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Selection: with tag australia [29 articles] 


Anthropogenic forcings and associated changes in fire risk in Western North America and Australia during 2015-2016

Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society In Explaining Extreme Events of 2016 from a Climate Perspective, Vol. 99, No. 1. (January 2018), pp. S60-S64,


Extreme vapor pressure deficits (VPD) have been associated with enhanced wildfire risk. Using one model, we found for 2015/16 that human influences quintupled the risk of extreme VPD for western North America and increased the risk for extratropical Australia. [Excerpt: Introduction] In 2016, about 3.6 million hectares of land burned in the United States and Canada (NIFC 2017; NFD 2017). In Canada, a wildfire southwest of Fort McMurray, Alberta, caused the largest wildfire evacuation in Alberta’s history and destroyed 2400 homes ...


Climate change, habitat loss, protected areas and the climate adaptation potential of species in Mediterranean ecosystems worldwide

PLOS ONE, Vol. 4, No. 7. (29 July 2009), e6392,


Mediterranean climate is found on five continents and supports five global biodiversity hotspots. Based on combined downscaled results from 23 atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs) for three emissions scenarios, we determined the projected spatial shifts in the mediterranean climate extent (MCE) over the next century. Although most AOGCMs project a moderate expansion in the global MCE, regional impacts are large and uneven. The median AOGCM simulation output for the three emissions scenarios project the MCE at the end of the 21st ...


Assessment of fire danger conditions

Australian Forestry, Vol. 13, No. 1. (1 January 1949), pp. 53-62,


SUMMARY At the Yallourn and Kiewa undertakings of the State Electricity Commission of Victoria, a simple fire danger meter is being used to assist the fire protection staff in their judgment of fire danger conditions in the surrounding forests. On this meter, the fire danger rating is arrived at by adding a burning index, based on weather conditions on the day, to a season index, based on past weather history for the season. The formulae for calculating these indices are empirical, ...


The Australian flammability monitoring system

In Brisbane 2016: annual conference (2016)


Live fuel moisture content (LFMC) is one of the primary variables affecting bushfire flammability. We have developed the first Australia-wide flammability monitoring system for operational prediction of LFMC and flammability using satellite data. [Excerpt: Conclusion and future work] [::] We developed the prototype of the first Australia-wide Flammability Monitoring System for operational prediction of LFMC and flammability using satellite observations. [::] LFMC is not the only variable that is related to fire occurrence, and therefore the importance of other factors (e.g. fire weather and ...


Modelling the effects of fire and rainfall regimes on extreme erosion events in forested landscapes

Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment, Vol. 28, No. 8. (2014), pp. 2015-2025,


Existing models of post-fire erosion have focused primarily on using empirical or deterministic approaches to predict the magnitude of response from catchments given some initial rainfall and burn conditions. These models are concerned with reducing uncertainties associated with hydro-geomorphic transfer processes and typically operate at event timescales. There have been relatively few attempts at modelling the stochastic interplay between fire disturbance and rainfall as factors which determine the frequency and severity with which catchments are conditioned (or primed) for a hazardous ...


The effect of species geographical distribution estimation methods on richness and phylogenetic diversity estimates

International Journal of Geographical Information Science, Vol. 26, No. 11. (1 November 2012), pp. 2097-2109,


Diversity assessments are widely used in various fields of knowledge and rely on good estimates of species distribution. There are several methods available to estimate species distribution and the effect of using them is not clearly understood. In this research, we assess the effect of species distributions derived from four geographical distribution estimation methods on derived species richness and phylogenetic diversity (PD). We used the following four most common approaches to determine species geographical distributions: (1) range-wide occurrences are records of ...


Determining landscape fine fuel moisture content of the Kilmore East ‘Black Saturday’ wildfire using spatially-extended point-based models

Environmental Modelling & Software, Vol. 40 (February 2013), pp. 98-108,


[Abstract] Fuel moisture is the most dynamic component of bushfire fuels. It varies rapidly both spatially and temporally and plays a significant role in determining the behaviour and spread of bushfires, particularly through combustibility and ease of ignition of dead fine fuels (i.e. particle diameter <6 mm). The Kilmore East fire in Victoria, Australia, on 7 February, 2009 (“Black Saturday”) was the most destructive bushfire in Australia's history. Its behaviour was characterised by mass spotting (the launch, transport and landing of burning ...


Quantifying the effects of topographic aspect on water content and temperature in fine surface fuel

International Journal of Wildland Fire, Vol. 24, No. 8. (2015), 1129,


This study quantifies the effects of topographic aspect on surface fine fuel moisture content (FFMC) in order to better represent landscape-scale variability in fire risk. Surface FFMC in a eucalypt forest was measured from December to May (180 days) on different aspects using a novel method for in situ monitoring of moisture content (GWClit) and temperature (Tlit) in litter. Daily mean GWClit varied systematically with aspect. North (0.07 ≤ GWClit ≤ 1.30 kg kg–1) and south (0.11 ≤ GWClit ≤ 1.83 ...


Deep cognitive imaging systems enable estimation of continental-scale fire incidence from climate data

Scientific Reports, Vol. 3 (13 November 2013),


Unplanned fire is a major control on the nature of terrestrial ecosystems and causes substantial losses of life and property. Given the substantial influence of climatic conditions on fire incidence, climate change is expected to substantially change fire regimes in many parts of the world. We wished to determine whether it was possible to develop a deep neural network process for accurately estimating continental fire incidence from publicly available climate data. We show that deep recurrent Elman neural network was the ...


Site-based and remote sensing methods for monitoring indicators of vegetation condition: an Australian review

Ecological Indicators, Vol. 60 (January 2016), pp. 1273-1283,


We review attributes and methods of vegetation condition monitoring within Australia. Site-based and remote sensing approaches both offer important information about vegetation condition. Integration of the two approaches opens up new avenues for monitoring vegetation condition across a range of scales. Consequently we recommend a number of key areas for future research in order to improve vegetation condition assessment for the purposes of evidence-based decision making. Native vegetation around the world is under threat from historical and ongoing clearance, overgrazing, invasive ...


Geographic Patterns of Genetic Variation in Eucalyptus globulus ssp. globulus and a Revised Racial Classification

Australian Journal of Botany, Vol. 47, No. 2. (1999), pp. 237-263


The geographic patterns of genetic variation in a wide variety of quantitative traits were studied in Eucalyptus globulus ssp. globulus and its intergrades, leading to a revised racial classification. The analysis was based on 35 traits assessed in five field trials in northern Tasmania from approximately 500 open-pollinated families, encompassing 49 collection localities in native stands. There were significant differences between the collection localities for most traits. While growth and survival traits exhibited weak spatial structuring, there were clear regional patterns ...


A comparative study of rainfall erosivity estimation for southern Italy and southeastern Australia

Hydrological Sciences Journal, Vol. 44, No. 1. (1 February 1999), pp. 3-24,


Abstract In this paper, using Sicilian and Australian rainfall intensity data, a comparison between different estimators (modified Fournier index F, FF index) of the rainfall erosivity factor in the USLE was made. The relationship between the modified Fournier index and the mean annual rainfall, P, was theoretically derived. The K constant, linking the FF index and P, and its cumulative distribution function (CDF) were used to establish hydrological similitude among different geographical regions of southern Italy and southeastern Australia. To predict ...



In Flora of Australia Volume 3: Hamamelidales to Casuarinales (1989)


Nine families of mainly wind-pollinated plants are described in this volume. They range in size from the herbaceous nettles (Urticaceae) to the She-Oaks (Casuarinaceae), and in distribution from the tropics to temperate rainforests and even arid zone woodlands. Some families such as Betulaceae and Ulmaceae (Elms) contain mainly introduced species, while others like Moraceae (Figs) are mainly native. The largest family is Casuarinaceae with 66 species, mostly in the genus Allocasuarina (She-Oaks). Moraceae has 47 species in 7 genera, including the Figs. ...


Feral olives (Olea europaea) as future woody weeds in Australia: a review

Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, Vol. 40, No. 6. (2000), pp. 889-901


Olives (Olea europaea ssp. europaea), dispersed from 19th century orchards in the Adelaide area, have become established in remnant bushland as a major environmental weed. Recent expansion of the Australian olive industry has resulted in the widespread planting of olive orchards in South Australia, Victoria, New South Wales, Western Australia, Queensland and parts of Tasmania. This paper reviews the literature on the activity of vertebrate (principally avian) olive predators and their potential as vectors for spreading this plant into Australian remnant ...


First report of Colletotrichum acutatum and C. gloeosporioides causing leaf spots of olives (Olea europaea) in Australia

Australasian Plant Disease Notes, Vol. 3, No. 1. (2008), pp. 143-144


We report the occurrence of Colletotrichum acutatum and C. gloeosporioides on leaves of olives (Olea europaea) for the first time in Australia. ...


Prunus (Amygdalaceae) in New South Wales

Telopea, Vol. 3, No. 2. (1988), pp. 145-157


Thirteen introduced species of Prunus occur in New South Wales, and are described from material collected from wild individuals in the State. Four or five are in process of becoming naturalized. Dispersal, distribution and phenology, and the taxonomy of plums, are discussed. A key to the species, subspecies and varieties is provided. ...



In Flora of Tasmania Online (2009)
edited by M. F. Duretto


The Flora of Tasmania Online is a publicly available resource for the dissemination of taxonomic information relating to the flora of the State of Tasmania. Currently the focus will be on the Angiosperms (flowering plants). The Flora contains keys, descriptions, distributional and habitat data etc for all taxa with appropriate referencing. For the first time the flora for the entire State of Tasmania (including Macquarie Is.) will be covered. The Flora will be completed in parts and individual family accounts will be ...


Controlling desert ash (Fraxinus angustifolia subsp. angustifolia): have we found the silver bullet?

In Proceedings of the 19th Australasian Weeds Conference (2014), pp. 190-193


Desert ash (Fraxinus angustifoliaVahl. subsp. angustifolia, Oleaceae) is a weedy deciduous tree in south-eastern Australia, particularly in riparian situations. It reproduces by seed and by root suckers and can form monocultures displacing desirable native shrubs and trees. Very little published information is available regarding suitable control methods and anecdotal reports of the effectiveness of herbicides are variable. We conducted two trials to determine the effectiveness of herbicides to control desert ash. From the first screening trial picloram and triclopyr + picloram ...


Land transport systems under climate change: a macroeconomic assessment of adaptation measures for the case of Austria

No. GEP 2015-01. (2015)


In the light of climate change, transport systems become increasingly stressed by extreme weather and gradual climatic changes, resulting in direct costs which arise in the affected sector as well as indirect costs due to economic spill-over effects. To attenuate these costs, sector specific adaptation measures are needed, raising the question of the net-benefits of adaptation at a macroeconomic level. However, despite their importance such assessments of impacts and adaptation at the macro-level are scarce and coarse in their implementation. This ...


  1. Aaheim, A., Amundsen, H., Dokken, T., Wei, T., 2012. Impacts and adaptation to climate change in European economies. Global Environmental Change 22, 959–968.
  2. Aaheim, A., Gopalakrishnan, R., Chaturvedi, R.K., Ravindranath, N.H., Sagadevan, A.D., Sharma, N., Wei, T., 2011. A macroeconomic analysis of adaptation to climate change impacts on forests in India. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 16, 229–245.
  3. Abrell, J., 2010. Regulating CO2 emissions of transportation in Europe:

Crown Fire Thresholds in Exotic Pine Plantations of Australasia



Fire managers in Australasia currently lack the basis that would permit them to objectively evaluate the potential for crown fire development in exotic pine plantations under any specified set of fuel, weather and topographic conditions. The existing crown fire initiation models all have inherent weaknesses or lack applicability, thereby rendering their utility questionable. A model that would enable them to predict the onset of crowning has been developed from a combination of physical insights and mathematical modelling coupled with relevant field ...


Pine invasions in the southern hemisphere: modelling interactions between organism, environment and disturbance

Plant Ecology In Plant Ecology, Vol. 135, No. 1. (1998), pp. 79-93,


Current theories of plant invasion have been criticized for their limited heuristic and predictive value. We explore the heuristic and predictive potential of a model which explicitly simulates the mechanisms of plant invasion. The model, a spatially-explicit individual-based simulation, is applied to the invasion of pine trees (Pinus spp.; Pinaceae) in three vegetation types in the southern hemisphere. The model simulates factors which have been invoked as major determinants of invasive success: plant traits, environmental features and disturbance level. Results show ...


Measurement and prediction of biomass and carbon content of Pinus pinaster trees in farm forestry plantations, south-western Australia

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 175, No. 1-3. (March 2003), pp. 103-117,


A total of 148 Pinus pinaster trees from 18 farm plantations in south-western Australia were destructively sampled to develop biomass and carbon mass prediction equations for inventory application. Sampling covered a range of ages (1–47-year-old), sizes (e.g. DBH 0–47 cm) and spacings (close- and open-spaced arrangements). Equations were developed to predict biomass and carbon mass of whole-trees and tree components (stems, crowns, tops and roots) as functions of stem diameter (DBH), tree height (h) and height to crown base (hc) or basal ...



In Flora of Tasmania Online (2009)
edited by M. F. Duretto
Keywords: australia   populus-spp   salix-spp   tasmania  


The Flora of Tasmania Online is a publicly available resource for the dissemination of taxonomic information relating to the flora of the State of Tasmania. Currently the focus will be on the Angiosperms (flowering plants). The Flora contains keys, descriptions, distributional and habitat data etc for all taxa with appropriate referencing. For the first time the flora for the entire State of Tasmania (including Macquarie Is.) will be covered. The Flora will be completed in parts and individual family accounts will be ...


Edge geometry influences patch-level habitat use by an edge specialist in south-eastern Australia

Landscape Ecology In Landscape Ecology, Vol. 23, No. 4. (2008), pp. 377-389,


We investigated patterns in habitat use by the noisy miner (Manorina melanocephala) along farmland-woodland edges of large patches of remnant vegetation (>300 ha) in the highly fragmented box-ironbark woodlands and forests of central Victoria, Australia. Noisy miners exclude small birds from their territories, and are considered a significant threat to woodland bird communities in the study region. Seventeen different characteristics of edge habitat were recorded, together with the detection or non-detection of noisy miners along 129 500-m segments of patch edge. Habitat ...


On the origin of the invasive olives (Olea europaea L., Oleaceae)

Heredity, Vol. 99, No. 6. (08 August 2007), pp. 608-619,


The olive tree (Olea europaea) has successfully invaded several regions in Australia and Pacific islands. Two olive subspecies (subspp. europaea and cuspidata) were first introduced in these areas during the nineteenth century. In the present study, we determine the origin of invasive olives and investigate the importance of historical effects on the genetic diversity of populations. Four invasive populations from Australia and Hawaii were characterized using eight nuclear DNA microsatellites, plastid DNA markers as well as ITS-1 sequences. Based on these ...


(INRMM-MiD internal record) List of keywords of the INRMM meta-information database - part 4

(February 2014)
Keywords: atmospheric-circulation   atmospheric-rivers   atriplex-halimus   atriplex-nummularia   atta-cephalotes   auc   australia   austria   austrocedrus-chilensis   authorship   autoecology   automatic-knowledge-generation   automatic-knowledge-mapping   automation   automation-irony   autonomic-computing   autoregressive-model   avicennia-germinans   avifauna   awk   azadirachta-indica   azerbaijan   azolla-spp   bacillus-thuringiensis   back-propagation-networks   bacteria   bacterial-canker   bacterial-diseases   bacterial-wood-degradation   bactris-gasipaes   bactrocera-invadens   bactrocera-oleae   baikiaea-plurijuga   balanites-aegyptiaca   balkan-peninsula   balkan-region   balkans   baltic-sea-ice   bangladesh   banksia-grandis   banksia-serrata   bark   bark-beetle   basal-area   batocera-lineolata   bavaria   bayesian   bedrock   beech-forest   beekeeping   behaviour   behavioural-contracts   belgium   beliefs   below-ground-biomass   bemisia-tabaci   berberis-vulgaris   bernoulli   bertholletia-excelsa   beta-diversisty   betula-alba   betula-albo-sinensis   betula-alleghaniensis   betula-alnoides   betula-ashburneri   betula-celtiberica   betula-chichibuensis   betula-chinensis   betula-cordifolia   betula-costata   betula-cylindrostachya   betula-dahurica   betula-ermanii   betula-falcata   betula-fruticosa   betula-glandulosa   betula-globispica   betula-gmelinii   betula-grossa   betula-gynoterminalis   betula-honanensis   betula-humilis   betula-karagandensis   betula-klokovii   betula-kotulae   betula-lenta   betula-litwinowii   betula-maximowicziana   betula-medwedewii   betula-megrelica   betula-michauxii   betula-microphylla   betula-murrayana   betula-nana   betula-nigra   betula-occidentalis   betula-papyrifera   betula-pendula   betula-platyphylla   inrmm-list-of-tags  


List of indexed keywords within the transdisciplinary set of domains which relate to the Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management (INRMM). In particular, the list of keywords maps the semantic tags in the INRMM Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD). [\n] The INRMM-MiD records providing this list are accessible by the special tag: inrmm-list-of-tags ( ). ...


Distinctiveness of wildfire effects on soil erosion in south-east Australian eucalypt forests assessed in a global context

Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 238, No. 1-3. (January 2007), pp. 347-364,


The premise of this paper is that continued improvement in the understanding of wildfire impacts on soil erosion and better prediction of resulting hazards can be best achieved by adopting a concept of global regional variants and endemic factors that distinguish some regions in terms of post-fire erosion characteristics. The need for such an approach is exemplified here based on the fire-prone eucalypt forests in south-east Australia. Wildfire effects on vegetation, fauna, soil erodibility and erosion in this environment are evaluated ...


Land use information for integrated natural resources management—a coordinated national mapping program for Australia

Journal of Land Use Science, Vol. 1, No. 1. (30 June 2006), pp. 45-62,


Land use has profound effects on soil, vegetation and water resources. In Australia, land use information has a critical role to play in developing effective responses to natural resource management problems such as salinity, water quality and the maintenance of biodiversity?at national, regional and local levels. This calls for strategic collation and delivery of land use mapping. This paper describes key elements of a nationally coordinated land use mapping program in Australia, including mapping scales, procedures, and technical and scientific challenges. ...


‘Tolerable’ hillslope soil erosion rates in Australia: linking science and policy

Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, Vol. 144, No. 1. (November 2011), pp. 136-149,


This paper reviews water-borne soil erosion in Australia in the context of current environmental policy needs. Sustainability has emerged as a central tenet of environmental policy in Australia and water-borne hillslope soil erosion rates are used as one of the indicators of agricultural sustainability in State of the Environment reporting. We review attempts to quantify hillslope erosion rates over Australia and we identify areas at risk of exceeding natural baseline rates. We also review historical definitions of sustainable, or ‘tolerable’ erosion ...

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This database integrates a dedicated meta-information database in CiteULike (the CiteULike INRMM Group) with the meta-information available in Google Scholar, CrossRef and DataCite. The Altmetric database with Article-Level Metrics is also harvested. Part of the provided semantic content (machine-readable) is made even human-readable thanks to the DCMI Dublin Core viewer. Digital preservation of the meta-information indexed within the INRMM-MiD publication records is implemented thanks to the Internet Archive.
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