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Selection: with tag bias-correction [48 articles] 

 

Bias correction in species distribution models: pooling survey and collection data for multiple species

  
Methods in Ecology and Evolution, Vol. 6, No. 4. (1 April 2015), pp. 424-438, https://doi.org/10.1111/2041-210x.12242

Abstract

[::] Presence-only records may provide data on the distributions of rare species, but commonly suffer from large, unknown biases due to their typically haphazard collection schemes. Presence–absence or count data collected in systematic, planned surveys are more reliable but typically less abundant. [::] We proposed a probabilistic model to allow for joint analysis of presence-only and survey data to exploit their complementary strengths. Our method pools presence-only and presence–absence data for many species and maximizes a joint likelihood, simultaneously estimating and adjusting ...

 

A high-accuracy map of global terrain elevations

  
Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 44, No. 11. (16 June 2017), pp. 5844-5853, https://doi.org/10.1002/2017gl072874
 

Robust projections of Fire Weather Index in the Mediterranean using statistical downscaling

  
Climatic Change, Vol. 120, No. 1-2. (2013), pp. 229-247, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-013-0787-3

Abstract

The effect of climate change on wildfires constitutes a serious concern in fire-prone regions with complex fire behavior such as the Mediterranean. The coarse resolution of future climate projections produced by General Circulation Models (GCMs) prevents their direct use in local climate change studies. Statistical downscaling techniques bridge this gap using empirical models that link the synoptic-scale variables from GCMs to the local variables of interest (using e.g. data from meteorological stations). In this paper, we investigate the application of statistical ...

 

Projecting future drought in Mediterranean forests: bias correction of climate models matters!

  
Theoretical and Applied Climatology, Vol. 117, No. 1-2. (2014), pp. 113-122, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00704-013-0992-z

Abstract

Global and regional climate models (GCM and RCM) are generally biased and cannot be used as forcing variables in ecological impact models without some form of prior bias correction. In this study, we investigated the influence of the bias correction method on drought projections in Mediterranean forests in southern France for the end of the twenty-first century (2071–2100). We used a water balance model with two different atmospheric climate forcings built from the same RCM simulations but using two different correction ...

 

Detecting long-range correlations with detrended fluctuation analysis

  
Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Vol. 295, No. 3-4. (June 2001), pp. 441-454, https://doi.org/10.1016/s0378-4371(01)00144-3

Abstract

We examine the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), which is a well-established method for the detection of long-range correlations in time series. We show that deviations from scaling which appear at small time scales become stronger in higher orders of DFA, and suggest a modified DFA method to remove them. The improvement is necessary especially for short records that are affected by non-stationarities. Furthermore, we describe how crossovers in the correlation behavior can be detected reliably and determined quantitatively and show how ...

 

Statistical significance of seasonal warming/cooling trends

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 114, No. 15. (11 April 2017), pp. E2998-E3003, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1700838114

Abstract

[Significance] The question whether a seasonal climatic trend (e.g., the increase of spring temperatures in Antarctica in the last decades) is of anthropogenic or natural origin is of great importance because seasonal climatic trends may considerably affect ecological systems, agricultural yields, and human societies. Previous studies assumed that the seasonal records can be treated as independent and are characterized by short-term memory only. Here we show that both assumptions, which may lead to a considerable overestimation of the trend significance, do not ...

 

Multi-variable bias correction: application of forest fire risk in present and future climate in Sweden

  
Natural Hazards and Earth System Science, Vol. 15, No. 9. (11 September 2015), pp. 2037-2057, https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-15-2037-2015

Abstract

As the risk of a forest fire is largely influenced by weather, evaluating its tendency under a changing climate becomes important for management and decision making. Currently, biases in climate models make it difficult to realistically estimate the future climate and consequent impact on fire risk. A distribution-based scaling (DBS) approach was developed as a post-processing tool that intends to correct systematic biases in climate modelling outputs. In this study, we used two projections, one driven by historical reanalysis (ERA40) and ...

 

Improving generalized regression analysis for the spatial prediction of forest communities

  
Journal of Biogeography, Vol. 33, No. 10. (October 2006), pp. 1729-1749, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2699.2006.01465.x

Abstract

Abstract Aim  This study used data from temperate forest communities to assess: (1) five different stepwise selection methods with generalized additive models, (2) the effect of weighting absences to ensure a prevalence of 0.5, (3) the effect of limiting absences beyond the environmental envelope defined by presences, (4) four different methods for incorporating spatial autocorrelation, and (5) the effect of integrating an interaction factor defined by a regression tree on the residuals of an initial environmental model. Location  State of Vaud, ...

 

The politics of publication

  
Nature, Vol. 422, No. 6929. (20 March 2003), pp. 259-261, https://doi.org/10.1038/422259a

Abstract

Authors, reviewers and editors must act to protect the quality of research. Listen. All over the world scientists are fretting. [Excerpt] The decision about publication of a paper is the result of interaction between authors, editors and reviewers. Scientists are increasingly desperate to publish in a few top journals and are wasting time and energy manipulating their manuscripts and courting editors. As a result, the objective presentation of work, the accessibility of articles and the quality of research itself are being compromised. ...

 

Take the time and effort to correct misinformation

  
Nature, Vol. 540, No. 7632. (6 December 2016), pp. 171-171, https://doi.org/10.1038/540171a

Abstract

Scientists should challenge online falsehoods and inaccuracies — and harness the collective power of the Internet to fight back, argues Phil Williamson. [Excerpt] [...] Most researchers who have tried to engage online with ill-informed journalists or pseudoscientists will be familiar with Brandolini’s law (also known as the Bullshit Asymmetry Principle): the amount of energy needed to refute bullshit is an order of magnitude bigger than that needed to produce it. Is it really worth taking the time and effort to challenge, correct and clarify ...

 

Trusting others to ‘do the math’

  
Interdisciplinary Science Reviews, Vol. 40, No. 4. (2 October 2015), pp. 376-392, https://doi.org/10.1080/03080188.2016.1165454

Abstract

Researchers effectively trust the work of others anytime they use software tools or custom software. In this article I explore this notion of trusting others, using Digital Humanities as a focus, and drawing on my own experience. Software is inherently flawed and limited, so when its use in scholarship demands better practices and terminology, to review research software and describe development processes. It is also important to make research software engineers and their work more visible, both for the purposes of ...

 

Software and scholarship

  
Interdisciplinary Science Reviews, Vol. 40, No. 4. (2 October 2015), pp. 342-348, https://doi.org/10.1080/03080188.2016.1165456

Abstract

[excerpt] The thematic focus of this issue is to examine what happens where software and scholarship meet, with particular reference to digital work in the humanities. Despite the some seven decades of its existence, Digital Humanities continues to struggle with the implications, in the academic ecosystem, of its position between engineering and art. [...] [\n] [...] [\n] I will end with my own reflection on this topic of evaluation. Peer review of scholarly works of software continues to pose a particularly vexed challenge ...

 

Regional climate hindcast simulations within EURO-CORDEX: evaluation of a WRF multi-physics ensemble

  
Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 8, No. 3. (16 March 2015), pp. 603-618, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-8-603-2015

Abstract

In the current work we present six hindcast WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting model) simulations for the EURO-CORDEX (European Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment) domain with different configurations in microphysics, convection and radiation for the time period 1990–2008. All regional model simulations are forced by the ERA-Interim reanalysis and have the same spatial resolution (0.44°). These simulations are evaluated for surface temperature, precipitation, short- and longwave downward radiation at the surface and total cloud cover. The analysis of the WRF ensemble ...

 

Projections of climate change indices of temperature and precipitation from an ensemble of bias-adjusted high-resolution EURO-CORDEX regional climate models

  
J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., Vol. 121, No. 10. (27 May 2016), pp. 2015JD024411-5511, https://doi.org/10.1002/2015jd024411

Abstract

Statistical bias-adjustment of climate models' outputs is being increasingly used for assessing the impact of climate change on several sectors. It is known that these techniques may alter the mean climate signal of the adjusted variable; however, the effect on the projected occurrence of climate extremes is less commonly investigated. Here the outputs of an ensemble of high-resolution (0.11°) regional climate models (RCM) from the Coordinated Regional-climate Downscaling Experiment for Europe (EURO-CORDEX) have been bias adjusted, and a number of climate ...

 

Climatologies at high resolution for the earth's land surface areas

  
Scientific Data, Vol. 4 (Sep 2017), 170122, https://doi.org/10.1038/sdata.2017.122

Abstract

High-resolution information on climatic conditions is essential to many applications in environmental and ecological sciences. Here we present the CHELSA (Climatologies at high resolution for the earth’s land surface areas) data of downscaled model output temperature and precipitation estimates of the ERA-Interim climatic reanalysis to a high resolution of 30 arc sec. The temperature algorithm is based on statistical downscaling of atmospheric temperatures. The precipitation algorithm incorporates orographic predictors including wind fields, valley exposition, and boundary layer height, with a subsequent bias correction. ...

 

CHELSA climatologies at high resolution for the earth's land surface areas (Version 1.1)

  

Abstract

CHELSA_v1.1 (http://chelsa-climate.org/) is a high resolution (30 arc sec, ~1 km) climate data set for the earth land surface areas. It includes monthly and annual mean temperature and precipitation patterns as well as derived bioclimatic and interannual parameters for the time period 1979-2013. CHELSA_v1.1 is based on a quasi-mechanistical statistical downscaling of the ERA interim global circulation model (http://www.ecmwf.int/en/research/climate-reanalysis/era-interim) with a GPCC (https://www.dwd.de/EN/ourservices/gpcc/gpcc.html) and GHCN (https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/ghcnm/) bias correction. ...

 

Bias correction of the ENSEMBLES high-resolution climate change projections for use by impact models: evaluation on the present climate

  
Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 116, No. D16. (18 August 2011), https://doi.org/10.1029/2011jd015934

Abstract

A statistical bias correction technique is applied to a set of high-resolution climate change simulations for Europe from 11 state-of-the-art regional climate models (RCMs) from the project ENSEMBLES. Modeled and observed daily values of mean, minimum and maximum temperature and total precipitation are used to construct transfer functions for the period 1961–1990, which are then applied to the decade 1991–2000, where the results are evaluated. By using a large ensembles of model runs and a long construction period, we take into ...

 

Bias correction of the ENSEMBLES high resolution climate change projections for use by impact models: analysis of the climate change signal

  
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 117, No. D17. (16 September 2012), D17110, https://doi.org/10.1029/2012jd017968

Abstract

A statistical bias correction technique is applied to twelve high-resolution climate change simulations of temperature and precipitation over Europe, under the SRES A1B scenario, produced for the EU project ENSEMBLES. The bias correction technique is based on a transfer function, estimated on current climate, which affects the whole Probability Distribution Function (PDF) of variables, and which is assumed constant between the current and future climate. The impact of bias correction on 21st Century projections, their inter-model variability, and the climate change ...

 

Plant responses to increasing CO2 reduce estimates of climate impacts on drought severity

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, No. 36. (06 September 2016), pp. 10019-10024, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1604581113

Abstract

[Significance] We show that the water savings that plants experience under high CO2 conditions compensate for much of the effect of warmer temperatures, keeping the amount of water on land, on average, higher than we would predict with common drought metrics, and with a different spatial pattern. The implications of plants needing less water under high CO2 reaches beyond drought prediction to the assessment of climate change impacts on agriculture, water resources, wildfire risk, and vegetation dynamics. [Abstract] Rising atmospheric CO2 will make Earth ...

 

MSWEP: 3-hourly 0.25° global gridded precipitation (1979–2015) by merging gauge, satellite, and reanalysis data

  
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions (30 May 2016), pp. 1-38, https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-2016-236

Abstract

Current global precipitation (P) datasets do not take full advantage of the complementary nature of satellite and reanalysis data. Here, we present Multi-Source Weighted-Ensemble Precipitation (MSWEP), a global P dataset for the period 1979–2015 with a 3-hourly temporal and 0.25° spatial resolution, specifically designed for hydrological modeling. The design philosophy of MSWEP was to optimally merge the highest quality P data sources available as a function of time scale and location. The long-term mean of MSWEP was based on the CHPclim ...

 

Comparison of model predictions with measurements: a novel model-assessment method

  
Journal of Dairy Science, Vol. 99, No. 6. (June 2016), pp. 4907-4927, https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2015-10032

Abstract

Frequently, scientific findings are aggregated using mathematical models. Because models are simplifications of the complex reality, it is necessary to assess whether they capture the relevant features of reality for a given application. An ideal assessment method should (1) account for the stochastic nature of observations and model predictions, (2) set a correct null hypothesis, (3) treat model predictions and observations interchangeably, and (4) provide quantitatively interpretable statistics relative to precision and accuracy. Current assessment methods show deficiencies in regards to ...

 

Simultaneous estimation of multinomial cell probabilities

  
Journal of the American Statistical Association, Vol. 68, No. 343. (1 September 1973), pp. 683-691, https://doi.org/10.1080/01621459.1973.10481405

Abstract

A new estimator, p*, of the multinomial parameter vector is proposed, and it is shown to be a better choice in most situations than the usual estimator, (the vector of observed proportions). The risk functions (expected squared-error loss) of these two estimators are examined in three ways using: (a) exact calculations, (b) standard asymptotic theory, and (c) a novel asymptotic framework in which the number of cells is large and the number of observations per cell is moderate. The general superiority ...

 

Calibration of remotely sensed proportion or area estimates for misclassification error

  
Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 39, No. 1. (January 1992), pp. 29-43, https://doi.org/10.1016/0034-4257(92)90138-a

Abstract

Classifications of remotely sensed data contain misclassification errors that bias areal estimates. Monte Carlo techniques were used to compare two statistical methods that correct or calibrate remotely sensed areal estimates for misclassification bias using reference data from an error matrix. The inverse calibration estimator was consistently superior to the classical estimator using a simple random sample of reference plots. The effects of sample size of reference plots, detail of the classification system, and classification accuracy on the precision of the inverse ...

 

Stacking species distribution models and adjusting bias by linking them to macroecological models

  
Global Ecology and Biogeography, Vol. 23, No. 1. (1 January 2014), pp. 99-112, https://doi.org/10.1111/geb.12102

Abstract

[Aim] Species distribution models (SDMs) are common tools in biogeography and conservation ecology. It has been repeatedly claimed that aggregated (stacked) SDMs (S-SDMs) will overestimate species richness. One recently suggested solution to this problem is to use macroecological models of species richness to constrain S-SDMs. Here, we examine current practice in the development of S-SDMs to identify methodological problems, provide tools to overcome these issues, and quantify the performance of correctly stacked S-SDMs alongside macroecological models. [Locations] Barents Sea, Europe and Dutch Wadden Sea. [Methods] We present formal mathematical arguments demonstrating how S-SDMs should ...

 

Species-area and species-sampling effort relationships: disentangling the effects

  
Ecography, Vol. 34, No. 1. (February 2011), pp. 18-30, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0587.2010.06288.x

Abstract

Species numbers tend to increase with both the area surveyed (species–area relationship, SAR) and the number of samples taken (species–sampling effort relationship, SSER). These two relationships differ in their nature and underlying mechanisms but are not clearly distinguished in field studies. To discriminate the effects of area (spatial extent) and sampling effort (SE) on species richness, several models explicitly involving both variables were proposed and tested against 13 datasets from marine micro-, meio- and macrobenthos. A combination of power SSER and ...

 

Infants ask for help when they know they don’t know

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 113, No. 13. (29 March 2016), pp. 3492-3496, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1515129113

Abstract

[Significance] Although many animals have been shown to monitor their own uncertainty, only humans seem to have the ability to explicitly communicate their uncertainty to others. It remains unknown whether this ability is present early in development, or whether it only emerges later alongside language development. Here, using a nonverbal memory-monitoring paradigm, we show that infants are able to strategically ask for help to avoid making mistakes. These findings reveal that infants are capable of monitoring and communicating their own uncertainty. We ...

 

Reproducibility: a tragedy of errors

  
Nature, Vol. 530, No. 7588. (3 February 2016), pp. 27-29, https://doi.org/10.1038/530027a

Abstract

Mistakes in peer-reviewed papers are easy to find but hard to fix, report David B. Allison and colleagues. [Excerpt: Three common errors] As the influential twentieth-century statistician Ronald Fisher (pictured) said: “To consult the statistician after an experiment is finished is often merely to ask him to conduct a post mortem examination. He can perhaps say what the experiment died of.” [\n] [...] Frequent errors, once recognized, can be kept out of the literature with targeted education and policies. Three of the most common are ...

 

Wikipedians reach out to academics

  

Abstract

London conference discusses efforts by the online encyclopaedia to enlist the help of scientists. [Excerpt] Wikipedia is among the most frequently visited websites in the world, and one of the most popular places to tap into the world’s scientific and medical information. But scientists themselves are generally wary of it, because it can be edited by anyone, regardless of their level of expertise. At a meeting in London last week, the non-profit website’s volunteer editors reached out to scientists to enlist their help ...

 

Climate-change ‘hiatus’ disappears with new data

  

Abstract

US agency’s updated temperature records suggest that global warming continues apace. [Excerpt] An apparent pause in global warming might have been a temporary mirage, according to recent analysis. Global average temperatures have continued to rise throughout the first part of the 21st century, researchers report on 5 June in Science1. [\n] That finding, which contradicts the 2013 report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), is based on an update of the global temperature records maintained by the US National Oceanic and ...

 

Watchdogs of the European system

  
Science, Vol. 348, No. 6238. (29 May 2015), pp. 947-947, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aac6092

Abstract

Henry Kissinger, as U.S Secretary of State, is famously said to have asked: “If I want to call Europe, who do I call?” Until recently, the scientific community thought it had an answer to this question: the chief scientific adviser (CSA) to the president of the European Commission (EC). Two weeks ago, that changed. [Excerpt] President Juncker insisted that he was still committed to scientific advice and asked Carlos Moedas, the Commissioner for Research, Science and Innovation, to lead a review of ...

 

Environmental tipping points significantly affect the cost−benefit assessment of climate policies

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 112, No. 15. (14 April 2015), pp. 4606-4611, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1503890112

Abstract

[Significance] Most current cost−benefit analyses of climate change suggest global climate policy should be relatively weak. However, relatively few studies account for the market or nonmarket impacts of passing environmental tipping points that cause abrupt and irreversible damages. We use a stochastic dynamic model of the climate and economy to quantify the effect of tipping points on climate change policy. We show that environmental tipping points can profoundly alter cost−benefit analysis, justifying a much more stringent climate policy, which takes the form ...

 

Editorial

  
Basic and Applied Social Psychology, Vol. 37, No. 1. (2 January 2015), pp. 1-2, https://doi.org/10.1080/01973533.2015.1012991

Abstract

[Excerpt] The Basic and Applied Social Psychology (BASP) 2014 Editorial emphasized that the null hypothesis significance testing procedure (NHSTP) is invalid, and thus authors would be not required to perform it (Trafimow, 2014). However, to allow authors a grace period, the Editorial stopped short of actually banning the NHSTP. The purpose of the present Editorial is to announce that the grace period is over. From now on, BASP is banning the NHSTP. With the banning of the NHSTP from BASP, what are ...

References

  1. Chihara , C. S., 1994. The Howson-Urbach proofs of Bayesian principles. In E. Eells & B. Skyrms (Eds.), Probability and conditionals: Belief revision and rational decision (pp. 161 – 178 ). New York , NY : Cambridge University Press .
  2. Fisher , R. A., 1973. Statistical methods and scientific inference, 3rd ed. . London , England : Collier Macmillan .
  3. Glymour , C., 1980. Theory and evidence . Princeton , NJ
 

Quantifying biodiversity: procedures and pitfalls in the measurement and comparison of species richness

  
Ecology Letters, Vol. 4, No. 4. (22 July 2001), pp. 379-391, https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1461-0248.2001.00230.x

Abstract

Species richness is a fundamental measurement of community and regional diversity, and it underlies many ecological models and conservation strategies. In spite of its importance, ecologists have not always appreciated the effects of abundance and sampling effort on richness measures and comparisons. We survey a series of common pitfalls in quantifying and comparing taxon richness. These pitfalls can be largely avoided by using accumulation and rarefaction curves, which may be based on either individuals or samples. These taxon sampling curves contain ...

 

Ten Simple Rules for Better Figures

  
PLOS Computational Biology, Vol. 10, No. 9. (11 September 2014), e1003833, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003833

Abstract

Scientific visualization is classically defined as the process of graphically displaying scientific data. However, this process is far from direct or automatic. There are so many different ways to represent the same data: scatter plots, linear plots, bar plots, and pie charts, to name just a few. Furthermore, the same data, using the same type of plot, may be perceived very differently depending on who is looking at the figure. A more accurate definition for scientific visualization would be a graphical ...

 

How to avoid a perfunctory sensitivity analysis

  
Environmental Modelling & Software, Vol. 25, No. 12. (15 December 2010), pp. 1508-1517, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsoft.2010.04.012

Abstract

Mathematical modelers from different disciplines and regulatory agencies worldwide agree on the importance of a careful sensitivity analysis (SA) of model-based inference. The most popular SA practice seen in the literature is that of ’one-factor-at-a-time’ (OAT). This consists of analyzing the effect of varying one model input factor at a time while keeping all other fixed. While the shortcomings of OAT are known from the statistical literature, its widespread use among modelers raises concern on the quality of the associated sensitivity ...

 

Comparison of empirical and theoretical remote sensing based bathymetry models in river environments

  
River Research and Applications, Vol. 28, No. 1. (January 2012), pp. 118-133, https://doi.org/10.1002/rra.1441

Abstract

Knowledge of underwater morphology is an essential component of many hydrological and environmental applications such as flood modelling and lotic habitat mapping. Remote sensing allows modelling of bathymetry at spatial scales that are impossible to achieve with traditional methods. However, the use of passive remote sensing for modelling water depth in fluvial environments remains a challenge. Different methods of computing bathymetry models based on remotely sensed imagery combined with ground measurements for calibration were investigated in order to produce a digital bathymetry ...

 

Evaluating the utility of dynamical downscaling in agricultural impacts projections

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 111, No. 24. (17 June 2014), pp. 8776-8781, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1314787111

Abstract

Interest in estimating the potential socioeconomic costs of climate change has led to the increasing use of dynamical downscaling—nested modeling in which regional climate models (RCMs) are driven with general circulation model (GCM) output—to produce fine-spatial-scale climate projections for impacts assessments. We evaluate here whether this computationally intensive approach significantly alters projections of agricultural yield, one of the greatest concerns under climate change. Our results suggest that it does not. We simulate US maize yields under current and future CO2 concentrations ...

 

Pruning of memories by context-based prediction error

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 111, No. 24. (17 June 2014), pp. 8997-9002, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1319438111

Abstract

[Significance] Forgetting is often considered to be bad, but selective forgetting of unreliable information can have the positive side effect of reducing mental clutter, thereby making it easier to access our most important memories. Prior studies of forgetting have focused on passive mechanisms (decay, interference) or on effortful inhibition by cognitive control. Here we report the discovery of an active mechanism for forgetting that weakens memories selectively and without burdening the conscious mind. Specifically, we show that the brain automatically generates ...

 

Climate Outsider Finds Missing Global Warming

  
Science, Vol. 344, No. 6182. (25 April 2014), pp. 348-348, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.344.6182.348

Abstract

Major climate data sets have underestimated the rate of global warming in the last 15 years owing largely to poor data in the Arctic, the planet's fastest warming region. A dearth of temperature stations there is one culprit; another is a data-smoothing algorithm that has been improperly tuning down temperatures there. The findings come from an unlikely source: a crystallographer and graduate student working on the temperature analyses in their spare time. ...

 

Climate impacts in Europe - The JRC PESETA II project

  
edited by J. C. Ciscar

Abstract

The objective of the JRC PESETA II project is to gain insights into the sectoral and regional patterns of climate change impacts in Europe by the end of this century. The study uses a large set of climate model runs and impact categories (ten impacts: agriculture, energy, river floods, droughts, forest fires, transport infrastructure, coasts, tourism, habitat suitability of forest tree species and human health). The project integrates biophysical direct climate impacts into a macroeconomic economic model, which enables the comparison ...

References

  1. Aaheim, A., Amundsen, H., Dokken, T., Wei, T., 2012. Impacts and Adaptation to Climate Change in European Economies. Global Environmental Change 22(4), 959-968. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2012.06.005 .
  2. Alley, R.B., Whillans, I.M., 1991. Changes in the West Antarctic ice sheet. Science 254 (5034), 959–963. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.254.5034.959 .
  3. Anstey, J., Davini, P., Gray, L., Woollings, T., 2012. Multi-model analysis of winter blocking and tropospheric jet variability: The roles of horizontal and vertical resolution. Submitted to J.
 

(INRMM-MiD internal record) List of keywords of the INRMM meta-information database - part 4

  
(February 2014)
Keywords: banksia-serrata   bark-beetle   batocera-lineolata   bavaria   bedrock   beech-forest   behaviour   behavioural-contracts   belgium   beliefs   below-ground-biomass   berberis-vulgaris   bernoulli   bertholletia-excelsa   betula-alba   betula-albo-sinensis   betula-alleghaniensis   betula-alnoides   betula-ashburneri   betula-celtiberica   betula-chichibuensis   betula-chinensis   betula-cordifolia   betula-costata   betula-cylindrostachya   betula-dahurica   betula-ermanii   betula-falcata   betula-fruticosa   betula-glandulosa   betula-globispica   betula-gmelinii   betula-grossa   betula-gynoterminalis   betula-honanensis   betula-humilis   betula-karagandensis   betula-klokovii   betula-kotulae   betula-lenta   betula-maximowicziana   betula-megrelica   betula-michauxii   betula-microphylla   betula-murrayana   betula-nana   betula-nigra   betula-occidentalis   betula-papyrifera   betula-pendula   betula-platyphylla   betula-populifolia   betula-potamophila   betula-psammophila   betula-pubescens   betula-raddeana   betula-recurvata   betula-skvorsovii   betula-spp   betula-sunanensis   betula-szaferi   betula-utilis   betula-zinserlingii   betulaceae   bias   bias-correction   bias-disembodied-science-vs-computational-scholarship   bias-toward-primacy-of-theory-over-reality   bibliometrics   bifurcation-analysis   big-data   binomial-distribution   bio-based-economy   biochemical-product   bioclimatic-envelope-models   bioclimatic-predictors   biodiversity   biodiversity-hotspot   biodiversity-impacts   biodiversity-indicator   biodiversity-offsets   bioeconomy   bioenergy   bioethanol   biofilm   biofiltration   biofuel   biogenic-volatile-organic-compounds   biogeography   bioinformatics   biological-control   biological-invasions   biology   biomass   biomass-burning   biomass-production   biomass-to-energy   biome   biomonitoring   inrmm-list-of-tags  

Abstract

List of indexed keywords within the transdisciplinary set of domains which relate to the Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management (INRMM). In particular, the list of keywords maps the semantic tags in the INRMM Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD). [\n] The INRMM-MiD records providing this list are accessible by the special tag: inrmm-list-of-tags ( http://mfkp.org/INRMM/tag/inrmm-list-of-tags ). ...

 

Amazon forests maintain consistent canopy structure and greenness during the dry season

  
Nature (5 February 2014), https://doi.org/10.1038/nature13006

Abstract

The seasonality of sunlight and rainfall regulates net primary production in tropical forests1. Previous studies have suggested that light is more limiting than water for tropical forest productivity2, consistent with greening of Amazon forests during the dry season in satellite data3, 4, 5, 6, 7. We evaluated four potential mechanisms for the seasonal green-up phenomenon, including increases in leaf area5, 6, 7 or leaf reflectance3, 4, 6, using a sophisticated radiative transfer model8 and independent satellite observations from lidar and optical ...

 

Interdisciplinary research: a philosophy, art form, artifact or antidote?

  
Integrative Psychological and Behavioral Science In Integrative Psychological and Behavioral Science, Vol. 35, No. 1. (2000), pp. 58-66, https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02911166

Abstract

Interdisciplinary research has many faces—a philosophy, an art form, an artifact, and an antidote. It is all of these things because interdisciplinary research attempts to ask questions in ways that cut across disciplinary boundaries. This is not politically correct and universities especially find it difficult to manage interdisciplinarians and their projects. The author argues that interdisciplinary research has persisted as an alternative when traditional research approaches have failed to come up with answers to common problems. Interdisciplinary research will continue to ...

 

Educating Future Scientists

  
Science, Vol. 301, No. 5639. (12 September 2003), pp. 1485-1485, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1086133

Abstract

Significant cultural changes are urgently needed if the burgeoning scientific opportunities in biology are to be tackled by a well-prepared cadre of young scientists from all disciplines. Interdisciplinary cooperation must encompass the individual investigator, academic department, research institution, and federal funding agencies. This Policy Forum describes principles and recommendations that have emerged from an ongoing experiment in interdisciplinary training that since 1996 has included three cycles of grant awards to ten institutions, involving several hundred trainees and their mentors. ...

 

What are climate models missing?

  
Science, Vol. 340, No. 6136. (31 May 2013), pp. 1053-1054, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1237554

Abstract

Fifty years ago, Joseph Smagorinsky published a landmark paper (1) describing numerical experiments using the primitive equations (a set of fluid equations that describe global atmospheric flows). In so doing, he introduced what later became known as a General Circulation Model (GCM). GCMs have come to provide a compelling framework for coupling the atmospheric circulation to a great variety of processes. Although early GCMs could only consider a small subset of these processes, it was widely appreciated that a more comprehensive ...

 

On the hydrologic adjustment of climate-model projections: the potential pitfall of potential evapotranspiration

  
Earth Interactions, Vol. 15, No. 1. (19 October 2010), pp. 1-14, https://doi.org/10.1175/2010ei363.1

Abstract

Abstract Hydrologic models often are applied to adjust projections of hydroclimatic change that come from climate models. Such adjustment includes climate-bias correction, spatial refinement (?downscaling?), and consideration of the roles of hydrologic processes that were neglected in the climate model. Described herein is a quantitative analysis of the effects of hydrologic adjustment on the projections of runoff change associated with projected twenty-first-century climate change. In a case study including three climate models and 10 river basins in the contiguous United States, ...

 

A Less Cloudy Future: The Role of Subtropical Subsidence in Climate Sensitivity

  
Science, Vol. 338, No. 6108. (09 November 2012), pp. 792-794, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1227465

Abstract

An observable constraint on climate sensitivity, based on variations in mid-tropospheric relative humidity (RH) and their impact on clouds, is proposed. We show that the tropics and subtropics are linked by teleconnections that induce seasonal RH variations that relate strongly to albedo (via clouds), and that this covariability is mimicked in a warming climate. A present-day analog for future trends is thus identified whereby the intensity of subtropical dry zones in models associated with the boreal monsoon is strongly linked to ...

 

HESS Opinions "Should we apply bias correction to global and regional climate model data?"

  
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, Vol. 16, No. 9. (21 September 2012), pp. 3391-3404, https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-16-3391-2012

Abstract

Despite considerable progress in recent years, output of both global and regional circulation models is still afflicted with biases to a degree that precludes its direct use, especially in climate change impact studies. This is well known, and to overcome this problem, bias correction (BC; i.e. the correction of model output towards observations in a post-processing step) has now become a standard procedure in climate change impact studies. In this paper we argue that BC is currently often used in an ...

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