
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