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Selection: with tag boreal-forests [14 articles] 


How have past fire disturbances contributed to the current carbon balance of boreal ecosystems?

Biogeosciences, Vol. 13, No. 3. (04 February 2016), pp. 675-690,


Boreal fires have immediate effects on regional carbon budgets by emitting CO2 into the atmosphere at the time of burning, but they also have legacy effects by initiating a long-term carbon sink during post-fire vegetation recovery. Quantifying these different effects on the current-day pan-boreal (44–84° N) carbon balance and quantifying relative contributions of legacy sinks by past fires is important for understanding and predicting the carbon dynamics in this region. Here we used the global dynamic vegetation model ORCHIDEE–SPITFIRE (Organising Carbon and ...


Spatial patterns and drivers of fire occurrence and its future trend under climate change in a boreal forest of Northeast China

Global Change Biology, Vol. 18, No. 6. (June 2012), pp. 2041-2056,


Understanding the spatial patterns of fire occurrence and its response to climate change is vital to fire risk mitigation and vegetation management. Focusing on boreal forests in Northeast China, we used spatial point pattern analysis to model fire occurrence reported from 1965 to 2009. Our objectives were to quantitate the relative importance of biotic, abiotic, and human influences on patterns of fire occurrence and to map the spatial distribution of fire occurrence density (number of fires occurring over a given area ...


Influence of landscape structure on patterns of forest fires in boreal forest landscapes in Sweden

Canadian Journal of Forest Research, Vol. 34, No. 2. (1 February 2004), pp. 332-338,


To analyze the effect of landscape structure (viz. amount of wetlands) on the past forest fire regime in boreal Sweden, we reconstructed detailed fire histories by cross-dating fire scars in living and dead Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in two different landscape types: mire-free landscapes with a low proportion (1%?2%) of mires and mire-rich landscapes with a high proportion (21%?33%) of mires. Two localities were selected and at each one, adjacent mire-free and mire-rich areas of 256?601 ha were sampled. Over ...


Influence of tree species on continental differences in boreal fires and climate feedbacks

Nature Geoscience, Vol. 8, No. 3. (2 February 2015), pp. 228-234,


Wildfires are common in boreal forests around the globe and strongly influence ecosystem processes. However, North American forests support more high-intensity crown fires than Eurasia, where lower-intensity surface fires are common. These two types of fire can result in different net effects on climate as a consequence of their contrasting impacts on terrestrial albedo and carbon stocks. Here we use remote-sensing imagery, climate reanalysis data and forest inventories to evaluate differences in boreal fire dynamics between North America and Eurasia and ...


Risk of large-scale fires in boreal forests of Finland under changing climate

Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, Vol. 16, No. 1. (21 January 2016), pp. 239-253,


The target of this work was to assess the impact of projected climate change on forest-fire activity in Finland with special emphasis on large-scale fires. In addition, we were particularly interested to examine the inter-model variability of the projected change of fire danger. For this purpose, we utilized fire statistics covering the period 1996–2014 and consisting of almost 20 000 forest fires, as well as daily meteorological data from five global climate models under representative concentration pathway RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios. The ...


The importance of phenology for the evaluation of impact of climate change on growth of boreal, temperate and Mediterranean forests ecosystems: an overview

International Journal of Biometeorology, Vol. 44, No. 2. (2000), pp. 67-75,


An overview is presented of the phenological models relevant for boreal coniferous, temperate-zone deciduous and Mediterranean coniferous forest ecosystems. The phenology of the boreal forests is mainly driven by temperature, affecting the timing of the start of the growing season and thereby its duration, and the level of frost hardiness and thereby the reduction of foliage area and photosynthetic capacity by severe frost events. The phenology of temperate-zone forests is also mainly driven by temperature. Since temperate-zone forests are mostly mixed-species ...


Adaptation, migration or extirpation: climate change outcomes for tree populations

Evolutionary Applications, Vol. 1, No. 1. (1 February 2008), pp. 95-111,


Species distribution models predict a wholesale redistribution of trees in the next century, yet migratory responses necessary to spatially track climates far exceed maximum post-glacial rates. The extent to which populations will adapt will depend upon phenotypic variation, strength of selection, fecundity, interspecific competition, and biotic interactions. Populations of temperate and boreal trees show moderate to strong clines in phenology and growth along temperature gradients, indicating substantial local adaptation. Traits involved in local adaptation appear to be the product of small ...


Wildfires in a warmer climate: emission fluxes, emission heights, and black carbon concentrations in 2090-2099

Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 121, No. 7. (16 April 2016), pp. 3195-3223,


Global warming is expected to considerably impact wildfire activity and aerosol emission release in the future. Due to their complexity, the future interactions between climate change, wildfire activity, emission release, and atmospheric aerosol processes are still uncertain. Here we use the process-based fire model SPITFIRE within the global vegetation model JSBACH to simulate wildfire activity for present-day climate conditions and future Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs). The modeled fire emission fluxes and fire radiative power serve as input for the aerosol-climate model ...


Characterizing extreme fire and weather events in the Boreal Shield ecozone of Ontario

Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, Vol. 133, No. 1-4. (November 2005), pp. 5-16,


Fire frequency is the most commonly used measure to characterize fire regimes for comparisons across geographical areas or time periods. Within the boreal forest region of the Boreal Shield ecozone of Ontario, fire frequency changes over time and across longitudinal gradients have been associated with drought frequency and large-scale climate processes. While providing evidence that fire regimes differ across areas of the Boreal Shield, fire frequency alone provides little insight into the potential for extreme fire events and the extreme fire ...


Future wildfire in circumboreal forests in relation to global warming

Journal of Vegetation Science, Vol. 9, No. 4. (August 1998), pp. 469-476,


Despite increasing temperatures since the end of the Little Ice Age (ca. 1850), wildfire frequency has decreased as shown in many field studies from North America and Europe. We believe that global warming since 1850 may have triggered decreases in fire frequency in some regions and future warming may even lead to further decreases in fire frequency. Simulations of present and future fire regimes, using daily outputs from the General Circulation Model (GCM), were in good agreement with recent trends observed ...


Temperate and boreal rainforest relicts of Europe

In Temperate and Boreal Rainforests of the World: Ecology and Conservation (2011), pp. 154-180,
Keywords: abies-alba   acer-pseudoplatanus   aconitum-spp   alces-alces   alnus-glutinosa   alnus-incana   anemone-trifolia   aquila-chrysaetos   arthonia-leucopellaea   asplenium-scolopendrium   athyrium-filix-femina   balkan-peninsula   betula-pendula   betula-pubescens   biodiversity   bison-bonasus   boreal-forests   buteo-buteo   calluna-vulgaris   canis-lupus   capreolus-capreolus   carduus-personata   central-europe   cervus-elaphus   cervus-nippon   cicerbita-alpine   conservation   cortusa-matthioli   corylus-avellana   dryocopus-martius   dryopteris-carthusiana   dryopteris-dilatata   dryopteris-spp   endangered-species   epimedium-alpinum   euphorbia-austriaca   europe   fagus-sylvatica   felis-silvestris   forest-resources   fragmentation   fraxinus-excelsior   grazing   gymnocarpium-dryopteris   habitat-conservation   hacquetia-epipactis   hotspot   ilex-aquifolium   lagopus-muta   lamium-orvala   larix-eurolepis   lichens   lobaria-amplissima   lobaria-scrobiculata   lunaria-rediviva   lynx-lynx   lyrurus-tetrix   meles-meles   milvus-milvus   norway   omphalodes-verna   picea-abies   picea-sitchensis   pinus-contorta   pleurospermum-austriacum   populus-tremula   prunus-avium   pseudotsuga-menziesii   pyrenula-laevigata   quercus-petraea   quercus-robur   quercus-spp   rainforest   rhododendron-ponticum   rupicapra-rupicapra   salix-caprea   salix-spp   sanicula-europaea   saxifraga-rotundifolia   sorbus-aucuparia   strix-uralensis   sus-scrofa   taxus-baccata   temperate-forests   tetrao-urogallus   thalictrum-aquilegifolium   thelotrema-lepadinum   tilia-cordata   tilia-platyphyllos   ulmus-glabra   vaccinium-myrtillus  


European temperate rainforests are disjunctly distributed from ~45° to 69°N latitude, where they are influenced by maritime climates (see figure 6-1). Storms originating in the North Atlantic and the Mediterranean (Balkans) provide for mild winters, cool summers, and adequate precipitation to sustain rainforests throughout the year. Due to extensive deforestation, however, today’s European rainforests are mere fragments of primeval rainforests. A reminder of a bygone era when rainforests flourished, they are barely hanging on as contemporary rainforest relicts (see box 6-1). ...


The effect of biodiversity on tree productivity: from temperate to boreal forests

Global Ecology and Biogeography, Vol. 20, No. 1. (1 January 2011), pp. 170-180,


[Aim] An important issue regarding biodiversity concerns its influence on ecosystem functioning. Experimental work has led to the proposal of mechanisms such as niche complementarity. However, few attempts have been made to confirm these in natural systems, especially in forests. Furthermore, one of the most interesting unresolved questions is whether the effects of complementarity on ecosystem functioning (EF) decrease in favour of competitive exclusions over an increasing productivity gradient. Using records from permanent forest plots, we asked the following questions. (1) ...


Fire history and the global carbon budget: a 1°x 1° fire history reconstruction for the 20th century

Global Change Biology, Vol. 11, No. 3. (March 2005), pp. 398-420,


A yearly global fire history is a prerequisite for quantifying the contribution of previous fires to the past and present global carbon budget. Vegetation fires can have both direct (combustion) and long-term indirect effects on the carbon cycle. Every fire influences the ecosystem carbon budget for many years, as a consequence of internal reorganization, decomposition of dead biomass, and regrowth. We used a two-step process to estimate these effects. First we synthesized the available data available for the 1980s or 1990s ...


Habitat destruction: death by a thousand cuts

In Conservation Biology for All (01 January 2010), pp. 73-87,


[Excerpt] Humankind has dramatically transformed much of the Earth’s surface and its natural ecosystems. This process is not new—it has been ongoing for millennia—but it has accelerated sharply over the last two centuries, and especially in the last several decades. [\n] Today, the loss and degradation of natural habitats can be likened to a war of attrition. Many natural ecosystems are being progressively razed, bulldozed, and felled by axes or chainsaws, until only small scraps of their original extent survive. Forests have been hit especially hard: the global area of forests has been reduced ...

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