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Selection: with tag array-of-factors [27 articles] 

 

Beyond pairwise mechanisms of species coexistence in complex communities

  
Nature, Vol. 546, No. 7656. (31 May 2017), pp. 56-64, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature22898

Abstract

The tremendous diversity of species in ecological communities has motivated a century of research into the mechanisms that maintain biodiversity. However, much of this work examines the coexistence of just pairs of competitors. This approach ignores those mechanisms of coexistence that emerge only in diverse competitive networks. Despite the potential for these mechanisms to create conditions under which the loss of one competitor triggers the loss of others, we lack the knowledge needed to judge their importance for coexistence in nature. ...

 

Divergence of species responses to climate change

  
Science Advances, Vol. 3, No. 5. (17 May 2017), e1603055, https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.1603055

Abstract

Climate change can have profound impacts on biodiversity and the sustainability of many ecosystems. Various studies have investigated the impacts of climate change, but large-scale, trait-specific impacts are less understood. We analyze abundance data over time for 86 tree species/groups across the eastern United States spanning the last three decades. We show that more tree species have experienced a westward shift (73%) than a poleward shift (62%) in their abundance, a trend that is stronger for saplings than adult trees. The ...

 

Robust modelling of the impacts of climate change on the habitat suitability of forest tree species

  
Keywords: abies-alba   array-of-factors   artificial-neural-networks   bioclimatic-predictors   change-factor   climate-change   data-uncertainty   diversity   environmental-modelling   europe   extrapolation-uncertainty   featured-publication   forest-resources   free-scientific-knowledge   free-scientific-software   free-software   fuzzy   gdal   genetic-diversity   geospatial   geospatial-semantic-array-programming   gnu-bash   gnu-linux   gnu-octave   habitat-suitability   integration-techniques   mastrave-modelling-library   maximum-habitat-suitability   modelling-uncertainty   multiplicity   peseta-series   python   regional-climate-models   relative-distance-similarity   robust-modelling   semantic-array-programming   semantic-constraints   semantics   spatial-disaggregation   sres-a1b   supervised-training   unsupervised-training  

Abstract

[::] In Europe, forests play a strategic multifunctional role, serving economic, social and environmental purposes. However, their complex interaction with climate change is not yet well understood. [::] The JRC PESETA project series proposes a consistent multi-sectoral assessment of the impacts of climate change in Europe. [::] Within the PESETA II project, a robust methodology is introduced for modelling the habitat suitability of forest tree species (2071-2100 time horizon). [::] Abies alba (the silver fir) is selected as case study: a main European tree ...

References

  1. European Commission, 2013. Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions - A new EU forest strategy: for forests and the forest based sector. No. COM(2013) 659 final. Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=celex:52013DC0659 , INRMM-MiD:12642065 .
  2. European Commission, 2013. Commission staff working document accompanying the document: Communication from the commission to
 

Modeling the impacts of climate change on forest fire danger in Europe: sectorial results of the PESETA II Project

  

Abstract

This constitutes a sectorial analysis of the PESETA II project of the European Commission Joint Research Center in the area of wildfires. [\n] Wildfires are a serious threat to European forests, and climate is the most important driving factor affecting wildfire potential over time (Flannigan et al., 2000). Wildfires are an environmental, economic and social problem particularly in the southern European countries, where wildfires regularly burn thousands of hectares of forests and other lands. Changes in wildfire regimes may have strong impacts on natural resources and ecosystems stability, ...

 

Fitness of multidimensional phenotypes in dynamic adaptive landscapes

  
Trends in Ecology & Evolution, Vol. 30, No. 8. (August 2015), pp. 487-496, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2015.06.003

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] Integrating fitness into community ecology will improve trait-based predictions. [::] Dynamic adaptive landscapes link phenotypes to fitness across environments. [::] Fitness is a function of multidimensional phenotype–environment interactions. [::] Intraspecific trait covariation constrains environmental niche breadth. [Abstract] Phenotypic traits influence species distributions, but ecology lacks established links between multidimensional phenotypes and fitness for predicting species responses to environmental change. The common focus on single traits rather than multiple trait combinations limits our understanding of their adaptive value, and intraspecific trait covariation has been neglected in ...

 

Individuals and the variation needed for high species diversity in forest trees

  
Science, Vol. 327, No. 5969. (25 February 2010), pp. 1129-1132, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1183506

Abstract

In the past, explanations for high species diversity have been sought at the species level. Theory shows that coexistence requires substantial differences between species, but species-level data rarely provide evidence for such differences. Using data from forests in the southeastern United States, I show here that variation evident at the individual level provides for coexistence of large numbers of competitors. Variation among individuals within populations allows species to differ in their distributions of responses to the environment, despite the fact that ...

 

Resolving the biodiversity paradox

  
Ecology Letters, Vol. 10, No. 8. (August 2007), pp. 647-659, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2007.01041.x

Abstract

The paradox of biodiversity involves three elements, (i) mathematical models predict that species must differ in specific ways in order to coexist as stable ecological communities, (ii) such differences are difficult to identify, yet (iii) there is widespread evidence of stability in natural communities. Debate has centred on two views. The first explanation involves tradeoffs along a small number of axes, including ‘colonization-competition’, resource competition (light, water, nitrogen for plants, including the ‘successional niche’), and life history (e.g. high-light growth vs. ...

 

Multiple dimensions of climate change and their implications for biodiversity

  
Science, Vol. 344, No. 6183. (01 May 2014), pp. 1247579-1247579, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1247579

Abstract

[Structured Abstract] [::Background] Changes in Earth’s climate over time can be measured in many ways. The different metrics available represent alternative dimensions of climate change, each with distinct implications for biodiversity conservation and other sectors. However, this diversity is rarely recognized. At any given locality, average temperature or precipitation can increase or decrease, extreme values can become more intense or frequent, and the timing of specific climatic events can shift. At the same time, climatic conditions are redistributed at broader spatial extents. Across ...

 

Do hypervolumes have holes?

  
The American Naturalist, Vol. 187, No. 4. (15 February 2016), pp. E93-E105, https://doi.org/10.1086/685444

Abstract

Hypervolumes are used widely to conceptualize niches and trait distributions for both species and communities. Some hypervolumes are expected to be convex, with boundaries defined by only upper and lower limits (e.g., fundamental niches), while others are expected to be maximal, with boundaries defined by the limits of available space (e.g., potential niches). However, observed hypervolumes (e.g., realized niches) could also have holes, defined as unoccupied hyperspace representing deviations from these expectations that may indicate unconsidered ecological or evolutionary processes. Detecting ...

 

A cautionary note on the use of hypervolume kernel density estimators in ecological niche modelling

  
Global Ecology and Biogeography (August 2016), https://doi.org/10.1111/geb.12492

Abstract

Blonder et al. (2014, Global Ecology and Biogeography, 23, 595–609) introduced a new multivariate kernel density estimation (KDE) method to infer Hutchinsonian hypervolumes in the modelling of ecological niches. The authors argued that their KDE method matches or outperforms several methods for estimating hypervolume geometries and for conducting species distribution modelling. Further clarification, however, is appropriate with respect to the assumptions and limitations of KDE as a method for species distribution modelling. Using virtual species and controlled environmental scenarios, we show ...

 

Dam-building threatens Mekong fisheries

  
Science, Vol. 354, No. 6316. (02 December 2016), pp. 1084-1085, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.354.6316.1084

Abstract

[Excerpt] Every April, the pa nyawn catfish would make their way up the Mekong River to spawn, crowding through a narrow channel that skirts Khone Falls in southern Laos. Villagers netted the thumb-sized fish by the hundreds of thousands. Then, in 2014, work started on Don Sahong Dam, which straddles the channel. Although the dam won't be completed for another 2 years, construction has already cut off the migration and destroyed the fishing sites, says Zeb Hogan, a biologist with the ...

 

US exposure to multiple landscape stressors and climate change

  
Regional Environmental Change, Vol. 16, No. 7. (2016), pp. 2129-2140, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10113-016-0934-2

Abstract

We examined landscape exposure to wildfire potential, insects and disease risk, and urban and exurban development for the conterminous US (CONUS). Our analysis relied on spatial data used by federal agencies to evaluate these stressors nationally. We combined stressor data with a climate change exposure metric to identify when temperature is likely to depart from historical conditions and become “unprecedented.” We used a neighborhood analysis procedure based on key stressor thresholds within a geographic information system to examine the extent of ...

 

Evaluating post-fire forest resilience using GIS and multi-criteria analysis: an example from Cape Sounion National Park, Greece

  
Environmental Management In Environmental Management, Vol. 47, No. 3. (4 February 2011), pp. 384-397, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00267-011-9614-7

Abstract

Forest fires are one of the major causes of ecological disturbance in the mediterranean climate ecosystems of the world. Despite the fact that a lot of resources have been invested in fire prevention and suppression, the number of fires occurring in the Mediterranean Basin in the recent decades has continued to markedly increase. The understanding of the relationship between landscape and fire lies, among others, in the identification of the system’s post-fire resilience. In our study, ecological and landscape data are ...

 

How green are biofuels?

  
Science, Vol. 319, No. 5859. (04 January 2008), pp. 43-44, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1153103

Abstract

Many biofuels are associated with lower greenhouse-gas emissions but have greater aggregate environmental costs than gasoline. [Excerpt] Global warming and escalating petroleum costs are creating an urgent need to find ecologically friendly fuels. Biofuels—such as ethanol from corn (maize) and sugarcane—have been increasingly heralded as a possible savior. But others have argued that biofuels will consume vast swaths of farmland and native habitats, drive up food prices, and result in little reduction in greenhouse-gas emissions . An innovative study by Zah et ...

 

Evaluating pesticide degradation in the environment: blind spots and emerging opportunities

  
Science, Vol. 341, No. 6147. (2013), pp. 752-758, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1236281

Abstract

The benefits of global pesticide use come at the cost of their widespread occurrence in the environment. An array of abiotic and biotic transformations effectively removes pesticides from the environment, but may give rise to potentially hazardous transformation products. Despite a large body of pesticide degradation data from regulatory testing and decades of pesticide research, it remains difficult to anticipate the extent and pathways of pesticide degradation under specific field conditions. Here, we review the major scientific challenges in doing so ...

 

Designing forested landscapes to provide multiple services

  
CAB Reviews: Perspectives in Agriculture, Veterinary Science, Nutrition and Natural Resources, Vol. 2, No. 038. (01 September 2007), https://doi.org/10.1079/pavsnnr20072038

Abstract

Forest services are benefits generated for society by the existence of certain forest types and their attributes. The particular mix of services, and their amount and quality, depend on the condition of the forest resource. Water and nitrogen processes are determined to a great extent by forest management. Streamwater runoff in areas where water is a scarce resource is significantly affected by tree cover and tree age. Old forests may provide better vistas and more suitable habitat than young forests. Such ...

 

Study of a collaborative repository of semantic metadata and models for regional environmental datasets' multivariate transformations

  
(2015)
edited by Giorgio Guariso

Abstract

A semantic modelling procedure is introduced to ease array-based multivariate transformations of public environmental data, along with the architecture of a collaborative repository of modelling meta-information based on the procedure. [\n] The procedure, Semantic Array Programming (SemAP), is intended as a lightweight paradigm to support integrated natural resources modelling and management (INRMM), in the context of wide-scale transdisciplinary modelling for environment (WSTMe, here tested from catchment up to regional and continental scale). [\n] It is a common experience among computational scientists, ...

References

  1. Aalde, H., Gonzalez, P., Gytarsky, M., Krug, T., Kurz, W. A., Ogle, S., Raison, J., Schoene, D., Ravindranath, N. H., Elhassan, N. G., Heath, L. S., Higuchi, N., Kainja, S., Matsumoto, M., Sanz Sánchez, M. J., Somogyi, Z., 2006. Forest Land. Vol. 4 of IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, Prepared by the National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Ch. 4, 83 pp. http://www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp/public/2006gl/pdf/4_Volume4/V4_04_Ch4_Forest_Land.pdf .
 

Towards more predictable and consistent landscape metrics across spatial scales

  
Ecological Indicators, Vol. 57 (October 2015), pp. 11-21, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2015.03.042

Abstract

[Highlights] [::] Landscape metrics are used to quantify landscape composition and configuration. [::] These metrics are sensitive to spatial pattern and the scale of the spatial data. [::] Metrics that are less sensitive to scale and are less correlated are highlighted. [::] Complex interactions between scale and the spatial pattern of the landscape were found. [::]Investigation of these interactions is needed to accurately quantify spatial patterns. [Abstract] Habitat change and fragmentation are considered key drivers of environmental change and biodiversity loss. To understand and mitigate the effects of ...

 

Climate impact research: beyond patchwork

  
Earth System Dynamics, Vol. 5, No. 2. (13 November 2014), pp. 399-408, https://doi.org/10.5194/esd-5-399-2014

Abstract

Despite significant progress in climate impact research, the narratives that science can presently piece together of a 2, 3, 4, or 5 °C warmer world remain fragmentary. Here we briefly review past undertakings to characterise comprehensively and quantify climate impacts based on multi-model approaches. We then report on the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISI-MIP), a community-driven effort to compare impact models across sectors and scales systematically, and to quantify the uncertainties along the chain from greenhouse gas emissions and climate ...

References

  1. Arnell, N. W., Lowe, J. A., Brown, S., Gosling, S. N., Gottschalk, P., Hinkel, J., Lloyd-Hughes, B., Nicholls, R. J., Osborn, T. J., Osborne, T. M., Rose, G. A., Smith, P., and Warren, R. F.: A global assessment of the effects of climate policy on the impacts of climate change, Nat. Clim. Change, 3, 512–519, 2013.
  2. Asseng, S., Ewert, F., Rosenzweig, C., Jones, J. W., Hatfield, J. L., Ruane, A. C., Boote, K.
 

Multifunctional landscapes - towards transdisciplinary research

  
Landscape and Urban Planning, Vol. 57, No. 3-4. (December 2001), pp. 159-168, https://doi.org/10.1016/s0169-2046(01)00201-8

Abstract

This paper deals with the process of integration required to study multifunctionality in agricultural landscapes. It examines what we really understand by integration between subject disciplines and how we can move from independent parallel disciplinary studies carried out in the same area to increasing degrees of interdisciplinarity. I explore the current interest in interdisciplinarity with the aim of mapping out what we can expect interdisciplinary research to achieve and what it will not. The main part of the paper examines the ...

 

Automated group facilitation for gathering wide audience end-user requirements

  
In System Sciences (HICSS), 2013 46th Hawaii International Conference on (January 2013), pp. 195-204, https://doi.org/10.1109/hicss.2013.109

Abstract

The System development projects continue to fail at unacceptable rates. Including a wide array of users in the requirements development process for a wide-audience system can help to increase system success. Facilitated group workshops can effectively and efficiently gather requirements from several different users. To decrease cost and increase the number of potential workshop participants, we designed an embodied agent facilitator to guide groups through the facilitation process. We extend previous research which found human facilitated prompting to be effective at ...

 

Remote Sensing and GIS for Natural Hazards Assessment and Disaster Risk Management

  
In Remote Sensing and GIScience in Geomorphology, Vol. 3 (2013), pp. 259-298, https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-12-374739-6.00051-8

Abstract

The world has experienced an increasing impact of disasters in the past decades. Many regions are exposed to natural hazards, each with unique characteristics. The main causes for this increase can be attributed to a higher frequency of extreme hydro-meteorological events, most probably related to climate change and an increase in a vulnerable population. To reduce disaster losses, more efforts should be applied toward disaster-risk management, with a focus on hazard assessment, elements-at-risk mapping, and vulnerability and risk assessment, all of ...

 

Double exposure: assessing the impacts of climate change within the context of economic globalization

  
Global Environmental Change, Vol. 10, No. 3. (October 2000), pp. 221-232, https://doi.org/10.1016/s0959-3780(00)00021-2

Abstract

This paper considers synergisms between the impacts of two global processes, climate change and economic globalization. Both processes entail long-term changes that will have differential impacts throughout the world. Despite widespread recognition that there will be “winners” and “losers” with both climate change and globalization, the two issues are rarely examined together. In this paper, we introduce the concept of double exposure as a framework for examining the simultaneous impacts of climate change and globalization. Double exposure refers to the fact ...

 

A framework for vulnerability analysis in sustainability science

  
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 100, No. 14. (08 July 2003), pp. 8074-8079, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1231335100

Abstract

Global environmental change and sustainability science increasingly recognize the need to address the consequences of changes taking place in the structure and function of the biosphere. These changes raise questions such as: Who and what are vulnerable to the multiple environmental changes underway, and where? Research demonstrates that vulnerability is registered not by exposure to hazards (perturbations and stresses) alone but also resides in the sensitivity and resilience of the system experiencing such hazards. This recognition requires revisions and enlargements in ...

 

Beyond the ABC: climate change policy and theories of social change

  
Environment and Planning A, Vol. 42, No. 6. (2010), pp. 1273-1285, https://doi.org/10.1068/a42282

Abstract

In this short and deliberately provocative paper I reflect on what seems to be a yawning gulf between the potential contribution of the social sciences and the typically restricted models and concepts of social change embedded in contemporary environmental policy in the UK, and in other countries too. As well as making a strong case for going beyond what I refer to as the dominant paradigm of 'ABC' - attitude, behaviour, and choice - I discuss the attractions of this model, ...

 

(INRMM-MiD internal record) List of keywords of the INRMM meta-information database - part 3

  
(February 2014)
Keywords: apennines   aphid   aphis-pomi   apl   apmv-transmission   approximate-dynamic-programming   apriona-germari   aqua-modis   aquatic-invertebrate-shredders   aradus-cinnamommeus   araucaria-angustifolia   araucaria-araucana   araucaria-bidwillii   araucaria-heterophylla   araucaria-montana   araucaria-spp   arboriculture   arbutus-canariensis   arbutus-menziesii   arbutus-spp   arbutus-unedo   arctic-region   arctostaphylos-uva-ursi   ardity   argania-spinosa   argentina   argive-plain   arid-climate   arid-region   aridity   arion-lusitanicus   aristolochia-arborea   armillaria-spp   array-atomic-variables   array-of-agents   array-of-factors   array-of-sectors   array-of-users   array-programming   arsenic   arthropods   artic-region   artic-sea-ice   artificial-intelligence   artificial-neural-network   artificial-neural-networks   artocarpus-altilis   artocarpus-heterophyllus   arvicola-spp   arxiv   asia   aspidosperma-cruentum   aspidosperma-myristicifolium   asplenium-spp   assessment   associated-microorganisms   association-genetics   associations   asteraceae   asynchronous-change   atmosphere   atmospheric-circulation   atriplex-halimus   atriplex-nummularia   atta-cephalotes   auc   australia   austria   austrocedrus-chilensis   authorship   autoecology   automatic-knowledge-generation   automatic-knowledge-mapping   automation   automation-irony   autonomic-computing   autoregressive-model   avicennia-germinans   avifauna   awk   azadirachta-indica   azerbaijan   azolla-spp   bacillus-thuringiensis   back-propagation-networks   bacteria   bacterial-canker   bacterial-diseases   bacterial-wood-degradation   bactris-gasipaes   bactrocera-invadens   bactrocera-oleae   baikiaea-plurijuga   balanites-aegyptiaca   balkan-peninsula   balkan-region   balkans   bangladesh   banksia-grandis   inrmm-list-of-tags  

Abstract

List of indexed keywords within the transdisciplinary set of domains which relate to the Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management (INRMM). In particular, the list of keywords maps the semantic tags in the INRMM Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD). [\n] The INRMM-MiD records providing this list are accessible by the special tag: inrmm-list-of-tags ( http://mfkp.org/INRMM/tag/inrmm-list-of-tags ). ...

 

Mastrave

  
In Free Software Directory (October 2011), 8008

Abstract

Mastrave is a free software library written to perform vectorized scientific computing and to be as compatible as possible with both GNU Octave and Matlab computing frameworks, offering general purpose, portable and freely available features for the scientific community. Mastrave is mostly oriented to ease complex modeling tasks such as those typically needed within environmental models, even when involving irregular and heterogeneous data series. [Semantic array programming]. The Mastrave project attempts to allow a more effective, quick interoperability between GNU Octave and Matlab ...

This page of the database may be cited as:
Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management - Meta-information Database. http://mfkp.org/INRMM/tag/array-of-factors

Publication metadata

Bibtex, RIS, RSS/XML feed, Json, Dublin Core

Meta-information Database (INRMM-MiD).
This database integrates a dedicated meta-information database in CiteULike (the CiteULike INRMM Group) with the meta-information available in Google Scholar, CrossRef and DataCite. The Altmetric database with Article-Level Metrics is also harvested. Part of the provided semantic content (machine-readable) is made even human-readable thanks to the DCMI Dublin Core viewer. Digital preservation of the meta-information indexed within the INRMM-MiD publication records is implemented thanks to the Internet Archive.
The library of INRMM related pubblications may be quickly accessed with the following links.
Search within the whole INRMM meta-information database:
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Full-text and abstracts of the publications indexed by the INRMM meta-information database are copyrighted by the respective publishers/authors. They are subject to all applicable copyright protection. The conditions of use of each indexed publication is defined by its copyright owner. Please, be aware that the indexed meta-information entirely relies on voluntary work and constitutes a quite incomplete and not homogeneous work-in-progress.
INRMM-MiD was experimentally established by the Maieutike Research Initiative in 2008 and then improved with the help of several volunteers (with a major technical upgrade in 2011). This new integrated interface is operational since 2014.